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Technical Paper

"Electro Gyro-Cator" New Inertial Navigation System for Use in Automobiles

1983-02-01
830659
The Electro Gyro-Cator allows a driver to monitor his progress, plot and follow courses to a destination, select alternate routes, and drive more safely on unfamiliar roads or at night. Employing a sealed helium gas-rate gyro, the Electro Gyro-Cator offers visual display (CRT display) of a car's present location, direction and route, with overlay maps for fast, simple route selection and monitoring. The primary elements of the unit include trip and direction sensors, a 16-Bit central processing unit, a CRT display screen and a collection of transparent overlay maps fitted to the screen.
Technical Paper

"Quattro"-Drive for Every Day Driving

1984-01-01
845070
An essential feature of the Audi Quattro permanent four-wheel drive system is in the inter-axle differential located on the hollow output shaft in the gearbox: the drive is taken from this differential forward to the front differential through the inside of the hollow shaft, and rearward to a propellor shaft driving the rear differential. The major advantages in everyday driving include improved traction and a reduced tendency toward throttle induced changes of attitude. The greater traction allows not only better progress in difficult road conditions; it also gives better acceleration in difficult traffic situations, such as when joining a busy main road. The more easily predictable handling response to throttle changes means that Quattro vehicles have better tracking stability. Altogether, the active safety and "roadability" are considerably improved.
Technical Paper

(CS)2 for Distributed Control Systems: A Better Approach to Developing and Maintaining ECU SW

2007-10-30
2007-01-4182
Electronic control units (ECUs) offer a modular, networked approach to real time machine control and diagnostics. Software embedded in these controllers offer agile and customizable solutions because of the intimate relationship with the ECU hardware and its inputs/outputs. In an idealistic view, embedded software should support the machine's life - 30 years or longer. Developing and maintaining software for these systems requires a strategy. A framework demonstrating common building blocks and long-term centralized support for ECUs on a machine is presented. This strategy reduces the detailed knowledge of the specific machine controls needed by ECU developers and provides the components and infrastructure key to extending the life and functionality of the ECU.
Standard

(ISO/IEC 12207) Standard for Information Technology - Software Life Cycle Processes

2015-07-01
CURRENT
IEEEEIA12207_0
ISO/IEC 12207 provides a common framework for developing and managing software. IEEE/EIA 12207.0 consists of the clarifications, additions, and changes accepted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) as formulated by a joint project of the two organizations. IEEE/EIA 12207.0 contains concepts and guidelines to foster better understanding and application of the standard. Thus this standard provides industry a basis for software practices that would be usable for both national and international business.
Technical Paper

(Nano) Particles from 2-S Scooters: SOF / INSOF; Improvements of Aftertreatment; Toxicity

2007-04-16
2007-01-1089
Limited and non-regulated emissions of scooters were analysed during several annual research programs of the Swiss Federal Office of Environment (BAFU) *). Small scooters, which are very much used in the congested centers of several cities, are a remarkable source of air pollution. Therefore every effort to reduce the emissions is an important contribution to improve the air quality in urban centers. In the present work detailed investigations of particle emissions of different 2-stroke scooters with direct injection and with carburettor were performed. The nanoparticulate emissions were measured by means of SMPS, (CPC) and NanoMet. Also the particle mass emission (PM) was measured with the same method as for Diesel engines. Extensive analyses of PM-residuum for SOF/INSOF, PAH and toxicity equivalence (TEQ), were carried out in an international project network. Particle mass emission (PM) of 2-S Scooters consists mostly of SOF.
Standard

(R) Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Message Set Dictionary

2009-11-19
HISTORICAL
J2735_200911
This SAE Standard specifies a message set, and its data frames and data elements specifically for use by applications intended to utilize the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (DSRC/WAVE, referenced in this document simply as “DSRC”), communications systems. Although the scope of this Standard is focused on DSRC, this message set, and its data frames and data elements have been designed, to the extent possible, to also be of potential use for applications that may be deployed in conjunction with other wireless communications technologies. This Standard therefore specifies the definitive message structure and provides sufficient background information to allow readers to properly interpret the message definitions from the point of view of an application developer implementing the messages according to the DSRC Standards.
Standard

(R) Truck And Bus Grade Parking Performance Requirements

2004-01-22
HISTORICAL
J293_200401
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes minimum performance requirements for trucks, buses, truck-tractors, full trailers, and semitrailers with gross vehicle weight ratings greater than 4540 kg (10 000 lb) with regard to: a. Vehicle classification b. Vehicle load c. Percent grade d. Application force
Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0196
This paper presents an overview of the evolution & revolution of automotive E/E architectures and how we at Bosch, envision the technology in the future. It provides information on the bottlenecks for current E/E architectures and drivers for their evolution. Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases. Implementation of these functionalities in mainstream vehicles will demand a paradigm shift in E/E architectures with respect to in-vehicle communication networks, power networks, connectivity, safety and security. This paper expounds on these points at a system level.
Journal Article

-Design and Control of Switching Synchronous Motor Dedicated to Electric Cars - Motorization

2017-04-11
2017-01-9625
In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
Technical Paper

01 CAE analysis of a CVT toothed belt

2002-10-29
2002-32-1770
This work deals with the CAE simulation of the behaviour of a belt employed in a CVT transmission of a large displacement scooter engine. Both FEM and MBS simulations were performed, in order to estimate the dynamic loads acting on the component and the stress state the belt is subject to. The MBS simulations were backed up by simple FEM tests performed in order to estimate the elastic properties of elementary portions of the belt. The MBS system comprised the belt and the two pulleys. As a result, the force components the pulleys exert on the belt were calculated. FEM non-linear analyses were performed in order to estimate the stress state the belt experiences. The belt's both manufacturing and working conditions were simulated.
Technical Paper

