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Technical Paper

(CS)2 for Distributed Control Systems: A Better Approach to Developing and Maintaining ECU SW

2007-10-30
2007-01-4182
Electronic control units (ECUs) offer a modular, networked approach to real time machine control and diagnostics. Software embedded in these controllers offer agile and customizable solutions because of the intimate relationship with the ECU hardware and its inputs/outputs. In an idealistic view, embedded software should support the machine's life - 30 years or longer. Developing and maintaining software for these systems requires a strategy. A framework demonstrating common building blocks and long-term centralized support for ECUs on a machine is presented. This strategy reduces the detailed knowledge of the specific machine controls needed by ECU developers and provides the components and infrastructure key to extending the life and functionality of the ECU.
Standard

(ISO/IEC 12207) Standard for Information Technology - Software Life Cycle Processes

2015-07-01
CURRENT
IEEEEIA12207_0
ISO/IEC 12207 provides a common framework for developing and managing software. IEEE/EIA 12207.0 consists of the clarifications, additions, and changes accepted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) as formulated by a joint project of the two organizations. IEEE/EIA 12207.0 contains concepts and guidelines to foster better understanding and application of the standard. Thus this standard provides industry a basis for software practices that would be usable for both national and international business.
Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0196
This paper presents an overview of the evolution & revolution of automotive E/E architectures and how we at Bosch, envision the technology in the future. It provides information on the bottlenecks for current E/E architectures and drivers for their evolution. Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases. Implementation of these functionalities in mainstream vehicles will demand a paradigm shift in E/E architectures with respect to in-vehicle communication networks, power networks, connectivity, safety and security. This paper expounds on these points at a system level.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling and Room Temperature Experimental Measurements of the Exhaust System Backpressure: Limits and Advantages in the Prediction of Backpressure

2008-04-14
2008-01-0676
It is well known that backpressure is one of the important parameters to be minimised during the exhaust system development. Unfortunately, during the first phases of an engineering process of a new engine, engine prototypes are not available yet. Due to this the exhaust system backpressure is generally evaluated using simulation software, and/or measuring the backpressure by a flow rig test at room temperature. Goal of this paper is to compare exhaust backpressure results obtained respectively: i) at the room temperature flow rig; ii) at the engine dyno bench; iii) by simulation with one of the most common 1D fluidodynamics simulation tool (Gt-Power). A correlation of the three different techniques is presented.
Technical Paper

10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications

1992-08-03
929072
A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
Technical Paper

10 Steps to ISO26262-compliant Model-based Software Components

2015-04-14
2015-01-0160
Model-based software development is a well-established software development process and recognized by ISO26262 [1] as allowing for highly consistent and efficient development. Nevertheless, enhancing a model-based development process in such a way that it is compliant with the ISO26262 safety standard is a challenging task. To achieve ISO26262 compliance, the development team of a safety-related software project faces a multitude of additional requirements for the development process without a corresponding increase of the project budget to fulfill them. The fact that many of the requirements of ISO26262 are defined in a very generic way such that an interpretation is required further hampers their implementation. We propose a 10-step strategy to achieve an ISO26262 compliant model-based software development process. This strategy relates ISO26262 requirements with state-of-the art methods and approaches currently used for model-based software development.
Book

100 Years of Engine Developments

2005-03-30
This comprehensive collection of 100 papers looks back at the technological advancements and accomplishments that played a key factor in the evolution of the internal combustion engine over the last 100 years. This collection covers the many challenges that affected the development of the internal engine powerplant through history, including producing vehicles that are faster, more responsive, fuel efficient, and create fewer emissions than previous models. The papers chosen to be a part of this collection hold a wealth of historical background. This background is only the beginning of many new developments to come, we need not rediscover what the pioneers in this industry have already learned but use this knowledge to further advance engine technology. Each chapter offers a look at the research, testing, and design changes that have taken place in specific components of the engine.
Technical Paper

