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Technical Paper

A Piston Ring-Pack Film Thickness and Friction Model for Multigrade Oils and Rough Surfaces

A complete one-dimensional mixed lubrication model has been developed to predict oil film thickness and friction of the piston ring-pack. An average flow model and a roughness contact model are used to consider the effects of surface roughness on both hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. Effects of shear-thinning and liner temperature on lubricant viscosity are included. An inlet condition is applied by considering the unsteady wetting location at the leading edge of the ring. A ‘film non-separation’ exit condition is proposed to replace Reynolds exit condition when the oil squeezing becomes dominant. Three lubrication modes are considered in the model, namely, pure hydrodynamic, mixed, and pure boundary lubrication. All of these considerations are crucial for studying the oil transport, asperity contact, and friction especially in the top dead center (TDC) region where the oil control ring cannot reach.
Technical Paper

A Rapid Compression Machine Study of the Influence of Charge Temperature on Diesel Combustion

Difficulties in the starting and operation of diesel engines at low temperatures are an important consideration in their design and operation, and in selection of the fuels for their use. Improvements in operation have been achieved primarily through external components of the engine and associated subsystems. A Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) has been modified to operate over a wide range of temperatures (−20°C to 100°C). It is used to isolate the combustion chamber in an environment in which all significant parameters are carefully defined and monitored. The influence of temperature and cetane number on the ignition and combustion processes are analyzed. Examination of the combustion characteristics show that temperature is by far the most influential factor affecting both ignition delay and heat release profiles. Cetane number (ASTM D-613) is not found to be a strong indicator of ignition delay for the conditions investigated.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Automotive Powertrain Choices for the Next 25 Years

This paper assesses the potential improvement of automotive powertrain technologies 25 years into the future. The powertrain types assessed include naturally-aspirated gasoline engines, turbocharged gasoline engines, diesel engines, gasoline-electric hybrids, and various advanced transmissions. Advancements in aerodynamics, vehicle weight reduction and tire rolling friction are also taken into account. The objective of the comparison is the potential of anticipated improvements in these powertrain technologies for reducing petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions at the same level of performance as current vehicles in the U.S.A. The fuel consumption and performance of future vehicles was estimated using a combination of scaling laws and detailed vehicle simulations. The results indicate that there is significant potential for reduction of fuel consumption for all the powertrains examined.
Technical Paper

Comparison of NOx Level and BSFC for HPL EGR and LPL EGR System of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Diesel engines are the most commonly used power plant of freight and public transportations in the world. Also, the newly developed injection system, Common Rail system, increases the demands for both light and heavy duty diesel vehicles. On the other hand, stringent emission regulations are being proposed with growing concern on NOx and PM emissions from diesel engines. Future emission regulations require advanced emission control technologies, such as EGR and SCR. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a commonly used technique to reduce NOx emission. In this paper, a model-based investigation was conducted to compare the effect of high pressure loop (HPL) EGR and low pressure loop (LPL) EGR system on NOx level and BSFC of a heavy-duty diesel engine. A WAVE model was created to simulate EURO 3 engine and each component of the engine was modeled using CATIA and WaveMesher.
Technical Paper

Development and Use of a Computer Simulation of the Turbocompounded Diesel System for Engine Performance and Component Heat Transfer Studies

A computer simulation of the turbocharged turbocompounded direct-injection diesel engine system has been developed in order to study the performance characteristics of the total system as major design parameters and materials are varied. Quasi-steady flow models of the compressor, turbines, manifolds, intercooler, and ducting are coupled with a multi-cylinder reciprocator diesel model where each cylinder undergoes the same thermodynamic cycle. Appropriate thermal loading models relate the heat flow through critical system components to material properties and design details. This paper describes the basic system models and their calibration and validation against available experimental engine test data. The use of the model is illustrated by predicting the performance gains and the component design trade-offs associated with a partially insulated engine achieving a 40 percent reduction in heat loss over a baseline cooled engine.
Technical Paper

Divided-Chamber Diesel Engine, Part I: A Cycle-Simulation Which Predicts Performance and Emissions

