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Journal Article

Development of a High Performance Natural Gas Engine with Direct Gas Injection and Variable Valve Actuation

Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine application due to its low carbon content and high knock resistance. Performance of natural gas engines is further improved if direct injection, high turbocharger boost level, and variable valve actuation (VVA) are adopted. Also, relevant efficiency benefits can be obtained through downsizing. However, mixture quality resulting from direct gas injection has proven to be problematic. This work aims at developing a mono-fuel small-displacement turbocharged compressed natural gas engine with side-mounted direct injector and advanced VVA system. An injector configuration was designed in order to enhance the overall engine tumble and thus overcome low penetration.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen ICE Combustion Challenges

Hydrogen promises to provide some highly desired features for clean and efficient combustion, but harvesting efficiency and emission potentials as well as meeting engine durability requirements needs careful adaption of both, combustion system components and engine operation strategies. Key points for H2-ICE combustion are some specific and unique features of H2/air mixtures, among which – to name only a few – excellent dilutability, lean burn capability, low ignition energy and high molecular diffusivity and their consequences on ICE operation do play prominent roles. H2 admission via port or direct injection, compression ratio selection and injection timing provide a set of parameters to control combustion features.
Journal Article

New and Innovative Combustion Systems for the H2-ICE: Compression Ignition and Combined Processes

Hydrogen nowadays is considered one promising energy carrier for future mobility scenarios. Its application as a fuel in ICEs greatly benefits from Direct Injection (DI) strategies, which help to reduce the disadvantages of PFI systems such as air displacement effects, knocking, backfiring and low power density. In SI-engines one appropriate way to increase efficiency is the reduction of wall heat losses by jet- and/or wall-guided mixture formation systems. In theory, Compression Ignition (CI) systems employing a diffusion type of combustion allow for a significant raise in compression ratio and, thus, are likely to excel the SI concept in terms of efficiency. The following paper deals with results obtained from investigations on H2 Compression-Ignition (H2-CI) combustion systems by employing both thermodynamic research engines and 3D CFD simulation.