100% LPG Long Haul Truck Conversion - Economy and Environmental Benefits

2012-09-24
2012-01-1983
Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT), a Ballarat Australia based company, has developed the World's first diesel to 100% LPG conversion for heavy haul trucks. There is no diesel required or utilized on the trucks. The engine is converted with minimal changes into a spark ignition engine with equivalent power and torque of the diesel. The patented technology is now deployed in 2 Mercedes Actros trucks. The power output in engine dynamometer testing exceeds that of the diesel (in excess of 370 kW power and 2700 Nm torque). In on-road application the power curve is matched to the diesel specifications to avoid potential downstream power-train stress. Testing at the Department of Transport Energy & Infrastructure, Regency Park, SA have shown the Euro 3 truck converted to LPG is between Euro 4 and Euro 5 NOx levels, CO2 levels 10% better than diesel on DT80 test and about even with diesel on CUEDC tests.
Technical Paper

100-kWe Lunar/Mars Surface Power Utilizing the SP-100 Reactor with Dynamic Conversion

1992-08-03
929446
An integration study was performed coupling an SP-100 reactor with either a Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystem. A power level of 100 kWe was selected for the study. The power system was to be compatible with both the lunar and Mars surface environment and require no site preparation. In addition, the reactor was to have integral shielding and be completely self-contained, including its own auxiliary power for start-up. Initial reliability studies were performed to determine power conversion redundancy and engine module size. Previous studies were used to select the power conversion optimum operating conditions (ratio of hot-side temperature to cold-side temperature). Results of the study indicated that either the Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystems could be integrated with the SP-100 reactor for either a lunar or Mars surface power application.
Technical Paper

12 Present situation of Automated Guided Vehicle

2002-10-29
2002-32-1781
Many automated guided golf cars using the electromagnetic guide technology are used in Japan to obtain more convenient and safer golf play. Now this technology is beginning to be used outside of the golf course as an on-demand people mover system. This paper presents an example of the engineering system of automated guided golf cars along for the 2 principles of automated guided vehicle. The first principle is “the steering control system including the automatic sensitivity adjustment function”, and the other principle is “the vehicle speed control system”.
Technical Paper

14 Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model for Roll Dynamics Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-1277
A vehicle model is an important factor in the development of vehicle control systems. Various vehicle models having different complexities, assumptions, and limitations have been developed and applied to many different vehicle control systems. A 14 DOF vehicle model that includes a roll center as well as non-linear effects due to vehicle roll and pitch angles and unsprung mass inertias, is developed. From this model, the limitations and validity of lower order models which employ different assumptions for simplification of dynamic equations are investigated by analyzing their effect on vehicle roll response through simulation. The possible limitation of the 14 DOF model compared to an actual vehicle is also discussed.
Technical Paper

14/42V - Electrical Power Supply Systems Consequences for Electrical Interconnections and Switches

2000-08-21
2000-01-3055
This paper provides an overview about the consequences of a 14/42 V - Electrical Power Supply System for the Electrical Interconnection and Switching Technology. It presents design guidelines and solutions for connector systems including advanced applications like fuse and relay boxes and gives an overview of those existing connectors already suited for 42 V and even higher voltages. The problem of arcing due to the increased voltage is discussed for the case that mating and unmating under load has to be taken into consideration. Arcing also has a tremendous impact on the design of 42 V proof relays. Therefore, some basic results be presented along with proposals how these problems can be overcome by appropriate designs. Another part of the paper looks at the electrical power supply system itself. Here interconnection techniques for new battery systems are discussed. Finally, the chances for new technologies are highlighted.
Technical Paper

