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Technical Paper

(CS)2 for Distributed Control Systems: A Better Approach to Developing and Maintaining ECU SW

Electronic control units (ECUs) offer a modular, networked approach to real time machine control and diagnostics. Software embedded in these controllers offer agile and customizable solutions because of the intimate relationship with the ECU hardware and its inputs/outputs. In an idealistic view, embedded software should support the machine's life - 30 years or longer. Developing and maintaining software for these systems requires a strategy. A framework demonstrating common building blocks and long-term centralized support for ECUs on a machine is presented. This strategy reduces the detailed knowledge of the specific machine controls needed by ECU developers and provides the components and infrastructure key to extending the life and functionality of the ECU.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling and Room Temperature Experimental Measurements of the Exhaust System Backpressure: Limits and Advantages in the Prediction of Backpressure

It is well known that backpressure is one of the important parameters to be minimised during the exhaust system development. Unfortunately, during the first phases of an engineering process of a new engine, engine prototypes are not available yet. Due to this the exhaust system backpressure is generally evaluated using simulation software, and/or measuring the backpressure by a flow rig test at room temperature. Goal of this paper is to compare exhaust backpressure results obtained respectively: i) at the room temperature flow rig; ii) at the engine dyno bench; iii) by simulation with one of the most common 1D fluidodynamics simulation tool (Gt-Power). A correlation of the three different techniques is presented.
Technical Paper

10 Steps to ISO26262-compliant Model-based Software Components

Model-based software development is a well-established software development process and recognized by ISO26262 [1] as allowing for highly consistent and efficient development. Nevertheless, enhancing a model-based development process in such a way that it is compliant with the ISO26262 safety standard is a challenging task. To achieve ISO26262 compliance, the development team of a safety-related software project faces a multitude of additional requirements for the development process without a corresponding increase of the project budget to fulfill them. The fact that many of the requirements of ISO26262 are defined in a very generic way such that an interpretation is required further hampers their implementation. We propose a 10-step strategy to achieve an ISO26262 compliant model-based software development process. This strategy relates ISO26262 requirements with state-of-the art methods and approaches currently used for model-based software development.
Technical Paper

1553 RT Mechanizations for Data Sample Consistency and Multi-Message Transfers

System requirements and Interface Control Drawings (ICDs) make a variety of demands for MIL-STD-1553 remote terminals (RTs). Among these requirements are the need to ensure data integrity and sample data consistency, the need to perform bulk (multi-message) data transfers, and the need to offload the operation of the host CPU to the greatest degree possible. This latter requirement is reflected in such specifications as CPU spare bandwidth. The latest 1553 terminals provide a variety of choices for performing the different types of transfers. This paper provides a discussion of the hardware and software techniques for achieving these objectives. Three different schemes for RT subaddress memory management are presented: single message, circular buffer, and double buffered. For receive and transmit messages, these include fully synchronous single message transfers, asynchronous single message transfers, and multi-message transfers.
Technical Paper

3D Numerical Study of Sloshing Attenuation Using Vertical Slotted Barriers

The present study deals with the reduction of fluid vibrations by dissipating the kinetic energy in a closed vibrating container partly filled using vertical slotted obstacles. The effect of the barriers on the liquid vibration inside a closed container exposed to a harmonic excitation is numerically studied. A single vertical slotted barrier (SVSB) and multivertical slotted barrier (MVSB) systems are considered for different liquid levels. The 3D liquid domain with the tank and the barrier as boundaries is modelled and solved numerically using ANSYS-CFX software. The reduction in pressures on the walls and the ceiling of the tank due to the influences of the slot size and numbers were evaluated to optimize the size and the numbers of the slots. The numerical approach shows an ability to simulate the nonlinear behavior of the liquid vibration when using vertical slotted barriers (VSB).
Technical Paper

3D Superficial Anthropometry to Evaluate the Biomechanics and the Aesthetics of the Spinal Deformities

This work describes the definition and implementation of a dedicated system (hardware and software) for the quantitative evaluation of the anthropometrics and morphological parameters of the back shape. This was applied to the digital 3D analysis of subjects affected by spinal pathologies. In fact in clinical practice it is needed to have a repeatable and easy method to frequent non invasive screening of the rib system records a 3D model of the back shape standard and automated procedure. Its clinical validation is presented.
Technical Paper

