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Technical Paper

10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications

A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
Technical Paper

100-kWe Lunar/Mars Surface Power Utilizing the SP-100 Reactor with Dynamic Conversion

An integration study was performed coupling an SP-100 reactor with either a Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystem. A power level of 100 kWe was selected for the study. The power system was to be compatible with both the lunar and Mars surface environment and require no site preparation. In addition, the reactor was to have integral shielding and be completely self-contained, including its own auxiliary power for start-up. Initial reliability studies were performed to determine power conversion redundancy and engine module size. Previous studies were used to select the power conversion optimum operating conditions (ratio of hot-side temperature to cold-side temperature). Results of the study indicated that either the Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystems could be integrated with the SP-100 reactor for either a lunar or Mars surface power application.
Technical Paper

1500 W Deployable Radiator with Loop Heat Pipe

Two-phase capillary loops are being extensively studied as heat collection and rejection systems for space applications as they appear to satisfy several requirements like low weight, low volume, temperature control under variable heat loads and/or heat sink, operation under on ground and micro gravity conditions, simplicity of mounting and heat transfer through tortuous paths. In 1998–2000 Alenia defined and Lavochkin Association developed the Deployable Radiator on the base of honeycomb panels, axial grooved heat pipes and Loop Heat Pipe. It was designed for on-ground testing.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of Expansion tank Flow

An expansion tank is an integral part of an automotive engine cooling system. The primary function of the expansion tank is to allow the thermal expansion of the coolant. The expansion tank will be referred as hot bottle in this paper. In the System level modeling of the engine internal flow, it is imperative to accurately model and characterize the components in the system. It is often challenging to define the hot bottle accurately with limited parameters in the 1D modeling. Currently it is very difficult to optimize the system by testing. Since testing consumes a lot of time and changes in development stage. If the hot bottle component is not defined properly in the system network, then the system flow balancing cannot be predicted accurately. In this paper, the approach of creating a 1D modeling tool for hot bottle flow prediction is discussed and the simulation results are compared with the physical test data.
Technical Paper

1D Simulation Accuracy Enhancement for Predicting Powertrain Cooling System Performance

In today’s competitive scenario, the automotive product life cycle has drastically reduced and all Auto OEM’s are coming up with their updated products with lesser development time. These frequent product upgrades are possible due to use of various digital tools during product design and development. Design and optimization of engine coolpack (powertrain cooling unit) to attain engine cooling performance is one of the important parameter during vehicle development or upgrade. Hence, to keep control over development cost and time of delivery, quick and accurate digital validation capability like one dimensional (1D) simulation is the need of the hour. To predict the powertrain cooling (PTC) performance at vehicle concept stage, when physical prototypes are not available, airflow data from similar developed platforms is considered as an input for 1D simulation.
Technical Paper

1D Transient Thermal Model of an Automotive Electric Engine Cooling Fan Motor

For the thermal management of an automobile, the induced airflow becomes necessary to enable the sufficient heat transfer with ambient. In this way, the components work within the designed temperature limit. It is the engine-cooling fan that enables the induced airflow. There are two types of engine-cooling fan, one that is driven by engine itself and the other one is electrically driven. Due to ease in handling, reduced power consumption, improved emission condition, electrically operated fan is becoming increasingly popular compared to engine driven fan. The prime mover for electric engine cooling fan is DC motor. Malfunction of DC motor due to overheating will lead to engine over heat, Poor HVAC performance, overheating of other critical components in engine bay. Based upon the real world driving condition, 1D transient thermal model of engine cooling fan motor is developed. This transient model is able to predict the temperature of rotor and casing with and without holes.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT- Maintaining Your Cool at 200 MPH

An integrated engineering approach using computer modeling, laboratory and vehicle testing enabled the Ford GT engineering team to achieve supercar thermal management performance within the aggressive program timing. Theoretical and empirical test data was used during the design and development of the engine cooling system. The information was used to verify design assumptions and validate engineering efforts. This design approach allowed the team to define a system solution quickly and minimized the need for extensive vehicle level testing. The result of this approach was the development of an engine cooling system that adequately controls air, oil and coolant temperatures during all driving and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper


