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Technical Paper

A Generic Modeling Approach for Automotive Power Net Consumers

The integration of safety-critical and major power-consuming electrical systems presents a challenge for the development of future automotive electrical networks. Both reliability and performance must be enhanced in order to guarantee the power supply to essential electrical consumers at a sufficient degree of power quality. Often, in order to cope with these requirements, merely an upgrade of the existing wiring harness design is used, resulting in additional complexity, weight, and cost [3]. A characterization of the wiring harness and its electrical consumers facilitates a systematic optimization approach aimed at designing new automotive power networks [1, 5]. Measurement and analysis methods to characterise the thermal behaviour of the wiring harness have been presented and discussed in a previous paper [4] This paper presents and compares two methods aimed at modeling the electrical behavior of consumers at various voltages and temperatures.
Journal Article

A Statistical Analysis of Electrical Power Requirements in Vehicles

The increasing power and safety requirements of electrical systems present a challenge for future automotive electrical networks. However, the modeling of use-profiles and the overall power consumption of electrical systems proves to be difficult as the number of potential on/off combinations of the loads is tremendous. Furthermore, the operation of some loads is correlated or depends upon the operating conditions. Thus, simple worst-case calculations applied to this complexity often lead to an over-specification of components. The proposed approach is based on the probabilities of loads being in the on-state and their respective interdependencies with each other and with boundary conditions such as time of day. Applying basic statistics and a new iterative algorithm, it allows the calculation of the probability of consumed total power for a given set of boundary conditions and of, very importantly, its expected continuous period.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Test of Automotive Electrical Power Networks

The integration of safety-critical and major power-consuming electrical systems presents a challenge for the development of future vehicle power nets. Reliability and performance of the electrical network must be enhanced in order to guarantee the power supply to essential electrical consumers at a sufficient degree of power quality. This paper presents a test bench for automotive electrical networks based on a hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) platform. The test bench is used to assess the power and temperature behavior of the wiring harness and the connected power consumers. This characterisation facilitates the development of new tailored automotive electrical networks to meet the increased requirements while efficiently using the available resources.
Technical Paper

Cold Start Emission Reduction by Barrier Discharge

Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) offers the advantage to excite and dissociate molecules in the exhaust gas stream. Those dissociated and excited species are oxidizing or reducing harmful exhaust gas components. The advantage of a plasma chemical system in comparison to a catalytic measure for exhaust gas treatment is the instantaneous activity at ambient temperature from the starting of the engine. The investigations reviewed in this paper are dealing with the plasma chemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas stream during cold start conditions. The article concerns the design and development of a plasma-system in order to decrease the hydrocarbon emissions from engine start till catalyst light off. Vehicle results in the New European Driving Cycle show a hydrocarbon conversion of more than 42% in the first 11 seconds from engine start. In this period nearly all types of hydrocarbon were reduced.
Technical Paper

Comparing Large Eddy Simulation of a Reacting Fuel Spray with Measured Quantitative Flame Parameters

In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions, it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels from renewable sources. For identifying the specification of an optimized fuel for engine combustion, it is essential to understand the details of combustion and pollutant formation. For obtaining a better understanding of the flame behavior, dynamic structure large eddy simulations are a method of choice. In the investigation presented in this paper, an n-heptane spray flame is simulated under engine relevant conditions starting at a pressure of 50 bar and a temperature of 800 K. Measurements are conducted at a high-pressure vessel with the same conditions. Liquid penetration length is measured with Mie-Scatterlight, gaseous penetration length with Shadowgraphy and lift-off length as well as ignition delay with OH*-Radiation. In addition to these global high-speed measurement techniques, detailed spectroscopic laser measurements are conducted at the n-heptane flame.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Model Predictions with Temperature Data Sensed On-Board from the Li-ion Polymer Cells of an Electric Vehicle

One of the challenges faced when using Li-ion batteries in electric vehicles is to keep the cell temperatures below a given threshold. Mathematical modeling would indeed be an efficient tool to test virtually this requirement and accelerate the battery product lifecycle. Moreover, temperature predicting models could potentially be used on-board to decrease the limitations associated with sensor based temperature feedbacks. Accordingly, we present a complete modeling procedure which was used to calculate the cell temperatures during a given electric vehicle trip. The procedure includes a simple vehicle dynamics model, an equivalent circuit battery model, and a 3D finite element thermal model. Model parameters were identified from measurements taken during constant current and pulse current discharge tests. The cell temperatures corresponding to an actual electric vehicle trip were calculated and compared with measured values.
Technical Paper

