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Technical Paper

(Nano) Particles from 2-S Scooters: SOF / INSOF; Improvements of Aftertreatment; Toxicity

2007-04-16
2007-01-1089
Limited and non-regulated emissions of scooters were analysed during several annual research programs of the Swiss Federal Office of Environment (BAFU) *). Small scooters, which are very much used in the congested centers of several cities, are a remarkable source of air pollution. Therefore every effort to reduce the emissions is an important contribution to improve the air quality in urban centers. In the present work detailed investigations of particle emissions of different 2-stroke scooters with direct injection and with carburettor were performed. The nanoparticulate emissions were measured by means of SMPS, (CPC) and NanoMet. Also the particle mass emission (PM) was measured with the same method as for Diesel engines. Extensive analyses of PM-residuum for SOF/INSOF, PAH and toxicity equivalence (TEQ), were carried out in an international project network. Particle mass emission (PM) of 2-S Scooters consists mostly of SOF.
Collection

0-D and 1-D Modeling and Numerics, 2017

2017-03-28
Papers in the session cover zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines with respect to: engine breathing, boosting, and acoustics; SI combustion and emissions; CI combustion and emissions; fundamentals of engine thermodynamics; numerical modeling of gas dynamics; thermal management; mechanical and lubrication systems; system level models for controls; and system level models for vehicle fuel economy and emissions predictions.
Collection

0-D and 1-D Modeling and Numerics, 2018

2018-04-03
Papers in the session cover zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines with respect to: engine breathing, boosting, and acoustics; SI combustion and emissions; CI combustion and emissions; fundamentals of engine thermodynamics; numerical modeling of gas dynamics; thermal management; mechanical and lubrication systems; system level models for controls; and system level models for vehicle fuel economy and emissions predictions.
Technical Paper

09 AVL Lean Burn Systems CCBR and CBR Light for Fuel Economy and Emission Optimization on 4-Stroke Engines

2002-10-29
2002-32-1778
The CBR [1] (Controlled Burn Rate) is a port deactivation concept developed by AVL and is already applied in series production cars. The benefit of this concept is the low engine-out emission (CO, HC and NOx) and good fuel economy. By creating turbulent kinetic energy at the correct time and place in the combustion chamber a rapid and stable combustion occurs which allows to run the engine well above a Lambda Excess Air Ratio of 1.5. The CBR system features two different intake ports, one charge motion port and one filling port. Additionally a device for port-deactivation (slider, butterfly) is applied. At part load points and lower engine speeds the filling port is switched off. The CBR concept was now evoluted for compact engines as CCBR - with carburetor and as CBR Light - for engines with electronic fuel injection. CCBR stands for Carbureted Controlled Burn Rate.
Technical Paper

0D/3D Simulations of Combustion in Gasoline Engines Operated with Multiple Spark Plug Technology

2015-04-14
2015-01-1243
A simulation method is presented for the analysis of combustion in spark ignition (SI) engines operated at elevated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level and employing multiple spark plug technology. The modeling is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) stochastic reactor model for SI engines (SI-SRM). The model is built on a probability density function (PDF) approach for turbulent reactive flows that enables for detailed chemistry consideration. Calculations were carried out for one, two, and three spark plugs. Capability of the SI-SRM to simulate engines with multiple spark plug (multiple ignitions) systems has been verified by comparison to the results from a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Numerical simulations were carried for part load operating points with 12.5%, 20%, and 25% of EGR. At high load, the engine was operated at knock limit with 0%, and 20% of EGR and different inlet valve closure timing.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling of Transient Engine Operations Using Data Generated by a CFD Code

2008-04-14
2008-01-0357
Transient engine operations are modeled and simulated with a 1-D code (GT Power) using heat release and emission data computed by a 3-D CFD code (Kiva3). During each iteration step of a transient engine simulation, the 1-D code utilizes the 3-D data to interpolate the values for heat release and emissions. The 3-D CFD computations were performed for the compression and combustion stroke of strategically chosen engine operating points considering engine speed, torque and excess air. The 3-D inlet conditions were obtained from the 1-D code, which utilized 3-D heat release data from the previous 1-D unsteady computations. In most cases, only two different sets of 3-D input data are needed to interpolate the transient phase between two engine operating points. This keeps the computation time at a reasonable level. The results are demonstrated on the load response of a generator which is driven by a medium-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

