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Technical Paper

(CS)2 for Distributed Control Systems: A Better Approach to Developing and Maintaining ECU SW

Electronic control units (ECUs) offer a modular, networked approach to real time machine control and diagnostics. Software embedded in these controllers offer agile and customizable solutions because of the intimate relationship with the ECU hardware and its inputs/outputs. In an idealistic view, embedded software should support the machine's life - 30 years or longer. Developing and maintaining software for these systems requires a strategy. A framework demonstrating common building blocks and long-term centralized support for ECUs on a machine is presented. This strategy reduces the detailed knowledge of the specific machine controls needed by ECU developers and provides the components and infrastructure key to extending the life and functionality of the ECU.

(ISO/IEC 12207) Standard for Information Technology - Software Life Cycle Processes

ISO/IEC 12207 provides a common framework for developing and managing software. IEEE/EIA 12207.0 consists of the clarifications, additions, and changes accepted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) as formulated by a joint project of the two organizations. IEEE/EIA 12207.0 contains concepts and guidelines to foster better understanding and application of the standard. Thus this standard provides industry a basis for software practices that would be usable for both national and international business.

(R) Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Message Set Dictionary

This SAE Standard specifies a message set, and its data frames and data elements specifically for use by applications intended to utilize the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (DSRC/WAVE, referenced in this document simply as “DSRC”), communications systems. Although the scope of this Standard is focused on DSRC, this message set, and its data frames and data elements have been designed, to the extent possible, to also be of potential use for applications that may be deployed in conjunction with other wireless communications technologies. This Standard therefore specifies the definitive message structure and provides sufficient background information to allow readers to properly interpret the message definitions from the point of view of an application developer implementing the messages according to the DSRC Standards.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling and Room Temperature Experimental Measurements of the Exhaust System Backpressure: Limits and Advantages in the Prediction of Backpressure

It is well known that backpressure is one of the important parameters to be minimised during the exhaust system development. Unfortunately, during the first phases of an engineering process of a new engine, engine prototypes are not available yet. Due to this the exhaust system backpressure is generally evaluated using simulation software, and/or measuring the backpressure by a flow rig test at room temperature. Goal of this paper is to compare exhaust backpressure results obtained respectively: i) at the room temperature flow rig; ii) at the engine dyno bench; iii) by simulation with one of the most common 1D fluidodynamics simulation tool (Gt-Power). A correlation of the three different techniques is presented.
Technical Paper

10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications

A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
Technical Paper

10 Steps to ISO26262-compliant Model-based Software Components

Model-based software development is a well-established software development process and recognized by ISO26262 [1] as allowing for highly consistent and efficient development. Nevertheless, enhancing a model-based development process in such a way that it is compliant with the ISO26262 safety standard is a challenging task. To achieve ISO26262 compliance, the development team of a safety-related software project faces a multitude of additional requirements for the development process without a corresponding increase of the project budget to fulfill them. The fact that many of the requirements of ISO26262 are defined in a very generic way such that an interpretation is required further hampers their implementation. We propose a 10-step strategy to achieve an ISO26262 compliant model-based software development process. This strategy relates ISO26262 requirements with state-of-the art methods and approaches currently used for model-based software development.
Technical Paper

12 Present situation of Automated Guided Vehicle

Many automated guided golf cars using the electromagnetic guide technology are used in Japan to obtain more convenient and safer golf play. Now this technology is beginning to be used outside of the golf course as an on-demand people mover system. This paper presents an example of the engineering system of automated guided golf cars along for the 2 principles of automated guided vehicle. The first principle is “the steering control system including the automatic sensitivity adjustment function”, and the other principle is “the vehicle speed control system”.
Technical Paper

14 Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model for Roll Dynamics Study

