Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 20 of 29318
Technical Paper

09 AVL Lean Burn Systems CCBR and CBR Light for Fuel Economy and Emission Optimization on 4-Stroke Engines

2002-10-29
2002-32-1778
The CBR [1] (Controlled Burn Rate) is a port deactivation concept developed by AVL and is already applied in series production cars. The benefit of this concept is the low engine-out emission (CO, HC and NOx) and good fuel economy. By creating turbulent kinetic energy at the correct time and place in the combustion chamber a rapid and stable combustion occurs which allows to run the engine well above a Lambda Excess Air Ratio of 1.5. The CBR system features two different intake ports, one charge motion port and one filling port. Additionally a device for port-deactivation (slider, butterfly) is applied. At part load points and lower engine speeds the filling port is switched off. The CBR concept was now evoluted for compact engines as CCBR - with carburetor and as CBR Light - for engines with electronic fuel injection. CCBR stands for Carbureted Controlled Burn Rate.
Technical Paper

0D/3D Simulations of Combustion in Gasoline Engines Operated with Multiple Spark Plug Technology

2015-04-14
2015-01-1243
A simulation method is presented for the analysis of combustion in spark ignition (SI) engines operated at elevated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level and employing multiple spark plug technology. The modeling is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) stochastic reactor model for SI engines (SI-SRM). The model is built on a probability density function (PDF) approach for turbulent reactive flows that enables for detailed chemistry consideration. Calculations were carried out for one, two, and three spark plugs. Capability of the SI-SRM to simulate engines with multiple spark plug (multiple ignitions) systems has been verified by comparison to the results from a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Numerical simulations were carried for part load operating points with 12.5%, 20%, and 25% of EGR. At high load, the engine was operated at knock limit with 0%, and 20% of EGR and different inlet valve closure timing.
Technical Paper

1-D Model of Roots Type Supercharger

2013-04-08
2013-01-0927
This paper introduces research work on 1-D model of Roots type supercharger with helical gears using 1-D simulation tool. Today, passenger car engine design follows approach of downsizing and the reduction of number of engine cylinders. Superchargers alone or their combination with turbochargers can fulfill low-end demands on engine torque for such engines. Moreover, low temperature combustion of lean mixture at low engine loads becomes popular (HCCI, PCCI) requiring high boost pressure of EGR/fresh air mixture at low exhaust gas temperature, which poses too high demands on turbocharger efficiency. The main objective of this paper is to describe Roots charger features and to amend Roots charger design.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling of Transient Engine Operations Using Data Generated by a CFD Code

2008-04-14
2008-01-0357
Transient engine operations are modeled and simulated with a 1-D code (GT Power) using heat release and emission data computed by a 3-D CFD code (Kiva3). During each iteration step of a transient engine simulation, the 1-D code utilizes the 3-D data to interpolate the values for heat release and emissions. The 3-D CFD computations were performed for the compression and combustion stroke of strategically chosen engine operating points considering engine speed, torque and excess air. The 3-D inlet conditions were obtained from the 1-D code, which utilized 3-D heat release data from the previous 1-D unsteady computations. In most cases, only two different sets of 3-D input data are needed to interpolate the transient phase between two engine operating points. This keeps the computation time at a reasonable level. The results are demonstrated on the load response of a generator which is driven by a medium-speed diesel engine.
Standard

10 Megabit/sec Network Configuration Digital Time Division Command/Response Multiplex Data Bus

2013-04-29
HISTORICAL
AS5652
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) contains requirements for a digital time division command/response multiplex data bus, for use in systems integration that is functionally similar to MIL-STD-1553B with Notice 2 but with a star topology and some deleted functionality. Even with the use of this document, differences may exist between multiplex data buses in different system applications due to particular application requirements and the options allowed in this document. The system designer must recognize this fact and design the multiplex bus controller (BC) hardware and software to accommodate such differences. These designer selected options must exist to allow the necessary flexibility in the design of specific multiplex systems in order to provide for the control mechanism, architectural redundancy, degradation concept, and traffic patterns peculiar to the specific application requirements.
Standard

10 Megabit/sec Network Configuration Digital Time Division Command/Response Multiplex Data Bus

2018-01-18
CURRENT
AS5652A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) contains requirements for a digital time division command/response multiplex data bus, for use in systems integration that is functionally similar to MIL-STD-1553B with Notice 2 but with a star topology and some deleted functionality. Even with the use of this document, differences may exist between multiplex data buses in different system applications due to particular application requirements and the options allowed in this document. The system designer must recognize this fact and design the multiplex bus controller (BC) hardware and software to accommodate such differences. These designer selected options must exist to allow the necessary flexibility in the design of specific multiplex systems in order to provide for the control mechanism, architectural redundancy, degradation concept, and traffic patterns peculiar to the specific application requirements.
Technical Paper