AS speeds and operational altitudes of modern aircraft continue to increase, it is becoming more and more important that the total drag of the airplane be reduced while the rate of heat dissipation per unit frontal area of radiator be kept as high as possible. The standard method of increasing the temperature difference between cooling medium and coolant has been to use ethylene glycol as a coolant, because its boiling point is much higher than that of water; however, in its pure state glycol has various disadvantages that are not present when a pressure water system is used. This is a sealed system for making use of the physical characteristics of the increase in boiling temperature with pressure. When the radiator receives more heat from the engine than it is dissipating, a small quantity of steam is generated inside the cylinder jackets. The resulting increase in pressure will cause the temperature to rise until a balance is restored between heat rejection and radiator dissipation.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test Procedure for Evaluating the Cylinder Liner Pitting Protection Performance of Engine Coolant Additives for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Applications

Evaluations of the liner pitting protection performance provided by engine coolant corrosion inhibitors and supplemental coolant additives have presented many problems. Current practice involves the use of full scale engine tests to show that engine coolant inhibitors provide sufficient liner pitting protection. These are too time-consuming and expensive to use as the basis for industry-wide specifications. Ultrasonic vibratory test rigs have been used for screening purposes in individual labs, but these have suffered from poor reproducibility and insufficient additive differentiation. A new test procedure has been developed that reduces these problems. The new procedure compares candidate formulations against a good and bad reference fluid to reduce the concern for problems with calibration and equipment variability. Cast iron test coupons with well-defined microstructure and processing requirements significantly reduce test variability.
Technical Paper

A Benchmark Case for Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics of a Low Pressure Axial Fan

A low pressure axial fan for benchmarking numerical methods in the field of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics is presented. The generic fan for this benchmark is a typical fan to be used in commercial applications. The design procedure was according to the blade element theory for low solidity fans. A wide range of experimental data is available, including aerodynamic performance of the fan (fan characteristic curve), fluid mechanical quantities on the pressure and suction side from laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) measurements, wall pressure fluctuations in the gap region and sound characteristics on the suction side from sound power and microphone array measurements. The experimental setups are described in detail, as to ease reproducibility of measurement positions. This offers the opportunity of validating aerodynamic and aeroacoustic quantities, obtained from different numerical tools and procedures.
Technical Paper

A Capillary Pump Loop Cooling System for the NICMOS Instrument

The Near Infrared Camera and Multi Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) was installed in the Hubble Space Telescope in February 1997. Shortly thereafter, the instrument experienced a thermal short in its solid nitrogen dewar system which will shorten its useful life significantly. A reverse Brayton cycle mechanical refrigerator will be installed during the third servicing mission (SM3) to provide cooling for the instrument, and thereby extend its life. A Capillary Pump Loop (CPL) and radiator system has been designed, built and tested to remove up to 500 watts of heat from the mechanical cooler and its electronics. This paper will describe the CPL system in detail and present the results of the extensive testing and qualification program.
Technical Paper

A Chemical Base for Engine Coolant / Antifreeze with Improved Thermal Stability Properties

Increasingly challenging international engine emissions reductions have resulted in some advances in engine emissions technologies that may motivate a change from the customary ethylene glycol and/or propylene glycol bases that have been the mainstay of engine antifreeze formulations for almost a century. The new engines' components, especially exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) devices, generate much greater thermal stress on the engine coolant. The oxidation of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol may be accelerated dramatically, resulting in coolant unsuitable for continued use in as little as a few months. The industry has been working towards extended engine coolant service intervals1,2,3,4, with some recommendations for service extended to as long as five years. It follows, therefore, that a requirement for coolant change at four to six month intervals (due to accelerated oxidation & aging) would be unacceptable to vehicle owners.
Technical Paper

A Clutch for V/STOL

This paper describes the requirements, design, and early testing of a flight weight V/STOL clutch. A clutch is required between the combiner box and the forward or nose fan for some versions of V/STOL aircraft. This clutch has been designed to transmit 11,000 HP at fan drive speeds, and be capable of minimum engagement times and rapid cycling. This paper will cover the mechanical arrangement and control system of this clutch.
Technical Paper

A Combined Mode Fatigue Model for Glass Reinforced Nylon as applied to Molded Engine Cooling Fans

The use of glass reinforced nylon in fatigue inducing environments calls for a new method of stress analysis. With an engine cooling fan, both mean and vibratory stresses need to be examined. Speed cycling can cause tensile fatigue, while vibration can cause flexural fatigue. Since tensile and flexural stresses exist in the fan simultaneously, a combined mode fatigue model is needed. The proposed model is based on high cycle flexural and tensile fatigue strengths, and tensile strength. It relates measurable strain to stress using temperature dependent flexural and tensile moduli, and treats underhood temperature and desired product life as variables.
Technical Paper

