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Technical Paper

1-D Model of Roots Type Supercharger

2013-04-08
2013-01-0927
This paper introduces research work on 1-D model of Roots type supercharger with helical gears using 1-D simulation tool. Today, passenger car engine design follows approach of downsizing and the reduction of number of engine cylinders. Superchargers alone or their combination with turbochargers can fulfill low-end demands on engine torque for such engines. Moreover, low temperature combustion of lean mixture at low engine loads becomes popular (HCCI, PCCI) requiring high boost pressure of EGR/fresh air mixture at low exhaust gas temperature, which poses too high demands on turbocharger efficiency. The main objective of this paper is to describe Roots charger features and to amend Roots charger design.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling of Transient Engine Operations Using Data Generated by a CFD Code

2008-04-14
2008-01-0357
Transient engine operations are modeled and simulated with a 1-D code (GT Power) using heat release and emission data computed by a 3-D CFD code (Kiva3). During each iteration step of a transient engine simulation, the 1-D code utilizes the 3-D data to interpolate the values for heat release and emissions. The 3-D CFD computations were performed for the compression and combustion stroke of strategically chosen engine operating points considering engine speed, torque and excess air. The 3-D inlet conditions were obtained from the 1-D code, which utilized 3-D heat release data from the previous 1-D unsteady computations. In most cases, only two different sets of 3-D input data are needed to interpolate the transient phase between two engine operating points. This keeps the computation time at a reasonable level. The results are demonstrated on the load response of a generator which is driven by a medium-speed diesel engine.
Standard

10 Megabit/sec Network Configuration Digital Time Division Command/Response Multiplex Data Bus

2018-01-18
CURRENT
AS5652A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) contains requirements for a digital time division command/response multiplex data bus, for use in systems integration that is functionally similar to MIL-STD-1553B with Notice 2 but with a star topology and some deleted functionality. Even with the use of this document, differences may exist between multiplex data buses in different system applications due to particular application requirements and the options allowed in this document. The system designer must recognize this fact and design the multiplex bus controller (BC) hardware and software to accommodate such differences. These designer selected options must exist to allow the necessary flexibility in the design of specific multiplex systems in order to provide for the control mechanism, architectural redundancy, degradation concept, and traffic patterns peculiar to the specific application requirements.
Standard

10 Megabit/sec Network Configuration Digital Time Division Command/Response Multiplex Data Bus

2005-12-29
HISTORICAL
AS5652
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) contains requirements for a digital time division command/response multiplex data bus, for use in systems integration that is functionally similar to MIL-STD-1553B with Notice 2 but with a star topology and some deleted functionality. Even with the use of this document, differences may exist between multiplex data buses in different system applications due to particular application requirements and the options allowed in this document. The system designer must recognize this fact and design the multiplex bus controller (BC) hardware and software to accommodate such differences. These designer selected options must exist to allow the necessary flexibility in the design of specific multiplex systems in order to provide for the control mechanism, architectural redundancy, degradation concept, and traffic patterns peculiar to the specific application requirements.
Technical Paper

100 Hour Endurance Testing of a High Output Adiabatic Diesel Engine

1994-03-01
940951
An advanced low heat rejection engine concept has successfully completed a 100 hour endurance test. The combustion chamber components were insulated with thermal barrier coatings. The engine components included a titanium piston, titanium headface plate, titanium cylinder liner insert, M2 steel valve guides and monolithic zirconia valve seat inserts. The tribological system was composed of a ceramic chrome oxide coated cylinder liner, chrome carbide coated piston rings and an advanced polyolester class lubricant. The top piston compression ring Included a novel design feature to provide self-cleaning of ring groove lubricant deposits to prevent ring face scuffing. The prototype test engine demonstrated 52 percent reduction in radiator heat rejection with reduced intake air aftercooling and strategic forced oil cooling.
Technical Paper

100,000 HP Gas Turbine Load Test Facility

1976-02-01
760314
The problem of testing large gas turbines at full load in the factory has been solved with the construction of a load test facility utilizing a gas turbine compressor as the load absorption device. Design philosophy and features are reviewed, and a summary, of operating experience to date is presented.
Technical Paper

100,000 Miles of Fueling 5.9L Cummins Engines with 100% Biodiesel

1996-10-01
962233
Two Cummins B5.9L engines were fueled with 100% biodiesel in excess of 48 months by the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The engines used to power Dodge pickups. The engine lubricating oil was sampled at 1000 mile intervals for analysis. Statistical analysis of the engine lubricating oil indicated that the wear metal levels in the lubricating oil were normal. A reduction in power was noted when the engines were tested using a chassis dynamometer. The 1991 pickup has been driven 110,451 km and the 1992 pickup has been driven approximately 177,022 km. The pickups averaged 6.9 km/L. Engine fuel efficiency and material compatibility issues are addressed in the paper.
Technical Paper

100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20)

2006-10-16
2006-01-3253
Nine identical 40-ft. transit buses were operated on B20 and diesel for a period of two years - five of the buses operated exclusively on B20 (20% biodiesel blend) and the other four on petroleum diesel. The buses were model year 2000 Orion V equipped with Cummins ISM engines, and all operated on the same bus route. Each bus accumulated about 100,000 miles over the course of the study. B20 buses were compared to the petroleum diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, vehicle maintenance cost, road calls, and emissions. There was no difference between the on-road average fuel economy of the two groups (4.41 mpg) based on the in-use data, however laboratory testing revealed a nearly 2% reduction in fuel economy for the B20 vehicles. Engine and fuel system related maintenance costs were nearly identical for the two groups until the final month of the study.
Journal Article

