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Technical Paper

1-D Model of Radial Turbocharger Turbine Calibrated by Experiments

The 1-D model of a radial centripetal turbine was developed for engine simulation to generalize and extrapolate the results of experiments to high pressure ratio or off-design velocity ratio using calibrated tuning coefficients. The model concerns a compressible dissipative flow in a rotating channel. It considers both bladed or vaneless turbine stators and a twin-entry stator for exhaust pulse manifolds. The experiments were used to find values of all model parameters (outlet flow angles, all loss coefficients including an impeller incidence loss) by an original method using repeated regression analysis. The model is suitable for the prediction of a turbocharger turbine operation and its optimization in 1-D simulation codes.
Technical Paper

1-D Model of Roots Type Supercharger

This paper introduces research work on 1-D model of Roots type supercharger with helical gears using 1-D simulation tool. Today, passenger car engine design follows approach of downsizing and the reduction of number of engine cylinders. Superchargers alone or their combination with turbochargers can fulfill low-end demands on engine torque for such engines. Moreover, low temperature combustion of lean mixture at low engine loads becomes popular (HCCI, PCCI) requiring high boost pressure of EGR/fresh air mixture at low exhaust gas temperature, which poses too high demands on turbocharger efficiency. The main objective of this paper is to describe Roots charger features and to amend Roots charger design.
Journal Article

1D Simulation and Experimental Analysis of a Turbocharger Compressor for Automotive Engines under Unsteady Flow Conditions

Turbocharging technique will play a fundamental role in the near future not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions both in Spark Ignition and diesel automotive applications. To achieve excellent engine performance for road application, it is necessary to overcome some typical turbocharging drawbacks i.e., low end torque level and transient response. Experimental studies, developed on dedicated test facilities, can supply a lot of information to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, especially if tests can be extended to the typical engine operating conditions (unsteady flow). Different numerical procedures have been developed at the University of Naples to predict automotive turbocharger compressor performance both under steady and unsteady flow conditions. A classical 1D approach, based on the employment of compressor characteristic maps, was firstly followed.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Engine Options for Automotive Use: A Fundamental Comparison of Different Potential Scavenging Arrangements for Medium-Duty Truck Applications

The work presented here seeks to compare different means of providing scavenging systems for an automotive 2-stroke engine. It follows on from previous work solely investigating uniflow scavenging systems, and aims to provide context for the results discovered there as well as to assess the benefits of a new scavenging system: the reverse-uniflow sleeve-valve. For the study the general performance of the engine was taken to be suitable to power a medium-duty truck, and all of the concepts discussed here were compared in terms of indicated fuel consumption for the same cylinder swept volume using a one-dimensional engine simulation package. In order to investigate the sleeve-valve designs layout drawings and analysis of the Rolls-Royce Crecy-type sleeve had to be undertaken.
Technical Paper

3-Dimentional Numerical Transient Simulation and Research on Flow Distribution Unevenness in Intake Manifold for a Turbocharged Diesel Engine

The design of engine intake system affects the intake uniformity of each cylinder of the engine, which in turn has an important impact on the engine performance, the uniform distribution of EGR exhaust gas and the combustion process of each cylinder. In this paper, the constant-pressure supercharged diesel engine intake pipe is used as the research model to study the intake air flow unevenness of the intake pipe of the supercharged diesel engine. The pressure boundary condition at the outlet of each intake manifold is set as the dynamic pressure change condition. The three-dimensional numerical simulation of the transient flow process in the intake manifold of diesel engine is simulated and analyzed by using numerical method, and the change of the Intake air flow field in the intake manifold under different working conditions during the intake overlapping period is discussed.
Journal Article

3D-CFD-Study of Aerodynamic Losses in Compressor Impellers

Abstract Due to the increasing requirements for efficiency, the wide range of characteristics and the improved possibilities of modern development and production processes, compressors in turbochargers have become more individualized in order to adapt to the requirements of internal combustion engines. An understanding of the working mechanisms as well as an understanding of the way that losses occur in the flow allows a reduced development effort during the optimization process. This article presents three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigations of the loss mechanisms and quantitative calculations of individual losses. The 3D-CFD method used in this article will reduce the drawbacks of one-dimensional calculation as far as possible. For example, the twist of the blades is taken into account and the “discrete” method is used for loss calculation instead of the “average” method.
Technical Paper

4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion: a comparison between Naturally Aspirated and Turbocharged Operation

Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is increasingly seen as a very effective way of lowering both fuel consumption and emissions. Hence, it is regarded as one of the best ways to meet stringent future emissions legislation. It has however, still many problems to overcome, such as limited operating range. This combustion concept was achieved in a production type, 4-cylinder gasoline engine, in two separated tests: naturally aspirated and turbocharged. Very few modifications to the original engine were needed. These consisted basically of a new set of camshafts for the naturally aspirated test and new camshafts plus turbocharger for the test with forced induction. After previous experiments with naturally aspirated CAI operation, it was decided to investigate the capability of turbocharging for extended CAI load and speed range.
Journal Article

48V Exhaust Gas Recirculation Pump: Reducing Carbon Dioxide with High-Efficiency Turbochargers without Increasing Engine-Out NOx

Abstract Regulations limiting GreenHouse Gases (GHG) from Heavy-Duty (HD) commercial vehicles in the United States (US) and European Union will phase in between the 2024 and 2030 model years. These mandates require efficiency improvements at both the engine and vehicle levels, with the most stringent reductions required in the heaviest vehicles used for long-haul applications. At the same time, a 90% reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) will be required as part of new regulations from the California Air Resources Board. Any technologies applied to improve engine efficiency must therefore not come at the expense of increased NOx emissions. Research into advanced engine architectures and components has identified improved turbomachine efficiency as one of the largest potential contributors to engine efficiency improvement. However this comes at the cost of a reduced capability to drive high-pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).
Technical Paper

A Capacitance Based Transducer to Detect Oil Leakage from the Turbine End of a Turbocharger

This paper describes the principle of operation of a novel capacitance based transducer which is employed in a bench mounted turbocharger to identify oil leakage from the “piston-ring” seal at the turbine end of the shaft. Some preliminary data relating to “vacuum-to-leak” conditions are presented along with graphs which illustrate the filling of the transducer. Finally, the design modifications which will be required if the transducer is to be used for leak detection in a turbocharger mounted on a firing engine, are briefly outlined.
Technical Paper

A Case Study of Compressor Surge Related Noise on Turbocharged 2.0-L Gasoline Engine

Till recently supercharging was the most accepted technique for boost solution in gasoline engines. Recent advents in turbochargers introduced turbocharging technology into gasoline engines. Turbocharging of gasoline engines has helped in powertrains with higher power density and less overall weight. Along with the advantages in performance, new challenges arise, both in terms of thermal management as well as overall acoustic performance of powertrains. The study focuses mainly on NVH aspects of turbocharging of gasoline engines. Compressor surge is a most common phenomenon in turbochargers. As the operating point on the compressor map moves closer to the surge line, the compressor starts to generate noise. The amplitude and frequency of the noise depends on the proximity of the operating point to the surge line. The severity of noise can be reduced by selecting a turbocharger with enough compressor surge margin.
Technical Paper

A Combustion Correlation for Diesel Engine Simulation

The use of cycle simulation computer programs has become an established part of turbocharged diesel engine research and development. However, the utility of these programs has in the past been limited by the need for combustion information at the operating point. This difficulty has been overcome by the development of an empirical correlation simulating the combustion process (heat release) via an analytical expression whose governing parameters are linked to in-cylinder conditions. A method of deriving the governing parameters from only a minimum of experimental test data is presented, but enabling performance to be predicted over a wide range of operating conditions. The use of the combustion correlation enables the effects of changing ambient conditions, turbocharger match, valve timing and other engine design parameters to be predicted automatically, and includes their influence on combustion as well as the turbocharging process.
Journal Article

A Comparison Between External and Internal Resonators Employment to Reduce the Gas-Dynamic Noise of a SI Engine

This paper reports 1D and 3D CFD analyses aiming to improve the gas-dynamic noise emission of a downsized turbocharged VVA engine through the re-design of the intake air-box device, consisting in the introduction of external or internal resonators. Nowadays, modern spark-ignition (SI) engines show more and more complex architectures that, while improving the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), may be responsible for the increased noise radiation at the engine intake mouth. In particular VVA systems allow for the actuation of advanced valve strategies that provide a reduction in the BSFC at part load operations thanks to the intake line de-throttling. In these conditions, due to a less effective attenuation of the pressure waves that travel along the intake system, VVA engines produce higher gas-dynamic noise levels.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of On-Engine Surge Detection Algorithms using Knock Accelerometers