100 Hour Endurance Testing of a High Output Adiabatic Diesel Engine

1994-03-01
940951
An advanced low heat rejection engine concept has successfully completed a 100 hour endurance test. The combustion chamber components were insulated with thermal barrier coatings. The engine components included a titanium piston, titanium headface plate, titanium cylinder liner insert, M2 steel valve guides and monolithic zirconia valve seat inserts. The tribological system was composed of a ceramic chrome oxide coated cylinder liner, chrome carbide coated piston rings and an advanced polyolester class lubricant. The top piston compression ring Included a novel design feature to provide self-cleaning of ring groove lubricant deposits to prevent ring face scuffing. The prototype test engine demonstrated 52 percent reduction in radiator heat rejection with reduced intake air aftercooling and strategic forced oil cooling.
Journal Article

100 Years of Corrosion Testing—Is It Time to Move beyond the ASTM D130? The Wire Corrosion and Conductive Deposit Tests

2023-09-22
Abstract The ASTM D130 was first issued in 1922 as a tentative standard for the detection of corrosive sulfur in gasoline. A clean copper strip was immersed in a sample of gasoline for three hours at 50°C with any corrosion or discoloration taken to indicate the presence of corrosive sulfur. Since that time, the method has undergone many revisions and has been applied to many petroleum products. Today, the ASTM D130 standard is the leading method used to determine the corrosiveness of various fuels, lubricants, and other hydrocarbon-based solutions to copper. The end-of-test strips are ranked using the ASTM Copper Strip Corrosion Standard Adjunct, a colored reproduction of copper strips characteristic of various degrees of sulfur-induced tarnish and corrosion, first introduced in 1954. This pragmatic approach to assessing potential corrosion concerns with copper hardware has served various industries well for a century.
Technical Paper

100,000 HP Gas Turbine Load Test Facility

1976-02-01
760314
The problem of testing large gas turbines at full load in the factory has been solved with the construction of a load test facility utilizing a gas turbine compressor as the load absorption device. Design philosophy and features are reviewed, and a summary, of operating experience to date is presented.
Technical Paper

100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20)

2006-10-16
2006-01-3253
Nine identical 40-ft. transit buses were operated on B20 and diesel for a period of two years - five of the buses operated exclusively on B20 (20% biodiesel blend) and the other four on petroleum diesel. The buses were model year 2000 Orion V equipped with Cummins ISM engines, and all operated on the same bus route. Each bus accumulated about 100,000 miles over the course of the study. B20 buses were compared to the petroleum diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, vehicle maintenance cost, road calls, and emissions. There was no difference between the on-road average fuel economy of the two groups (4.41 mpg) based on the in-use data, however laboratory testing revealed a nearly 2% reduction in fuel economy for the B20 vehicles. Engine and fuel system related maintenance costs were nearly identical for the two groups until the final month of the study.
Standard

1000BASE-T1 Un-Shielded and Shielded Balanced Single Twisted Pair Ethernet Cable

2021-11-03
HISTORICAL
J3117/2_202111
This standard covers un-shielded (JUTP) and shielded (STP) balanced single twisted pair jacketed data cable intended for use in surface vehicle cables for 1 Gb/s ethernet applications. The tests in this standard are intended to qualify cables for normal operation in an automotive environment while maintaining the necessary electrical properties for reliable data transmission.
Standard

1000BASE-T1 Un-Shielded and Shielded Balanced Single Twisted Pair Ethernet Cable

2022-09-30
CURRENT
J3117/2_202209
This standard covers un-shielded (JUTP) and shielded (STP) balanced single twisted pair jacketed data cable intended for use in surface vehicle cables for 1000BASE-T1 ethernet PHY (1 Gb/s) applications. The tests in this standard are intended to qualify cables for normal operation in an automotive environment while maintaining the necessary electrical properties for reliable data transmission.
Standard

100BASE-T1 Un-Shielded Balanced Single Twisted Pair Ethernet Cable

2023-01-17
CURRENT
J3117/1_202301
This SAE Standard covers un-shielded balanced single twisted pair data cable intended for use in surface vehicle cables for ≤100 Mb/s Ethernet applications. The tests in this document are intended to qualify cables for normal operation in an automotive environment while maintaining the necessary electrical properties for reliable data transmission.
Technical Paper

10PC20 Swash Plate Type Variable Displacement Compressor for Automotive Air Conditioners

1992-02-01
920260
Up to now, various compressor models for automotive air conditioners have been manufactured to answer the needs of car manufacturers for fuel economy and quietness. The 10PC20 compressor, developed for automotive air conditioners, is the world's first swash plate type compressor having a continuously variable displacement mechanism. The 10PC20 is aimed at realizing a large displacement compressor with a continuously variable displacement mechanism, which has not been achieved until today. To achieve this goal, the 10PC20 design is based on the swash plate type compressor, consisting of double-headed pistons, which is adaptable to a large displacement and has excellent rotating balance and durability. The 10PC20 changes its displacement continuously by changing the inclination of the swash plate (swash plate angle) continuously. (See photo. 1 and 2) The 10PC20 adopts two variable displacement principles.
Technical Paper