A model has been developed for a divided-chamber automotive diesel engine which describes the intake, compression, combustion and expansion, and exhaust processes in sufficient detail to permit calculations of pressure, fuel-air ratio distribution, heat release distribution, NO formation, soot mass loading, and soot oxidation processes. The novel feature of this model is the use of a stochastic mixing approach during the combustion and expansion processes to describe the nonuniform fuel-air ratio distribution within the engine. In this approach, the fuel-air ratio distribution during the combustion and emissions formation processes can be followed as it evolves with time. Experimental data generated on a single-cylinder divided-chamber diesel engine were used to verify the accuracy of the model predictions. Agreement between experimental data and predicted values of engine performance and NOx emissions levels was good.
Technical Paper

Divided-Chamber Diesel Engine, Part II: Experimental Validation of a Predictive Cycle-Simulation and Heat Release Analysis

In this study, a set of performance and emissions data, obtained from a single-cylinder divided-chamber automotive diesel engine over the normal engine operating range, is described and analyzed. The data are used to evaluate a computer simulation of the engine's operating cycle, described in a companion paper, which predicts the properties of gases inside the engine cylinder throughout the cycle, and engine efficiency, power and NOx emissions. Satisfactory agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained over most of the engine's operating range. The characteristics of the experimental pre- and main-chamber pressure versus crank angle data are then examined in detail. A heat release analysis appropriate for divided-chamber diesel engines is developed and used to obtain heat release rate profiles through the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Effect of various hydrocarbons on the plasma DeNOx process

Effect of various hydrocarbons on the plasma DeNOx process in simulated diesel engine operating conditions is investigated experimentally and theoretically. This paper shows the results of an extensive series of experiments on the NOx conversion effect of various hydrocarbons (methane, ethene, propene, propane) in the plasma. The effects of energy density, temperature, and the initial concentrations of hydrocarbon and oxygen are discussed and the results for each hydrocarbon are compared with one another. The energy required to convert one NO molecule is measured 13.8eV, 16.1eV, 23.2eV, 45.6eV for propene, ethene, propane, methane, respectively when energy density of 25.4J/L is delivered to the mixture of 10% O2, base N2 with 440ppm NO and 500ppm hydrocarbon at 473K, while it is 143.2eV without hydrocarbon. The best NOx conversion effect of propene among the mentioned hydrocarbons is due to the highest reaction rates of propene with O and OH.
Technical Paper

Effects of Oxygenated Fuels on DI Diesel Combustion and Emissions

Experiments to study the effects of oxygenated fuels on emissions and combustion were performed in a single-cylinder direct-injection (DI) diesel engine. A matrix of oxygen containing fuels assessed the impact of weight percent oxygen content, oxygenate chemical structure, and oxygenate volatility on emissions. Several oxygenated chemicals were blended with an ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel and evaluated at an equivalent energy release and combustion phasing. Additional experiments investigated the effectiveness of oxygenated fuels at a different engine load, a matched fuel/air equivalence ratio, and blended with a diesel fuel from the Fischer-Tropsch process. Interactions between emissions and critical engine operating parameters were also quantified. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to evaluate particle size distributions, in addition to particulate matter (PM) filter and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) measurements.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston-Ring Dynamics on Ring/Groove Wear and Oil Consumption in a Diesel Engine

The wear patterns of the rings and grooves of a diesel engine were analyzed by using a ring dynamics/gas flow model and a ring-pack oil film thickness model. The analysis focused primarily on the contact pressure distribution on the ring sides and grooves as well as on the contact location on the ring running surfaces. Analysis was performed for both new and worn ring/groove profiles. Calculated results are consistent with the measured wear patterns. The effects of groove tilt and static twist on the development of wear patterns on the ring sides, grooves, and ring running surfaces were studied. Ring flutter was observed from the calculation and its effect on oil transport was discussed. Up-scraping of the top ring was studied by considering ring dynamic twist and piston tilt. This work shows that the models used have potential for providing practical guidance to optimizing the ring pack and ring grooves to control wear and reduce oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Effect on the DeNOX Efficiency Enhancement of Fresh and Aged Ag/Al2O3 HC-SCR in a Diesel Engine Exhaust