1553 RT Mechanizations for Data Sample Consistency and Multi-Message Transfers

1993-04-01
931600
System requirements and Interface Control Drawings (ICDs) make a variety of demands for MIL-STD-1553 remote terminals (RTs). Among these requirements are the need to ensure data integrity and sample data consistency, the need to perform bulk (multi-message) data transfers, and the need to offload the operation of the host CPU to the greatest degree possible. This latter requirement is reflected in such specifications as CPU spare bandwidth. The latest 1553 terminals provide a variety of choices for performing the different types of transfers. This paper provides a discussion of the hardware and software techniques for achieving these objectives. Three different schemes for RT subaddress memory management are presented: single message, circular buffer, and double buffered. For receive and transmit messages, these include fully synchronous single message transfers, asynchronous single message transfers, and multi-message transfers.
Technical Paper

1963 Pure Oil Performance Trials

1963-01-01
630280
Background of the Pure Oil performance trials on six classes of automobiles is presented and the evolution of test requirements described. Three tests are run: the economy test to establish how far a vehicle can go over a prescribed course on one gallon of gasoline; the acceleration test which determines acceleration time from 25 to 70 mph in seconds; and the braking test where stopping distance in feet is measured for a stop from 60 mph. Each test is described from the point of view of rules, recording instruments, and penalties for infractions of rules. Test results are presented.
Technical Paper

1964 Pure Oil Performance Trials

1964-01-01
640476
A review of the Pure Oil Performance Trials conducted at Daytona International Speedway are presented. Background information pertaining to conducting of tests, design of the equipment, and instrumentation required for the various events are discussed. The performance trials have evolved into three basic tests -- Economy, Acceleration, and Braking. The objective of the Performance Trials is to provide data that motorists can utilize in evaluating new cars and selecting new models.
Technical Paper

2 Stroke Fuel Injected Outboard Motor with Oxygen Sensor Feedback Control System

1997-10-27
978491
This paper describes new 2 stroke fuel injected spark ignition outboard motor equipped with unique oxygen sensor feed back control system to assure constantly optimized air/fuel ratio. First, the general concept and the engineering target of commercial model are explained, and then the design and arrangement of oxygen sensor feedback fuel injection control system are described. Common automotive oxygen sensor is utilized in this system, and it is devised to overcome the problems inherent in 2-stroke engines. This paper also describes the controlled combustion system that enhances consistent and stable performance, and improves fuel efficiency. Applying these technologies, 40% less fuel consumption in cruise range was demonstrated by the comparative test with conventional fuel injected 2-stroke model.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Electrical & Electronics

2004-03-08
2004-01-1259
The Ford GT Program Team was allocated just 22 months from concept to production to complete the Electrical and Electronics systems of the Ford GT. This reduced vehicle program timing - unlike any other in Ford's history -- demanded that the team streamline the standard development process, which is typically 54 months. This aggressive schedule allowed only 12 weeks to design the entire electrical and electronic system architecture, route the wire harnesses, package the components, and manufacture and/or procure all components necessary for the first three-vehicle prototype build.
Technical Paper

2006 Chevrolet Corvette C6 Z06 Aerodynamic Development

2005-04-11
2005-01-1943
This paper is intended to give a general overview of the key aerodynamic developments for the 2006 Chevrolet Corvette C6 Z06. Significant computational and wind tunnel time were used to develop the 2006 Z06 to provide it with improved high speed stability, increased cooling capability and equivalent drag compared to the 2004 Chevrolet Corvette C5 Z06.
Book

2013 Passenger Car Yearbook

2013-10-07
Each year car manufacturers release new production models that are unique and innovative. The production model is the result of a lengthy process of testing aerodynamics, safety, engine components, and vehicle styling. The new technologies introduced in these vehicles reflect changing standards as well as trends of the market. From Acura to Volvo, this book provides a snapshot of the key engineering concepts and trends of the passenger vehicle industry over the course of a year. For each of the 43 new production models, articles from Automotive Engineering International (AEI) magazine detail technology developments as well as a comprehensive look at the 2013 passenger car models. This book provides those with an interest in new vehicles with all the information on the key automotive engineering and technology advancements of the year.
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