On-engine surge detection could help in reducing the safety margin towards surge, thus allowing higher boost pressures and ultimately low-end torque. In this paper, experimental data from a truck turbocharger compressor mounted on the engine is investigated. A short period of compressor surge is provoked through a sudden, large drop in engine load. The compressor housing is equipped with knock accelerometers. Different signal treatments are evaluated for their suitability with respect to on-engine surge detection: the signal root mean square, the power spectral density in the surge frequency band, the recently proposed Hurst exponent, and a closely related concept optimized to detect changes in the underlying scaling behavior of the signal. For validation purposes, a judgement by the test cell operator by visual observation of the air filter vibrations and audible noises, as well as inlet temperature increase, are also used to diagnose surge.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Transient Vehicle Performance Using a Fixed Geometry, Wastegated Turbocharger and a Variable Geometry Turbocharger

The use of an exhaust-driven boosting device can significantly improve the performance of a vehicle using a small displacement engine. One of the concerns relative to the performance of vehicles using these devices is “turbo lag,” or the period of time during which no boost is generated. This paper presents the results of designed experiments comparing the performance of a fixed geometry, wastegated turbocharger to a variable geometry turbocharger incorporating a low-loss bearing system. In addition, experimental tests are presented for the naturally aspirated engine in the same vehicle. The results of the experiments show improvements with the use of pressure boosting and that there are significant differences in the boosting devices tested; specifically, the use of a variable geometry turbocharger demonstrates significant reduction in the length of time required to reach boost and reduced acceleration times for the tests conducted.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Particulate Composition Between Turbocharged and Naturally Aspirated DI Diesel Engines

A naturally aspirated Perkins 4-236 engine was compared with a similar turbocharged Perkins engine. The higher pressures and temperature of a turbocharged engine should make the pyrosynthesis of PAH more likely than for a NA engine and this was investigated using the fuel n-alkanes as tracers for the unburnt fuel of the same fuel distillation fraction as the PAH. The results showed that the below C20 the NA and TC survivabilities of fuel n-alkanes onto the particulates were similar at below 0.02%. For higher n-alkanes the turbocharger was much more efficient at burning the fuel, with survivabilities of C24 a factor of 10 below the NA results. The higher operating temperatures of the TC engine reduced the UHC emissions and this reduced the higher boiling fraction unburned fuel. In contrast to these results the fuel PAH apparent survivability's were higher, by approximately a factor of 10, for the turbocharged engine for equivalent boiling point compounds in the range C18-C22.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Digital Computer Program to Simulate a Compression Ignition Engine Including Intake and Exhaust Systems

Two comprehensive programs for the complete cycle synthesis for compression ignition engines are briefly described. The programs include the intake pipes, the exhaust pipes, and the turbocharger if this is fitted. The combustion in the power cycle is represented by a simple heat release model as described by Whitehouse, et al, and the heat transfer is computed by the method of Annand. The wave action in the intake and exhaust system and the gas exchange process in the cylinder are computed by methods described by the author in earlier papers. Recent improvements include heat transfer in the pipe system, supersonic flow, and the exact dimensioning of the pipe system. The matching of the turbocharger within the engine is described, based on quasi steady methods, and a discussion of the possible limitations of this approach is given. Comparison of experimental results taken on engine tests with the computed predictions, are given.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study on Euro 6 Turbocharger Selections and Its Deterioration with Closed Crank-Case Ventilation in Heavy Commercial Vehicles

Euro 6 emission norms are getting implemented in India from April 2020 and it is being viewed as one of the greatest challenges ever faced by the Indian automotive industry. In order to achieve such stringent emission norms a good strategy will be to optimize the engine out emission through in cylinder emission control techniques and a right sized after treatment system has to be used for this optimized engine. There exist several factors and trade-off between these should be established for in cylinder optimization of emissions. Since the turbocharger plays an apex role in controlling both the performance and engine out emissions of a CI engine, turbocharger selection is a crucial step in the development of new generation of Euro 6 engines in India. Such engines are equipped with additional actuators such as Intake Throttle Valve and Exhaust Throttle Valve and combination of these flap operations with turbocharger output plays a prominent role in controlling performance and emission.
Technical Paper

A Controllable Water Cooled Charge Air Cooler (WCCAC) for Diesel Trucks

Water-cooled charge air cooling is being considered as part of various technology solutions in response to 2007 US, 2010 US, EU4 and EU5 emissions standards. As manufacturers determine appropriate engine and vehicle solutions to meet the upcoming emissions standards, charge air cooling requirements are increasing due to higher turbocharger outlet temperatures and pressures, higher EGR rates, and requests for intake manifold temperature control to manage combustion and exhaust temperatures. Valeo and EMP have collaborated on the development and testing of a water cooled charge air cooler (WCCAC), controlled by a 12 volt brushless motor coolant pump. The system design addresses material temperature limitations of air-air aluminum CAC's and has the potential to simplify the packaging of the air induction system.