HC-SCR is more convenient when compared to urea-SCR, since for HC-SCR, diesel fuel can be used as the reductant which is already available onboard the vehicle. However, the DeNOX efficiency for HC-SCR is lower than that of urea-SCR in both low and high temperature windows. In an attempt to improve the DeNOX efficiency of HC-SCR, the effect of hydrogen were evaluated for the fresh and aged catalyst over 2 wt.% Ag/Al₂O₃ using a Euro-4 diesel engine. In this engine bench test, diesel fuel as the reductant was injected directly into the exhaust gas stream and the hydrogen was supplied from a hydrogen bomb. The engine was operated at 2,500 rpm and BMEP 4 bar. The engine-out NOX was around 180 ppm-200 ppm. H₂/NOX and HC₁/NOX ratios were 5, 10, 20, and 3, 6, 9, respectively. The HC-SCR inlet exhaust gas temperatures were around 215°C, 245°C, and 275°C. The catalyst volumes used in this test were 2.5L and 5L for both fresh and aged catalysts.
Technical Paper

Measurements and Predictions of Steady-State and Transient Stress Distributions in a Diesel Engine Cylinder Head

A combined experimental and analytical approach was followed in this work to study stress distributions and causes of failure in diesel cylinder heads under steady-state and transient operation. Experimental studies were conducted first to measure temperatures, heat fluxes and stresses under a series of steady-state operating conditions. Furthermore, by placing high temperature strain gages within the thermal penetration depth of the cylinder head, the effect of thermal shock loading under rapid transients was studied. A comparison of our steady-state and transient measurements suggests that the steady-state temperature gradients and the level of temperatures are the primary causes of thermal fatigue in cast-iron cylinder heads. Subsequently, a finite element analysis was conducted to predict the detailed steady-state temperature and stress distributions within the cylinder head. A comparison of the predicted steady-state temperatures and stresses compared well with our measurements.
Technical Paper

Photographic and Performance Studies of Diesel Combustion With a Rapid Compression Machine

Photographic and performance studies with a Rapid Compression Machine at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have been used to develop insight into the role of mixing in diesel engine combustion. Combustion photographs and performance data were analyzed. The experiments simulate a single fuel spray in an open chamber diesel engine with direct injection. The effects of droplet formation and evaporation on mixing are examined. It is concluded that mixing is controlled by the rate of entrainment of air by the fuel spray rather than the dynamics of single droplets. Experimental data on the geometry of a jet in a quiescent combustion chamber were compared with a two-phase jet model; a jet model based on empirical turbulent entrainment coefficients was developed to predict the motion of a fuel jet in a combustion chamber with swirl. Good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained.
Technical Paper

The Performance of Future ICE and Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles and Their Potential Fleet Impact

A study at MIT of the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from advanced technology future automobiles has compared fuel cell powered vehicles with equivalent gasoline and diesel internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles [1][2]. Current data regarding IC engine and fuel cell vehicle performance were extrapolated to 2020 to provide optimistic but plausible forecasts of how these technologies might compare. The energy consumed by the vehicle and its corresponding CO2 emissions, the fuel production and distribution energy and CO2 emissions, and the vehicle manufacturing process requirements were all evaluated and combined to give a well-to-wheels coupled with a cradle-to-grave assessment. The assessment results show that significant opportunities are available for improving the efficiency of mainstream gasoline and diesel engines and transmissions, and reducing vehicle resistances.
Journal Article

Trends in Performance Characteristics of Modern Automobile SI and Diesel Engines

A prior study (Chon and Heywood, [1]) examined how the design and performance of spark-ignition engines evolved in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s. This paper carries out a similar analysis of trends in basic engine design and performance characteristics over the past decade. Available databases on engine specifications in the U.S., Europe, and Japan were used as the sources of information. Parameters analyzed were maximum torque, power, and speed; number of cylinders and engine configuration, cylinder displacement, bore, stroke, compression ratio; valvetrain configuration, number of valves and their control; port or direct fuel injection; naturally-aspirated or turbocharged engine concepts; spark-ignition and diesel engines. Design features are correlated with these engine’s performance parameters, normalized by engine and cylinder displacement.