3D Whole Body Scans: Measurement Extraction Software Validation

Three-dimensional (3D) whole body scanners provide an opportunity for collecting large quantities of precise point data on human forms. However, product designers will likely always need some access to traditional point-to-point dimensional measurements. These measurements can also be obtained from the 3D whole body scanner if appropriate software is developed. This project describes a validation test for a collection of software tools designed to extract traditional dimensions from 3D whole body scans. To validate the software we scanned 123 male and female subjects on a Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner. Subjects were also measured for point-to-point dimensions using traditional instruments. We compared the mean absolute differences between traditional and software measurements to interobserver error data collected in a large traditional anthropometric survey (ANSUR), and to various criteria specific to garment applications.
Technical Paper

4 Stroke Gasoline Engine Performance Optimization Using Statistical Techniques

The engine designer has to find novel methods to optimize the engine efficiency faster as the engine development cycle is getting shortened due to the continuous growing market demands. Engine optimization involves fine tuning of the various engine parameters and conducting a large number of tests on actual engine test bed. In this paper, modern techniques that have been used to optimize a small 4stroke air-cooled engine performance have been described. The engine has been modelled using one-dimensional thermodynamic engine modelling software (AVL-BOOST). Design of experiments (DoE) tools have been used to optimize the engine variables. The input parameters form an orthogonal array of L27 matrix and the out put characteristics of the engine (responses) have been predicted by using BOOST software. This design matrix has been used to study and optimize thirteen factors in three levels (313).
Technical Paper

48V Boost Recuperation Systems - Golden Gate into the Future

The transformation of the automotive industry will be shaped mainly by the markets North America, Europe and China, which account for more than two thirds of the yearly global car production. All three markets have challenging fuel consumption, CO2 and emission regulations in place and under discussion, which are forcing the automotive industry to make their power train technology more efficient. But not only governmental regulations are driving the change, increasing urbanization intensifies local environmental pollution from vehicles and strains the acceptance of today’s car centric mobility. Electrification is the highly touted magic solution, but is it fast and comprehensive enough to solve above mentioned problems? Is society - car owners, automotive industry and governments - willing to pay the high cost for electrified car technology and infrastructure within a short timeframe of 10 to 15 years?
Technical Paper

60 g/km CO2 Without Performance Loss

The University of Liege and Breuer Technical Development, Belgium, have designed a parallel hybrid drive train, now implemented in a VW Lupo. The original objectives of the concept were the reduction of total CO2 emissions without performance loss and an acceptable zero-emission range for inner cities. This paper presents: Metropol, a homemade hybrid simulation software, including engine cold start and dynamic battery models, hybrid management strategy for the lowest CO2 emissions, final performance, consumption and emissions of the vehicle.

649 Handbook

This handbook is intended to assist the user to understand the ANSI/EIA-649B standard principles and functions for Configuration Management (CM) and how to plan and implement effective CM. It provides CM implementation guidance for all users (CM professionals and practitioners within the commercial and industry communities, DoD, military service commands, and government activities (e.g., National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)) with a variety of techniques and examples. Information about interfacing with other management systems and processes are included to ensure the principles and functions are applied in each phase of the life cycle for all product categories.
Technical Paper

A 3D-Web Collaborative Concurrent Automotive Engineering Method Based on our ‘Distributed Digital Factory’ and ‘Digital Car’ Models

Getting information about new products and/ or services across the design and manufacturing/ quality assurance community of automotive engineers is one of the greatest challenges of mankind. Since information is the key to progress, an organization's success often depends on its ability to communicate. National and international competition forces designers and manufacturers to continuously innovate and make their product design and manufacturing / assembly processes lean and market driven. Simultaneously the time to market is rapidly shrinking. This means that marketing and sales departments have to explain and sell their increasingly more complex products to an increasingly more educated and globally distributed customer base at a competitive price, and in a short time.
Technical Paper