0D Modeling of Real-Driving NOx Emissions for a Diesel Passenger Vehicle

2018-09-10
2018-01-1761
NOx emissions from diesel passenger vehicles affect the atmospheric environment. It is difficult to evaluate the NOx emissions influenced by environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature, traffic conditions, driving patterns, etc. In the authors’ previous study, real-driving experiments were performed on city and highway routes using a diesel passenger car with only an exhaust gas recirculation system. A statistical prediction model of NOx emissions was considered for simple estimations in the real world using instantaneous vehicle data measured by the portable emissions measurement system and global positioning system. The prediction model consisted of explanatory variables, such as velocity, acceleration, road gradient, and position of transmission gear. Using the explanatory variables, NOx emissions on the city and highway routes was well predicted using a diesel vehicle without NOx reduction devices.
Technical Paper

0D-1D Coupling for an Integrated Fuel Economy Control Strategy for a Hybrid Electric Bus

2011-09-11
2011-24-0083
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are worldwide recognized as one of the best and most immediate opportunities to solve the problems of fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and fossil fuels depletion, thanks to the high reliability of engines and the high efficiencies of motors. Moreover, as transport policy is becoming day by day stricter all over the world, moving people or goods efficiently and cheaply is the goal that all the main automobile manufacturers are trying to reach. In this context, the municipalities are performing their own action plans for public transport and the efforts in realizing high efficiency hybrid electric buses, could be supported by the local policies. For these reasons, the authors intend to propose an efficient control strategy for a hybrid electric bus, with a series architecture for the power-train.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling and Room Temperature Experimental Measurements of the Exhaust System Backpressure: Limits and Advantages in the Prediction of Backpressure

2008-04-14
2008-01-0676
It is well known that backpressure is one of the important parameters to be minimised during the exhaust system development. Unfortunately, during the first phases of an engineering process of a new engine, engine prototypes are not available yet. Due to this the exhaust system backpressure is generally evaluated using simulation software, and/or measuring the backpressure by a flow rig test at room temperature. Goal of this paper is to compare exhaust backpressure results obtained respectively: i) at the room temperature flow rig; ii) at the engine dyno bench; iii) by simulation with one of the most common 1D fluidodynamics simulation tool (Gt-Power). A correlation of the three different techniques is presented.
Journal Article

1-g Suit Port Concept Evaluator 2008 Test Results

2009-07-12
2009-01-2572
The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), which was formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the lunar surface architectures that are under consideration in the Constellation Program. One element of the LER is the suit port, which is the means by which crew members perform Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: a 1-g suit port concept evaluator for functional integrated testing with the LER 1-g concept vehicle and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the 1-g suit port concept evaluator test results from the Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. The 1-g suit port concept evaluator was integrated with the 1-g LER cabin and chassis concepts.
Article

1.0 megapixel imaging SOCs

2017-12-12
Two highly integrated 1.0 megapixel CMOS image-sensing products from ON Semiconductor provide a complete solution with the image sensor and processing functionality integrated within a low power SoC (system on chip) that simplifies and speeds adoption in applications such as rear and surround view cameras.
Article

1.7-megapixel automotive image sensor

2016-11-22
The OV10650 from OmniVision Technologies, Inc. is a wide-format image sensor that captures high quality color images and video in a 2:1 aspect ratio.
Technical Paper

10 A Parallel Hybrid Powertrain for a Motorcycle Application

2002-10-29
2002-32-1779
This paper describes the potential motorcycle application of a parallel hybrid powertrain that was conceptualized, designed, developed and tested (for passenger car application) at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The patented powertrain mechanical layout and controller are described in this paper. The transitioning between operating modes has been analyzed for satisfactory performance. Initial fuel consumption simulations of the parallel hybrid drivetrain indicate more than double the fuel economy of an equivalent-size conventional drivetrain. The model has been previously validated on a passenger vehicle-sized prototype. The Southwest Research Institute inventors have been recently awarded U.S. Patent 6,110,066 for the parallel hybrid drivetrain.
Technical Paper

10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications

1992-08-03
929072
A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
Standard

10 Megabit/sec Network Configuration Digital Time Division Command/Response Multiplex Data Bus

2018-01-18
CURRENT
AS5652A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) contains requirements for a digital time division command/response multiplex data bus, for use in systems integration that is functionally similar to MIL-STD-1553B with Notice 2 but with a star topology and some deleted functionality. Even with the use of this document, differences may exist between multiplex data buses in different system applications due to particular application requirements and the options allowed in this document. The system designer must recognize this fact and design the multiplex bus controller (BC) hardware and software to accommodate such differences. These designer selected options must exist to allow the necessary flexibility in the design of specific multiplex systems in order to provide for the control mechanism, architectural redundancy, degradation concept, and traffic patterns peculiar to the specific application requirements.
Standard

10 Megabit/sec Network Configuration Digital Time Division Command/Response Multiplex Data Bus

2005-12-29
HISTORICAL
AS5652
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) contains requirements for a digital time division command/response multiplex data bus, for use in systems integration that is functionally similar to MIL-STD-1553B with Notice 2 but with a star topology and some deleted functionality. Even with the use of this document, differences may exist between multiplex data buses in different system applications due to particular application requirements and the options allowed in this document. The system designer must recognize this fact and design the multiplex bus controller (BC) hardware and software to accommodate such differences. These designer selected options must exist to allow the necessary flexibility in the design of specific multiplex systems in order to provide for the control mechanism, architectural redundancy, degradation concept, and traffic patterns peculiar to the specific application requirements.
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