11 Rules of Design for Manufacturing when Producing Pre-Impregnated Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Components - an Application at SAAB Aerostructures

2016-09-27
2016-01-2124
Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is one of the most commonly used materials in the aerospace industry today. CFRP in pre-impregnated form is an anisotropic material whose properties can be controlled to a high level by the designer. Sometimes, these properties make the material hard to predict with regards to how the geometry affects manufacturing aspects. This paper describes eleven design rules originating from different guidelines that describe geometrical design choices and deals with manufacturability problems that are connected to them, why they are connected and how they can be minimized or avoided. Examples of design choices dealt with in the rules include double curvature shapes, assembly of uncured CFRP components and access for non-destructive testing (NDT). To verify the technical content and ensure practicability, the rules were developed by, inter alia, studying literature and performing case studies at SAAB Aerostructures.
Technical Paper

15 Combustion Characteristics of an Improved Design of a Stratified Charge Spark Ignition Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1784
The characteristics of the combustion process in an improved design of a novel spark ignition engine studied by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics are presented. The engine is designed to work at low average combustion temperatures to achieve very low NOx emissions. The engine is a two-stroke, two piston in-line engine. The main combustion occurs in four combustion pre-chambers that have an annular shape with a nozzle on the side facing the cylinder. Fuel is directly injected into the pre-chambers by using high-pressure fuel injectors. A progressive burning process is expected to keep the flame inside the pre-chambers while the fast ejection of combustion products should produce effective mixing with the cold air in the cylinder. This fast dilution should guarantee a temperature drop of the combustion products thus reducing the formation of NOx via a thermal path.
Technical Paper

16 Optimisation of a Stratified Charge Strategy for a Direct Injected Two-Stroke Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1785
Direct fuel injection is becoming mandatory in two-stroke S.I. engines, since it prevents one of the major problems of these engines, that is fuel loss from the exhaust port. Another important problem is combustion irregularity at light loads, due to excessive presence of residual gas in the charge, and can be solved by charge stratification. High-pressure liquid fuel injection is able to control the mixing process inside the cylinder for getting either stratified charge at partial loads or quasi-stoichiometric conditions, as it is required at full load. This paper shows the development of this solution for a small engine for moped and light scooter, using numeric and experimental tools. In order to obtain the best charge characteristics at every load and engine speed, different combustion chambers have been conceived and studied, examining the effects of combustion chamber geometry, together with injector position and injection timing
Technical Paper

1940 ROAD DETONATION TESTS - (Compiled from Report1 of The Cooperative Fuel Research Committee)

1941-01-01
410107
THE 1940 CFR Road Tests have developed new information that can be used for the development of fuels and engines. Application of the principles worked out in these tests is expected to result in a more efficient utilization of fuel antiknock properties and more effective engine design and adjustment to meet the requisites of current motor fuels. These tests indicate that the ASTM octane number alone, or even a road octane number as determined by methods heretofore widely used, does not give sufficient information for present needs relative to fuel behavior in service. Neither do test methods previously used provide sufficient information concerning the fuel requirements and knocking characteristics of engines. The new methods of approach which have been developed furnish needed information relative to the fuel and engine relationship that heretofore has been obscure, and indicate paths for future developments.
Technical Paper

1941 CFR ROAD DETONATION TESTS - Further Experience with New Methods (Compiled from Report of the Cooperative Fuel Research Committee)

1942-01-01
420122
The cooperative road tests carried out during 1941 have added considerable information and experience to that already existing on the subject of road detonation testing. Extensive data were obtained on the fuel requirements of the 1940 and 1941 models of the three most popular cars. Corresponding data were obtained on the knocking characteristics of current gasolines representing the bulk of the sales volume in various parts of the United States. On account of large variations in octane-number requirement among different cars of the same make - due to differences in ignition timing, combustion-chamber deposit, and other causes - and on account of variations in commercial gasolines, it has been necessary to use statistical methods of analysis in the appraisal of fuel and engine relationships. These methods of analysis have been applied in a number of ways, and have proved very useful.
Technical Paper

1964 Pure Oil Performance Trials

1964-01-01
640476
A review of the Pure Oil Performance Trials conducted at Daytona International Speedway are presented. Background information pertaining to conducting of tests, design of the equipment, and instrumentation required for the various events are discussed. The performance trials have evolved into three basic tests -- Economy, Acceleration, and Braking. The objective of the Performance Trials is to provide data that motorists can utilize in evaluating new cars and selecting new models.
X