1.8L Sierra-Mondeo Turbo-Diesel Valvetrain Friction Reduction Using a Solid Film Lubricant

1994-10-01
941986
A 1.8L turbocharged diesel engine valvetrain friction was investigated, and the effectiveness of using a solid film lubricant (SFL) coating in reducing friction was determined throughout the operable speed range. This valvetrain design features direct acting mechanical bucket valve lifters. Camshaft journal bearing surfaces and all camshaft rubbing surfaces except lobe tips were coated. The direct acting bucket shims were etched with a cross hatch pattern to a depth sufficient to sustain a SFL film coating on the shim rubbing surfaces subjected to high surface loads. The SFL coated valvetrain torque was evaluated and compared with uncoated baseline torque. Coating the cam bearing journal surfaces alone with II-25D SFL reduced valvetrain friction losses 8 to 17% for 250 to 2000 rpm cam speed range (i.e. 500 - 4000 rpm engine speed). When bucket tappet and shims were also coated with the SFL, further significant reductions in coated valvetrain friction were observed.
Technical Paper

1.9-Liter Four-Cylinder HCCI Engine Operation with Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2001-05-07
2001-01-1894
We present the effect of EGR, at a set fuel flow rate and intake temperature, on the operating parameters of timing of combustion, duration of combustion, power output, thermal efficiency, and NOx emission; which is remarkably low. We find that addition of EGR at constant inlet temperature and constant fuel flow rate has little effect on HCCI parameter of start of combustion (SOC). However, burn duration is highly dependent on the amount of EGR inducted. The experimental setup at UC Berkeley uses a 1.9-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine with a compression ratio of 18.8:1 (offered on a 1995 VW Passat TDI). The engine was converted to run in HCCI mode by addition of an 18kW air pre-heater installed in the intake system. Pressure traces were obtained using four water-cooled quartz pressure transducers, which replaced the Diesel fuel injectors. Gaseous fuel (propane or butane) flowed steadily into the intake manifold.
Technical Paper

100 HP / 200 Nm Diesel Motorcycle with 6 Speed Automated Manual Transmission

2004-09-27
2004-32-0069
Diesel engines, especially CR (Common Rail) DI (Direct Injection) TCI (Turbo Charged Inter-cooled), share a wide acceptance in the passenger car market due to the enormous torque and flexibility at low engine speed. A pre - condition for the use of a diesel engine in a motorcycle is that the disadvantages like combustion noise and visible smoke are reduced or eliminated. Moreover the fuel economy and performance characteristics of a diesel engine are dedicated to be used in a touring or large displacement motorcycle. The AVL engine concept is the first high performance diesel engine to be specially designed for motorcycles in terms of packaging and styling. To compensate for the limited engine speed range a gearbox with a wide ratio spread is required. This leads to a manual transmission with at least 6 gears or an automatic transmission. For the AVL concept an AMT (Automated Manual Transmission) was selected.
Technical Paper

100 Hour Endurance Testing of a High Output Adiabatic Diesel Engine

1994-03-01
940951
An advanced low heat rejection engine concept has successfully completed a 100 hour endurance test. The combustion chamber components were insulated with thermal barrier coatings. The engine components included a titanium piston, titanium headface plate, titanium cylinder liner insert, M2 steel valve guides and monolithic zirconia valve seat inserts. The tribological system was composed of a ceramic chrome oxide coated cylinder liner, chrome carbide coated piston rings and an advanced polyolester class lubricant. The top piston compression ring Included a novel design feature to provide self-cleaning of ring groove lubricant deposits to prevent ring face scuffing. The prototype test engine demonstrated 52 percent reduction in radiator heat rejection with reduced intake air aftercooling and strategic forced oil cooling.
Journal Article

