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Technical Paper

1-D Thermal Simulation and Experimental Validation of Li-Ion Battery Pack Liquid Cooling System

The battery cooling system is one of the most critical parts for the safe and efficient operation of the Li-ion battery pack in EVs. Battery liquid cooling system is most commonly used. This paper represents a comprehensive study of the electric vehicle battery liquid cooling system design and performance using the 1D tool and experimental validation. The 1D model includes the battery thermal load, cooling system components, and different ambient conditions. The cooling system components are calibrated using the experimental performance data of the components. The 1D model is used to evaluate the effect of fan speed, ambient temperature, compressor speed, and coolant flow rate on the battery cooling system and to optimize the component sizing. The results are then experimentally validated in a climate chamber, and the simulation results show good agreement with experimental results. The study's findings provide a good understanding of the Li-ion liquid cooling system.
Technical Paper

10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications

A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
Technical Paper

100-kWe Lunar/Mars Surface Power Utilizing the SP-100 Reactor with Dynamic Conversion

An integration study was performed coupling an SP-100 reactor with either a Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystem. A power level of 100 kWe was selected for the study. The power system was to be compatible with both the lunar and Mars surface environment and require no site preparation. In addition, the reactor was to have integral shielding and be completely self-contained, including its own auxiliary power for start-up. Initial reliability studies were performed to determine power conversion redundancy and engine module size. Previous studies were used to select the power conversion optimum operating conditions (ratio of hot-side temperature to cold-side temperature). Results of the study indicated that either the Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystems could be integrated with the SP-100 reactor for either a lunar or Mars surface power application.
Technical Paper

1500 W Deployable Radiator with Loop Heat Pipe

Two-phase capillary loops are being extensively studied as heat collection and rejection systems for space applications as they appear to satisfy several requirements like low weight, low volume, temperature control under variable heat loads and/or heat sink, operation under on ground and micro gravity conditions, simplicity of mounting and heat transfer through tortuous paths. In 1998–2000 Alenia defined and Lavochkin Association developed the Deployable Radiator on the base of honeycomb panels, axial grooved heat pipes and Loop Heat Pipe. It was designed for on-ground testing.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of Expansion tank Flow

An expansion tank is an integral part of an automotive engine cooling system. The primary function of the expansion tank is to allow the thermal expansion of the coolant. The expansion tank will be referred as hot bottle in this paper. In the System level modeling of the engine internal flow, it is imperative to accurately model and characterize the components in the system. It is often challenging to define the hot bottle accurately with limited parameters in the 1D modeling. Currently it is very difficult to optimize the system by testing. Since testing consumes a lot of time and changes in development stage. If the hot bottle component is not defined properly in the system network, then the system flow balancing cannot be predicted accurately. In this paper, the approach of creating a 1D modeling tool for hot bottle flow prediction is discussed and the simulation results are compared with the physical test data.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of HVAC Unit Air Flow for Automatic Climate Control Simulations

Advanced control techniques are widely used in different automotive applications including climate control. Significant costs associated with the development and calibration of such controllers can be reduced if these tasks are conducted in a virtual environment. Such a virtual environment can be developed by integrating the controller with the system model. Different scenarios can be then simulated to make sure functional objectives of the system are met. 1D models provide the necessary level of accuracy without imposing extra computational cost in such virtual environments. As such, they are perfect candidates for model, hardware or software-in-the loop validation benches for controls. Performance of a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be controlled through the settings of the components like mode door, blend door, recirculation door, blower, and the compressor.
Technical Paper

1D Simulation Accuracy Enhancement for Predicting Powertrain Cooling System Performance

In today’s competitive scenario, the automotive product life cycle has drastically reduced and all Auto OEM’s are coming up with their updated products with lesser development time. These frequent product upgrades are possible due to use of various digital tools during product design and development. Design and optimization of engine coolpack (powertrain cooling unit) to attain engine cooling performance is one of the important parameter during vehicle development or upgrade. Hence, to keep control over development cost and time of delivery, quick and accurate digital validation capability like one dimensional (1D) simulation is the need of the hour. To predict the powertrain cooling (PTC) performance at vehicle concept stage, when physical prototypes are not available, airflow data from similar developed platforms is considered as an input for 1D simulation.
Technical Paper

1D Simulation-Based Methodology for Automotive Grill Opening Area Optimization

This paper discusses the methodology setup for grill opening area prediction at the early development phase of the product development lifecycle, using a commercially available 1D simulation tool- AMESIM. Representative under hood has been modeled using Grill, Condenser, Radiator, intercooler, fan, and engine components. Vehicle velocity is used as an input to derive the airflow passing through the grill and other under-hood components based on ram air coefficient, pressure drop through different components (Grill, Heat exchanger, Fan & Engine). This airflow is used to predict the top tank temperature of the radiator. Derived airflow is correlated with airflow obtained from CFD simulation. A balance has been achieved between cooling drag & fan power consumption at different grill opening areas for target top tank temperature. Top tank temperature has been predicted at two different extreme engine heat rejection operating points.
Technical Paper

