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Technical Paper

An Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Contribution of Oil Evaporation to Oil Consumption

Engine oil consumption is an important source of hydrocarbon and particulate emissions in automotive engines. Oil evaporating from the piston-ring-liner system is believed to contribute significantly to total oil consumption, especially during severe operating conditions. This paper presents an extensive experimental and theoretical study on the contribution of oil evaporation to total oil consumption at different steady state speed and load conditions. A sulfur tracer method was used to measure the dependence of oil consumption on coolant outlet temperature, oil volatility, and operating speed and load in a production spark ignition engine. Liquid oil distribution on the piston was studied using a one-point Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (LIF) technique. In addition, important in-cylinder variables for oil evaporation, such as liner temperature and cylinder pressure, were measured. A multi-species cylinder liner oil evaporation model was developed to interpret the oil consumption data.
Technical Paper

Fast Gas Temperature Measurement by Velocity of Sound for IC Engine Applications

In the study of internal combustion engines, gas temperatures within the system are of significant importance. The adverse conditions under firing operation, however, make measurements by any means very difficult. This current study seems to have gone the farthest to date for velocity of sound gas temperature measurements in internal combustion engine applications. An ultrasound signal is sent by a transmitting transducer, through the gas medium, and into the receiving transducer. The received signal is recorded, and the gas temperature determined from the time of flight. In-cylinder and exhaust manifold gas temperatures under fired conditions are presented, and are all consistent. Impacts of operating parameters like mixture equivalence ratio and coolant temperature are investigated.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions for Prototype Production Engines

A model has been developed which predicts engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions for spark-ignition engines. The model consists of a set of scaling laws that describe the individual processes that contribute to HC emissions. The model inputs are the critical engine design and operating variables. This set of individual process scaling relations was then calibrated using production spark-ignition engine data at a fixed light-load operating point. The data base consisted of engine-out HC emissions from two-valve and four-valve engine designs with variations in spark timing, valve timing, coolant temperature, crevice volume, and EGR, for five different engines. The model was calibrated separately for the three different engines to accommodate differences in engine design details and to determine the relative magnitudes of each of the major sources. A good fit to this database was obtained.