1000-Hour Durability Evaluation of a Prototype 2007 Diesel Engine with Aftertreatment Using B20 Biodiesel Fuel

2009-11-02
2009-01-2803
A prototype 2007 ISL Cummins diesel engine equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particle filter (DPF), variable geometry turbocharger (VGT), and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was tested at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) under a high-load accelerated durability cycle for 1000 hours with B20 soy-based biodiesel blends and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel to determine the impact of B20 on engine durability, performance, emissions, and fuel consumption. At the completion of the 1000-hour test, a thorough engine teardown evaluation of the overhead, power transfer, cylinder, cooling, lube, air handling, gaskets, aftertreatment, and fuel system parts was performed. The engine operated successfully with no biodiesel-related failures. Results indicate that engine performance was essentially the same when tested at 125 and 1000 hours of accumulated durability operation.
Technical Paper

10PC20 Swash Plate Type Variable Displacement Compressor for Automotive Air Conditioners

1992-02-01
920260
Up to now, various compressor models for automotive air conditioners have been manufactured to answer the needs of car manufacturers for fuel economy and quietness. The 10PC20 compressor, developed for automotive air conditioners, is the world's first swash plate type compressor having a continuously variable displacement mechanism. The 10PC20 is aimed at realizing a large displacement compressor with a continuously variable displacement mechanism, which has not been achieved until today. To achieve this goal, the 10PC20 design is based on the swash plate type compressor, consisting of double-headed pistons, which is adaptable to a large displacement and has excellent rotating balance and durability. The 10PC20 changes its displacement continuously by changing the inclination of the swash plate (swash plate angle) continuously. (See photo. 1 and 2) The 10PC20 adopts two variable displacement principles.
Technical Paper

15 Combustion Characteristics of an Improved Design of a Stratified Charge Spark Ignition Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1784
The characteristics of the combustion process in an improved design of a novel spark ignition engine studied by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics are presented. The engine is designed to work at low average combustion temperatures to achieve very low NOx emissions. The engine is a two-stroke, two piston in-line engine. The main combustion occurs in four combustion pre-chambers that have an annular shape with a nozzle on the side facing the cylinder. Fuel is directly injected into the pre-chambers by using high-pressure fuel injectors. A progressive burning process is expected to keep the flame inside the pre-chambers while the fast ejection of combustion products should produce effective mixing with the cold air in the cylinder. This fast dilution should guarantee a temperature drop of the combustion products thus reducing the formation of NOx via a thermal path.
Technical Paper

16 Optimisation of a Stratified Charge Strategy for a Direct Injected Two-Stroke Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1785
Direct fuel injection is becoming mandatory in two-stroke S.I. engines, since it prevents one of the major problems of these engines, that is fuel loss from the exhaust port. Another important problem is combustion irregularity at light loads, due to excessive presence of residual gas in the charge, and can be solved by charge stratification. High-pressure liquid fuel injection is able to control the mixing process inside the cylinder for getting either stratified charge at partial loads or quasi-stoichiometric conditions, as it is required at full load. This paper shows the development of this solution for a small engine for moped and light scooter, using numeric and experimental tools. In order to obtain the best charge characteristics at every load and engine speed, different combustion chambers have been conceived and studied, examining the effects of combustion chamber geometry, together with injector position and injection timing
Technical Paper

18 Gasoline CAI and Diesel HCCI: the Way towards Zero Emission with Major Engine and Fuel Technology Challenges

2002-10-29
2002-32-1787
Engines and fuels for transport as well as off-road applications are facing a double challenge: bring local pollution to the level requested by the most stringent city air quality standard reduce CO2 emission in order to minimize the global warming risk. These goals stimulate new developments both of conventional and alternative engines and fuels technologies. New combustion processes known as Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI™) for gasoline engine and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) for Diesel engine are the subject of extensive research world wide and particularly at IFP for various applications such as passenger cars, heavy-duty trucks and buses as well as small engines. Because of the thermo-chemistry of the charge, the thermal NOx formation and the soot production are in principle much lower than in flames typical of conventional engines.
Technical Paper