1D Transient Thermal Model of an Automotive Electric Engine Cooling Fan Motor

For the thermal management of an automobile, the induced airflow becomes necessary to enable the sufficient heat transfer with ambient. In this way, the components work within the designed temperature limit. It is the engine-cooling fan that enables the induced airflow. There are two types of engine-cooling fan, one that is driven by engine itself and the other one is electrically driven. Due to ease in handling, reduced power consumption, improved emission condition, electrically operated fan is becoming increasingly popular compared to engine driven fan. The prime mover for electric engine cooling fan is DC motor. Malfunction of DC motor due to overheating will lead to engine over heat, Poor HVAC performance, overheating of other critical components in engine bay. Based upon the real world driving condition, 1D transient thermal model of engine cooling fan motor is developed. This transient model is able to predict the temperature of rotor and casing with and without holes.
Technical Paper

1D-3D Coupled Analysis for Motor Thermal Management in an Electric Vehicle

Motor thermal management of electric vehicles (EVs) is becoming more significant due to its close relations to vehicle aerodynamic performance and power consumption, while computer aided engineering (CAE) plays an important role in its development. A 1D-3D coupled model is established to characterize transient thermal performance of the motor in an electric vehicle on a high performance computer (HPC) platform. The 1D motor thermal management model is integrated with the 1D powertrain model, and a 3D thermal model is established for the motor, while online data exchange is realized between the 1D and 3D models. The 1D model gives boundaries such as inlet coolant temperature, mass flowrate and motor heat generation to the 3D model, while the 3D model gives back boundaries such as heat transfer to coolant simultaneously. Transient simulations are performed for the 140kph(20°C) driving cycle, and the model is calibrated with experimental data.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT- Maintaining Your Cool at 200 MPH

An integrated engineering approach using computer modeling, laboratory and vehicle testing enabled the Ford GT engineering team to achieve supercar thermal management performance within the aggressive program timing. Theoretical and empirical test data was used during the design and development of the engine cooling system. The information was used to verify design assumptions and validate engineering efforts. This design approach allowed the team to define a system solution quickly and minimized the need for extensive vehicle level testing. The result of this approach was the development of an engine cooling system that adequately controls air, oil and coolant temperatures during all driving and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

3-D Multiphase Flow Simulation of Coolant Filling and Deaeration Processes in an Engine Coolant System

The thermal performance of an engine coolant system is efficient when the engine head temperature is maintained within its optimum working range. For this, it is desired that air should not be entrapped in the coolant system which can lead to localized hot spots at critical locations. However, it is difficult to eliminate the trapped air pockets completely. So, the target is to minimize the entrapped air as much as possible during the coolant filling and deaeration processes, especially in major components such as the radiator, engine head, pump etc. The filling processes and duration are typically optimized in an engine test stand along with design changes for augmenting the coolant filling efficiency. However, it is expensive and time consuming to identify air entrapped locations in tests, decide on the filling strategy and make the design changes in the piping accordingly.
Technical Paper

3-Dimensional Numerical Simulation on CuO Nanofluids as Heat Transfer Medium for Diesel Engine Cooling System

CuO-water nanofluids was utilized as heat transfer medium in the cooling system of the diesel engine. By using CFD-Fluent software, for 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% mass concentration of nanofluids, 3-dimensional numerical simulation about flow and heat transfer process in the cooling system of engine was actualized. According to stochastic particle tracking in turbulent flow, for solid-liquid two phase flow discrete phase, the moving track of nanoparticles was traced. By this way, for CuO nanoparticles of different mass concentration nanofliuds in the cooling jacket of diesel engine, the results of the concentration distribution, velocity distribution, internal energy variation, resident time, total heat transfer and variation of total pressure reduction between inlet and outlet were ascertained.