A 6-Speed Automatic Transmission Plant Dynamics Model for HIL Test Bench

During the production controller and software development process, one critical step is the controller and software verification. There are various ways to perform this verification. One of the commonly used methods is to utilize an HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) test bench to emulate powertrain hardware for development and validation of powertrain controllers and software. A key piece of an HIL bench is the plant dynamics model used to emulate the external environment of a modern controller, such as engine (ECM), transmission (TCM) or powertrain controller (PCM), so that the algorithms and their software implementation can be exercised to confirm the desired results. This paper presents a 6-speed automatic transmission plant dynamics model development for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The modeling method, model validation, and application in an HIL test environment are described in details.
Technical Paper

A Backbone in Automotive Software Development Based on XML and ASAM/MSR

The development of future automotive electronic systems requires new concepts in the software architecture, development methodology and information exchange. At Bosch an XML and MSR based technology is applied to achieve a consistent information handling throughout the entire software development process. This approach enables the tool independent exchange of information and documentation between the involved development partners. This paper presents the software architecture, the specification of software components in XML, the process steps, an example and an exchange scenario with an external development partner.
Journal Article

A Balanced Approach for Securing the OBD-II Port

The On-Board Diagnostics II (OBD-II) port began as a means of extracting diagnostic information and supporting the right to repair. Self-driving vehicles and cellular dongles plugged into the OBD-II port were not anticipated. Researchers have shown that the cellular modem on an OBD-II dongle may be hacked, allowing the attacker to tamper with the vehicle brakes. ADAS, self-driving features and other vehicle functions may be vulnerable as well. The industry must balance the interests of multiple stakeholders including Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) who are required to provide OBD function, repair shops which have a legitimate need to access the OBD functions, dongle providers and drivers. OEMs need the ability to protect drivers and manage liability by limiting how a device or software application may modify the operation of a vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Basic Study on Modeling of Forearm Torsional Operations for Digital Human

The purpose of this study is to propose a method to evaluate operations involving forearm torsion, such as screw driving and knob turning, for digital human models. The rotational ranges of an object gripped with a hand and the working postures of the upper limb were measured at various positions of the object. The results demonstrated that the rotational ranges of the object varied depending on the working posture. The degree of coincidence was defined among direction vectors for each segment in the link model consisting of the upper limb and the rotated object. A method was proposed to estimate the rotational ranges of the object from the degree of coincidence. Based on this method, software has been developed in order to evaluate operations involving forearm torsion.
Technical Paper

A Biodynamic Model for the Assessment of Human Operator Performance under Vibration Environment

A combined biodynamic and vehicle model is used to assess the vibration and performance of a human operator performing driving and other tasks. The other tasks include reaching, pointing and tracking by the driver and/or passenger. This analysis requires the coordinated use of separate and mature software programs for anthropometrics, vehicle dynamics, biodynamics, and systems analysis. The total package is called AVB-DYN, an acronym for Anthropometrics, Vehicle and Bio-DYNamics. The biodynamic component of AVB-DYN is described, and then compared with an experiment that studied human operator in-vehicle reaching performance using the U.S. Army TACOM Ride Motion Simulator.
Technical Paper

A Bridge Linking CAN and J1850

In-vehicle networks provide an efficient medium to share information between controllers, sensors and actuators. Networks may be comprised of subnetworks to support low, medium and high speed data-rate requirements or SAE CLASS A, B and C, respectively. These subnetworks can be linked using bridges or gateways to guarantee data consistency across the vehicle. This paper will describe a method to bridge an implementation of J1850, CLASS B to an implementation of the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol, CLASS C. The hardware and software elements of the bridge are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Building Blocks Method to Estimate Electronics Size and Calculate Productivity

“Historically and to this day, software has been leading the way in defining metrics, methods and practices towards estimation of size and calculation of productivity. This is mostly due to the inherent need of the software industry to manage large volumes of code and the related large development efforts involved. Relatively, Hardware or Electronics design is a small effort compared to its Software counterparts, sometimes by a factor of 10 or more. There has never been a serious attempt made to create a model for Hardware size estimation and therefore a productivity model\. This paper describes a novel method of size estimation and quantitative productivity measurement for Electronic Hardware Design.