A vehicle model is an important factor in the development of vehicle control systems. Various vehicle models having different complexities, assumptions, and limitations have been developed and applied to many different vehicle control systems. A 14 DOF vehicle model that includes a roll center as well as non-linear effects due to vehicle roll and pitch angles and unsprung mass inertias, is developed. From this model, the limitations and validity of lower order models which employ different assumptions for simplification of dynamic equations are investigated by analyzing their effect on vehicle roll response through simulation. The possible limitation of the 14 DOF model compared to an actual vehicle is also discussed.
Technical Paper

1553 RT Mechanizations for Data Sample Consistency and Multi-Message Transfers

System requirements and Interface Control Drawings (ICDs) make a variety of demands for MIL-STD-1553 remote terminals (RTs). Among these requirements are the need to ensure data integrity and sample data consistency, the need to perform bulk (multi-message) data transfers, and the need to offload the operation of the host CPU to the greatest degree possible. This latter requirement is reflected in such specifications as CPU spare bandwidth. The latest 1553 terminals provide a variety of choices for performing the different types of transfers. This paper provides a discussion of the hardware and software techniques for achieving these objectives. Three different schemes for RT subaddress memory management are presented: single message, circular buffer, and double buffered. For receive and transmit messages, these include fully synchronous single message transfers, asynchronous single message transfers, and multi-message transfers.
Technical Paper

2 Stroke Fuel Injected Outboard Motor with Oxygen Sensor Feedback Control System

This paper describes new 2 stroke fuel injected spark ignition outboard motor equipped with unique oxygen sensor feed back control system to assure constantly optimized air/fuel ratio. First, the general concept and the engineering target of commercial model are explained, and then the design and arrangement of oxygen sensor feedback fuel injection control system are described. Common automotive oxygen sensor is utilized in this system, and it is devised to overcome the problems inherent in 2-stroke engines. This paper also describes the controlled combustion system that enhances consistent and stable performance, and improves fuel efficiency. Applying these technologies, 40% less fuel consumption in cruise range was demonstrated by the comparative test with conventional fuel injected 2-stroke model.
Journal Article

25cc HCCI Engine Fuelled with DEE

This paper describes the set-up and testing of a single cylinder 25cc, air cooled, 4-stroke Spark Ignition (SI) engine converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode with the aid of various combustion control systems. The combustion control systems were investigated regarding their effects on combustion stability and heat release phasing. Engine operation was compared with unique findings from previous work done on a very small 2-stroke HCCI engine. HCCI engine operation was possible between 1000 - 4000 rpm when using Diethyl Ether (DEE) as the test fuel. Maximum operational fuel-air equivalence ratio (Φ) was 0.75 when operating without Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). This relatively high equivalence ratio was attainable due to thermal gradients induced by the high surface area to volume ratio of the small engine combustion chamber, resulting in high chamber heat transfer.
Technical Paper

270-Vdc/Hybrid 115-Vac Electric Power Generating System Technology Demonstrator Evolution to a Dual-Channel, More Electric Aircraft Technology Development Testbed

Sundstrand has been investigating 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac electrical power generating systems (EPGS) technology in preparation for meeting the electrical power generating system (EPGS) requirements for future aircraft (1). Systems such as the one being investigated are likely to be suitable for the More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) concepts presently under industry and military study. The present Sundstrand single-channel testbed is being further expanded to better understand the electrical system performance characteristics and power quality requirements of an MEA in which traditional mechanical subsystems are replaced by those of a “more-electric” nature. This paper presents the most recent Sundstrand 270-Vdc system transient performance data, and describes the modifications being made to the 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac testbed.
Technical Paper

3D Superficial Anthropometry to Evaluate the Biomechanics and the Aesthetics of the Spinal Deformities

This work describes the definition and implementation of a dedicated system (hardware and software) for the quantitative evaluation of the anthropometrics and morphological parameters of the back shape. This was applied to the digital 3D analysis of subjects affected by spinal pathologies. In fact in clinical practice it is needed to have a repeatable and easy method to frequent non invasive screening of the rib system records a 3D model of the back shape standard and automated procedure. Its clinical validation is presented.
Technical Paper