A Compact Cooling System (CCS™): The Key to Meet Future Demands in Heavy Truck Cooling

To meet future needs for heavy truck cooling, a novel high performance radial compact cooling system (CCS) was developed. Measurements with a prototype system were conducted in a component wind tunnel and with truck-installed systems in a climatic vehicular wind tunnel. The CSS is compared to conventional axial and side-by-side systems. In comparison with a conventional axial system, the performance per unit volume of the CCS is 42% higher, the noise level is about 6 dB lower and the power consumption of the radial fan is 70% of the axial fan leading to significant savings in fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A Compact High Intensity Cooler (CHIC)

A unique heat exchanger has been developed with potential applications for cooling high power density electronics and perhaps high energy laser mirrors. The device was designed to absorb heat fluxes of approximately 50 w/cm2 (158,000 Btu/hr.ft2) with a low thermal resistance, a high surface temperature uniformity and very low hydraulic pumping power. A stack of thin copper orifice plates and spacers was bonded together and arranged to provide liquid jet impingement heat transfer on successive plates. This configuration resulted in effective heat transfer coefficients, based on the prime surface, of about 85,000 w/m2 °C (15,000 Btu/hr.ft2 °F) and 1.8 watts (.002 HP) hydraulic power with liquid Freon 11 as coolant.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of a Multi-Gas Generator Fan to a Turbofan Engine on a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Personal Air Vehicle

This paper attempts to assess the benefits of a unique distributed propulsion concept, known as the Multi-Gas Generator Fan (MGGF) system, over conventional turbofan engines on civilian vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) applications. The MGGF-based system has shown the potential to address the fundamental technical challenge in designing a VTOL aircraft: the significant mismatch between the power requirements at lift-off/hover and cruise. Vehicle-level performance and sizing studies were implemented using the Grumman Design 698 tilt-nacelle V/STOL aircraft as a notional personal air vehicle (PAV), subjected to hypothetical single engine failure (SEF) emergency landing requirements and PAV mission requirements.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Map Based and Closed Loop Simulation Model of Coolant Circuit for a Two Wheeler Liquid Cooled Engine

The basic requirement of a vehicle cooling system is to ensure that the components of the engine are adequately cooled under vehicle operating conditions. Engine life and effectiveness can be improved with effective cooling. In designing process, simulation plays a vital role. A clear understanding of the coolant flow and pressure developed within the cooling system is important in designing the coolant circuit. The efficiency of the cooling system depends on the flow delivered by the impeller. The work aims at the study of performance characteristics of a backward curved impeller in a two wheeler cooling system. The objective is to compare the operating points such as pressure drop, flow delivered and power consumed from mapped Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation and closed loop CFD simulation. Moving Reference Frame (MRF) model was used to simulate the rotary motion of the impeller.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Accelerated Coolant Aging Laboratory Tests and Field Test Results

A test method that will age coolants in a manner representative of coolant aging in the field is vital to the development of coolants that meet expected performance criteria. In an attempt to develop such a test, two approaches were taken. A phosphate buffered, molybdate/nitrite containing, propylene glycol based, heavy-duty coolant was aged in the laboratory using both a flow stand and a reflux apparatus. Samples of the coolant were taken at various time intervals during both tests. The samples were analyzed to determine glycol degradation product, sulfate and corrosion product accumulation, additive depletion, and pH changes. The results were compared to actual field results for the same coolant to determine which of the two approaches best simulated coolant degradation in the field. The flow stand appeared to best simulate actual field results.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Engine Coolant in an Accelerated Heavy Duty Engine Cavitation Test

Propylene glycol (PG) is gaining in popularity as an engine coolant in market areas concerned about the toxicity of ethylene glycol (EG). With the possibility of PG coolants being used in heavy duty diesel engines, the requirement to control cylinder liner cavitation must be maintained. The purpose of this test program was to compare the ability of propylene glycol and ethylene glycol based heavy duty engine coolants to suppress cavitation of wet-cylinder liners in heavy duty diesel engines. The first task was to develop an engine test that would duplicate liner cavitation in a short time. This was accomplished with a 250 hour accelerated cycle test of a modified Deere six cylinder, 10.1 liter engine. The next step was to establish a baseline with both PG and EG using a modified GM 6038 engine coolant mixed 50 percent by volume with American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard corrosive water.