32 Bit Binary CL (BCL) and 7 Bit ASCII CL (ACL) Exchange Input Format for Numerically Controlled Machines

The scope of this Standard is the definition of the response of a numerically controlled machine to a valid sequence of records made up of 32 bit binary words or ASCII text strings. The Standard defines the structure of these records and of the 32 bit binary words or ASCII text strings which make up the records. This standard addresses the control of machines capable of performing 2, 3, 4, and 5 axis motion of an active tool (mill, laser, pen, etc.) relative to a part, and those capable of 2 and 4 axis tool motion relative to a rotating part (turning machines), including parallel tool slide sets capable of concurrent (merged) motion.
Technical Paper

3D CFD Coolant System Simulation for Vehicle Drive-Cycle

The present work deals with the 3-D, transient, system level CFD simulation of an automotive coolant system using a 3D CFD solver Simerics MP+®. The system includes actual CAD of radiator, cooling jacket, coolant pump, bypass valve and thermostat valve. This work is in continuation of the work done by Srinivasan et al. [1] where wax melting, conjugate heat transfer, Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) of the valve had been solved. Thermostat valve was controlled by wax phase change model which also incorporates the hysteresis effect of wax melting and solidification. The previous work dealt with the simulation of complete cycle, opening, and closing of the thermostat valve system. Besides the physics considered in the previous study, the current model also includes the treatment of cavitation to account for the presence of dissolved gases and vaporization of the liquid coolant.
Journal Article

3D CFD Simulation of Hydraulic Test of an Engine Coolant System

Designing an efficient vehicle coolant system depends on meeting target coolant flow rate to different components with minimum energy consumption by coolant pump. The flow resistance across different components and hoses dictates the flow supplied to that branch which can affect the effectiveness of the coolant system. Hydraulic tests are conducted to understand the system design for component flow delivery and pressure drops and assess necessary changes to better distribute the coolant flow from the pump. The current study highlights the ability of a complete 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation to effectively mimic a hydraulic test. The coolant circuit modeled in this simulation consists of an engine water-jacket, a thermostat valve, bypass valve, a coolant pump, a radiator, and flow path to certain auxiliary components like turbo charger, rear transmission oil cooler etc.
Technical Paper

3D FEA Thermal Modeling with Experimentally Measured Loss Gradient of Large Format Ultra-Fast Charging Battery Module Used for EVs

A large amount of heat is generated in electric vehicle battery packs during high rate charging, resulting in the need for effective cooling methods. In this paper, a prototype liquid cooled large format Lithium-ion battery module is modeled and tested. Experiments are conducted on the module, which includes 31Ah NMC/Graphite pouch battery cells sandwiched by a foam thermal pad and heat sinks on both sides. The module is instrumented with twenty T-type thermocouples to measure thermal characteristics including the cell and foam surface temperature, heat flux distribution, and the heat generation from batteries under up to 5C rate ultra-fast charging. Constant power loss tests are also performed in which battery loss can be directly measured.
Technical Paper


AS speeds and operational altitudes of modern aircraft continue to increase, it is becoming more and more important that the total drag of the airplane be reduced while the rate of heat dissipation per unit frontal area of radiator be kept as high as possible. The standard method of increasing the temperature difference between cooling medium and coolant has been to use ethylene glycol as a coolant, because its boiling point is much higher than that of water; however, in its pure state glycol has various disadvantages that are not present when a pressure water system is used. This is a sealed system for making use of the physical characteristics of the increase in boiling temperature with pressure. When the radiator receives more heat from the engine than it is dissipating, a small quantity of steam is generated inside the cylinder jackets. The resulting increase in pressure will cause the temperature to rise until a balance is restored between heat rejection and radiator dissipation.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test Procedure for Evaluating the Cylinder Liner Pitting Protection Performance of Engine Coolant Additives for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Applications

Evaluations of the liner pitting protection performance provided by engine coolant corrosion inhibitors and supplemental coolant additives have presented many problems. Current practice involves the use of full scale engine tests to show that engine coolant inhibitors provide sufficient liner pitting protection. These are too time-consuming and expensive to use as the basis for industry-wide specifications. Ultrasonic vibratory test rigs have been used for screening purposes in individual labs, but these have suffered from poor reproducibility and insufficient additive differentiation. A new test procedure has been developed that reduces these problems. The new procedure compares candidate formulations against a good and bad reference fluid to reduce the concern for problems with calibration and equipment variability. Cast iron test coupons with well-defined microstructure and processing requirements significantly reduce test variability.
Technical Paper

A Benchmark Case for Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics of a Low Pressure Axial Fan

A low pressure axial fan for benchmarking numerical methods in the field of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics is presented. The generic fan for this benchmark is a typical fan to be used in commercial applications. The design procedure was according to the blade element theory for low solidity fans. A wide range of experimental data is available, including aerodynamic performance of the fan (fan characteristic curve), fluid mechanical quantities on the pressure and suction side from laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) measurements, wall pressure fluctuations in the gap region and sound characteristics on the suction side from sound power and microphone array measurements. The experimental setups are described in detail, as to ease reproducibility of measurement positions. This offers the opportunity of validating aerodynamic and aeroacoustic quantities, obtained from different numerical tools and procedures.