3D Whole Body Scans: Measurement Extraction Software Validation

Three-dimensional (3D) whole body scanners provide an opportunity for collecting large quantities of precise point data on human forms. However, product designers will likely always need some access to traditional point-to-point dimensional measurements. These measurements can also be obtained from the 3D whole body scanner if appropriate software is developed. This project describes a validation test for a collection of software tools designed to extract traditional dimensions from 3D whole body scans. To validate the software we scanned 123 male and female subjects on a Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner. Subjects were also measured for point-to-point dimensions using traditional instruments. We compared the mean absolute differences between traditional and software measurements to interobserver error data collected in a large traditional anthropometric survey (ANSUR), and to various criteria specific to garment applications.
Technical Paper

4 Stroke Gasoline Engine Performance Optimization Using Statistical Techniques

The engine designer has to find novel methods to optimize the engine efficiency faster as the engine development cycle is getting shortened due to the continuous growing market demands. Engine optimization involves fine tuning of the various engine parameters and conducting a large number of tests on actual engine test bed. In this paper, modern techniques that have been used to optimize a small 4stroke air-cooled engine performance have been described. The engine has been modelled using one-dimensional thermodynamic engine modelling software (AVL-BOOST). Design of experiments (DoE) tools have been used to optimize the engine variables. The input parameters form an orthogonal array of L27 matrix and the out put characteristics of the engine (responses) have been predicted by using BOOST software. This design matrix has been used to study and optimize thirteen factors in three levels (313).
Technical Paper

4-Sensor 2-Channel Anti-Lock System for FWD Cars

The possibility of 2 Channel anti-lock system, which controls each of two independent hydraulic circuits of diagonal split braking system of FWD car seperately, were studied. Theoretical investigation suggested two out of four possible control logics to be promising and they were proved to be practically satisfactory through vehicle test. This system is almost as effective as expensive 3-channel or 4-channel system, when the braking force distribution between front and rear axles is correct as required by EEC Braking regulation. Under extreme condition that rear wheels lock earlier than fronts, the compromise between stopping distance and stability is necessary.
Technical Paper

42V Power Control System for Mild Hybrid Vehicle (MHV)

In the 42V Mild Hybrid System introduced into market by Toyota for the first time in the world, the crankshaft using belt(s) drives the motor/generator (MG). The set-up employs an inverter unit to control the MG electronically. This paper describes the system configuration, operations, characteristic features and development results of the new power control system. The focus is on the MG, the inverter-for-MG-control and energy regeneration, as well as DC/DC converter for the power supply to the 14V devices.
Technical Paper

48V Boost Recuperation Systems - Golden Gate into the Future

The transformation of the automotive industry will be shaped mainly by the markets North America, Europe and China, which account for more than two thirds of the yearly global car production. All three markets have challenging fuel consumption, CO2 and emission regulations in place and under discussion, which are forcing the automotive industry to make their power train technology more efficient. But not only governmental regulations are driving the change, increasing urbanization intensifies local environmental pollution from vehicles and strains the acceptance of today’s car centric mobility. Electrification is the highly touted magic solution, but is it fast and comprehensive enough to solve above mentioned problems? Is society - car owners, automotive industry and governments - willing to pay the high cost for electrified car technology and infrastructure within a short timeframe of 10 to 15 years?
Technical Paper

4WS Technology and the Prospects for Improvement of Vehicle Dynamics

FOUR-WHEEL STEERING (4WS) is beginning to find widespread use as a new approach to improving vehicle dynamics, especially in the medium and high speed ranges. Steering the rear wheels in the same phase as the front wheels enhances vehicle stability. Four-wheel steering systems have an even greater potential to improve stability and steering response through suitable control over the transient characteristics of the rear wheel steer angle. This paper traces the course of Nissan research and development work on four-wheel steering and the evolution of Nissan's HICAS (4WS) technology. It also describes research activities under way on vehicle dynamics using a newly developed Simulator Vehicle, equipped with a front and rear angle transient control system which makes it possible to vary the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle instantaneously and at will while driving.