180MPa Piezo Common Rail System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0274
The challenge for the diesel engines today is to reduce harmful emissions, such as particulate matter (PM) and Nitrogen oxides (NOx), and enhance the fuel efficiency and power, which are its main advantages. To meet this challenge, DENSO has developed an advanced common rail system (CRS) that uses piezo actuated fuel injectors capable of delivering up to five injection events per combustion cycle at 180MPa, currently the world's highest commercially available diesel fuel injection pressure. The DENSO piezo injector incorporates an internally developed piezoelectric element that energizes quicker than its solenoid counterpart, thereby reducing the transition time for the start and end of the fuel injection event. The piezoelectric element and unique passage structure of the DENSO injector combine to provide a highly reliable and responsive fuel injection event.
Technical Paper

1985 Light-Duty Truck Fuel Economy

1980-10-01
801387
This paper addresses fuel economy standards that can be obtained in 1985 for two-wheel drive LDT's using existing technology. To estimate the fuel economy, the fleet of LDT's is first segmented into market classes based on the concept of utility. The 1985 sales share of each class is predicted from an extrapolation of current trends as well as published sales forecasts. The 1985 fuel economy of each market class is projected using 1) MY '80 truck technology and fuel economy as a baseline, 2) a regression equation that allows an estimate of fuel economy based on the weight, drag, and engine displacement, and 3) the addition of fuel-efficient technologies. Estimates of weight reduction and new model introduction within each market class were derived from published manufacturers' plans. Based on this methodology, this analysis concludes that a fleet fuel economy in excess of 24/25 mpg is feasible for 1985 without/with the use of diesel engines.
Technical Paper

1D Engine Simulation Approach for Optimizing Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Thermal Management for Passenger Car Diesel Engines by Means of Variable Valve Train (VVT) Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0163
Using a holistic 1D engine simulation approach for the modelling of full-transient engine operation, allows analyzing future engine concepts, including its exhaust gas aftertreatment technology, early in the development process. Thus, this approach enables the investigation of both important fields - the thermodynamic engine process and the aftertreatment system, together with their interaction in a single simulation environment. Regarding the aftertreatment system, the kinetic reaction behavior of state-of-the-art and advanced components, such as Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) or Selective Catalytic Reduction Soot Filters (SCRF), is being modelled. Furthermore, the authors present the use of the 1D engine and exhaust gas aftertreatment model on use cases of variable valve train (VVT) applications on passenger car (PC) diesel engines.
Technical Paper

1D Model of a Copper Exchanged Small Pore Zeolite Catalyst Based on Transient SCR Protocol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1578
Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are the leading aftertreatment technology for diesel engines, but there are major challenges associated with meeting future NOx emission standards, especially under transient drive cycle conditions that include large swings in exhaust temperatures. Here we present a simplified, transient, one-dimensional integral model of NOx reduction by NH₃ on a commercial small-pore Cu-zeolite urea-SCR catalyst for which detailed kinetic parameters have not been published. The model was developed and validated using data acquired from bench reactor experiments on a monolith core, following a transient SCR reactor protocol. The protocol incorporates NH₃ storage, NH₃ oxidation, NO oxidation and three global SCR reactions under isothermal conditions, at three space velocities and at three NH₃/NOx ratios.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling Approach for Prediction of Heat Transfer in Exhaust Aftertreatment System and Sensors Module

2024-04-09
2024-01-2739
The study of temperature distribution and heat transfer over non-uniform geometry is of great importance to engineers because of universal occurrence in many engineering applications such as diesel engine, boilers, heaters, radiators, dosers, etc. Performance of engine and its components (mechanical and electronic) is highly depending upon efficient thermal management. An accurate heat transfer analysis is necessary in automotive application and power plant. This study presents one dimensional model for prediction of conjugate heat transfer in Aftertreatment system and Sensors Module (Nox Sensor, PM Sensor, EGTS etc..) for diesel engine. Three-dimensional conductive, convective and radiative thermal analysis is computationally expensive as underhood models are of complex shape in nature and total turnaround time for product development project is also significantly high.
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