Data-driven Modeling of Thermal Fuses

Both the integration of safety-critical electrical systems and the increasing power requirements in vehicles present a challenge for electrical distribution systems in terms of reliability, packaging, weight, and cost. In this regard, the wire protection device is a key element, as it determines the reliability of the short circuit detection, the immunity against false tripping, and the wire diameters. Currently, in most cases, thermal fuses are used, due to their low cost and robust design. However, the description of their tripping behavior based only on steady-state currents is insufficient for the increasingly complex current profiles in vehicles. Thus, to achieve an optimum dimensioning of a fuse-wire combination, a profound understanding of the thermal behavior of both components under dynamic load conditions is mandatory. However, the FEM tools used for the thermal design of fuses are relatively slow, require huge calculation resources, and must be well-parameterized.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Reduction of Combustion Engines by Barrier Discharge - A new Reactor/Generator System

An improved plasma reactor has been designed, built and evaluated. It is characterized by a reduced power per area ratio, relative to previous designs, and includes several improvements to run the whole system safely in a car. The new reactor design includes a concentric inner high voltage electrode, a grounded outer electrode, a shielded high-voltage and high temperature resistant electrical connection. A generator controller has been developed for better control of operating conditions as required during the engine cold start phase. The new generator/reactor system was installed in the exhaust pipe of a gasoline direct injection engine. HC emissions could be reduced up to 30 % in the first 40 seconds of a cold start test. In addition to HC treatment the dielectric barrier discharge has also been investigated as a method for regenerating a diesel particulate trap.
Journal Article

Model-Based Circuit Protection Using Solid State Switches

Currently, circuit breakers and, in most cases, thermal fuses are used for wire protection due to their low cost and robust design. As an alternative, solid state switches are being considered within future electrical distribution systems (EDS) for several reasons, e.g. resetability, diagnosis, smaller tolerances, and reduced dependencies on ambient temperature or arcing. Particularely if combined with benefits on the system level, such an application can be advantageous. The new approach presented in this paper uses a thermal model of the wire instead of only an emulation of the thermal fuse behavior. This allows, based on the electrical current profile, the calculation of the wire temperature and thus a robust and precise protection of the wire. In addition, it minimizes the probability of faulty switching, which is of particular importance with regard to safety-critical electrical functions.
Technical Paper

Optimization and Evaluation of 12V/48V Architectures Based on EDS Simulation and Real Drive Cycles

Both the rising number of electrical systems and the electrical part of the powertrain are considerably increasing the electrical power requirements of vehicles. As a consequence, multiple voltage supply levels have been introduced. However, even if only the 12V/48V configuration is considered, as in this paper, the number of possible electrical distribution system (EDS) architectures is greatly enlarged. Additional degrees of freedom are the allocation of the loads to the voltage levels, the dimensioning of new components, and the control strategy. Hence, the optimization of such architectures must be based on simulation, which allows the evaluation of a multitude of variants and test scenarios within an acceptable time frame. While strict cost, weight, and quality constraints must be upheld, the stability of the voltage supply is a major focus because a significant part of future electrical systems is highly safety-critical.
Technical Paper

Start-Up Behavior of Fuel Processors for PEM Fuel Cell Applications

This paper focuses on start-up technology for fuel processing systems with special emphasis on gasoline fueled burners. Initially two different fuel processing systems, an autothermal reformer with preferential oxidation and a steam reformer with membrane, are introduced and their possible starting strategies are discussed. Energy consumption for preheating up to light-off temperature and the start-up time is estimated. Subsequently electrical preheating is compared with start-up burners and the different types of heat generation are rated with respect to the requirements on start-up systems. Preheating power for fuel cell propulsion systems necessarily reaches up to the magnitude of the electrical fuel cell power output. A gasoline fueled burner with thermal combustion has been build-up, which covers the required preheating power.
Journal Article

Tool-based Optimization of the Topology of an Electrical Distribution System (EDS)

The topology of an EDS, defined by the routing paths and by the location of the distribution boxes and the inline connectors, has a strong impact on weight and required amount of material, especially of copper, as well as on the manufacturing- and assembly time. Although a good part of the routing and packaging is fixed due to technical reasons and carry-over situations, in general there are enough optional paths and locations to allow up to several thousand alternative topologies. For these reasons, an optimization is possible as well as important. For such an optimization, in this paper a method is presented to concurrently minimize predefined criteria, e.g. the required copper, length of the wires, and the overall length of the wire bundles. It is based on designated algorithms for the variation of the topology, the routing, and the calculation of the optimization criteria as mentioned above.