11 Reasons to Use Automated Metrology

2019-03-19
2019-01-1369
Aerospace structures manufacturers find themselves frequently engaged in large-scale 3D metrology operations, conducting precision measurements over a volume expressed in meters or tens of meters. Such measurements are often done by metrologists or other measurement experts and may be done in a somewhat ad-hoc fashion, i.e., executed in the most appropriate method according to the lights of the individual conducting the measurement. This approach is certainly flexible but there are arguments for invoking a more rigorous process. Production processes, in particular, demand an automated process for all such “routine” measurements. Automated metrology offers a number of advantages including enabling data configuration management, de-skilling of operation, real time input data error checking, enforcement of standards, consistent process execution and automated data archiving. It also reduces training, setup time, data manipulation and analysis time and improves reporting.
Technical Paper

11 Rules of Design for Manufacturing when Producing Pre-Impregnated Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Components - an Application at SAAB Aerostructures

2016-09-27
2016-01-2124
Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is one of the most commonly used materials in the aerospace industry today. CFRP in pre-impregnated form is an anisotropic material whose properties can be controlled to a high level by the designer. Sometimes, these properties make the material hard to predict with regards to how the geometry affects manufacturing aspects. This paper describes eleven design rules originating from different guidelines that describe geometrical design choices and deals with manufacturability problems that are connected to them, why they are connected and how they can be minimized or avoided. Examples of design choices dealt with in the rules include double curvature shapes, assembly of uncured CFRP components and access for non-destructive testing (NDT). To verify the technical content and ensure practicability, the rules were developed by, inter alia, studying literature and performing case studies at SAAB Aerostructures.
Technical Paper

1500 Hp Diesel Electric Tractor

1976-02-01
760647
The experience accumulated with a prototype 1000 HP diesel electric tractor since 1969 is described. The new 1500 HP V220 diesel electric tractors are described along with some of the initial operation of these two units. Experience with the initial 1000 HP unit and the two 1500 HP tractors confirm the necessity of additional testing and experimentation to refine the design to get greater productivity with reduced operator fatigue. The unpredictability of the load and operating surface are major problems that present a real challenge to the engineer.
Technical Paper

16 Optimisation of a Stratified Charge Strategy for a Direct Injected Two-Stroke Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1785
Direct fuel injection is becoming mandatory in two-stroke S.I. engines, since it prevents one of the major problems of these engines, that is fuel loss from the exhaust port. Another important problem is combustion irregularity at light loads, due to excessive presence of residual gas in the charge, and can be solved by charge stratification. High-pressure liquid fuel injection is able to control the mixing process inside the cylinder for getting either stratified charge at partial loads or quasi-stoichiometric conditions, as it is required at full load. This paper shows the development of this solution for a small engine for moped and light scooter, using numeric and experimental tools. In order to obtain the best charge characteristics at every load and engine speed, different combustion chambers have been conceived and studied, examining the effects of combustion chamber geometry, together with injector position and injection timing
Technical Paper

1940 ROAD DETONATION TESTS - (Compiled from Report1 of The Cooperative Fuel Research Committee)

1941-01-01
410107
THE 1940 CFR Road Tests have developed new information that can be used for the development of fuels and engines. Application of the principles worked out in these tests is expected to result in a more efficient utilization of fuel antiknock properties and more effective engine design and adjustment to meet the requisites of current motor fuels. These tests indicate that the ASTM octane number alone, or even a road octane number as determined by methods heretofore widely used, does not give sufficient information for present needs relative to fuel behavior in service. Neither do test methods previously used provide sufficient information concerning the fuel requirements and knocking characteristics of engines. The new methods of approach which have been developed furnish needed information relative to the fuel and engine relationship that heretofore has been obscure, and indicate paths for future developments.
Technical Paper

1941 CFR ROAD DETONATION TESTS - Further Experience with New Methods (Compiled from Report of the Cooperative Fuel Research Committee)

1942-01-01
420122
The cooperative road tests carried out during 1941 have added considerable information and experience to that already existing on the subject of road detonation testing. Extensive data were obtained on the fuel requirements of the 1940 and 1941 models of the three most popular cars. Corresponding data were obtained on the knocking characteristics of current gasolines representing the bulk of the sales volume in various parts of the United States. On account of large variations in octane-number requirement among different cars of the same make - due to differences in ignition timing, combustion-chamber deposit, and other causes - and on account of variations in commercial gasolines, it has been necessary to use statistical methods of analysis in the appraisal of fuel and engine relationships. These methods of analysis have been applied in a number of ways, and have proved very useful.
Technical Paper

1958 Chevrolet LEVEL AIR SUSPENSION

1958-01-01
580049
CHEVROLET has made its new air-suspension system easily interchangeable in production line assembly with standard full-coil suspension by adopting a 4-link-type rear suspension with short and long arms. A feature of the system is the mounting of the leveling valves within the air-spring assemblies. These valves correct riding height continually at a moderate rate, regardless of whether the springs are leveling or operating in ride motion. The system provides constant frequency ride—ride comfort remains the same whether the car is occupied by the driver alone or is fully loaded.
Technical Paper

1964 Pure Oil Performance Trials

1964-01-01
640476
A review of the Pure Oil Performance Trials conducted at Daytona International Speedway are presented. Background information pertaining to conducting of tests, design of the equipment, and instrumentation required for the various events are discussed. The performance trials have evolved into three basic tests -- Economy, Acceleration, and Braking. The objective of the Performance Trials is to provide data that motorists can utilize in evaluating new cars and selecting new models.
Technical Paper

1980 Prince Edward Island Auto Fuel Economy and Emissions Test Program

1982-02-01
821230
A program of emission testing and carburetor adjustment to reduce the levels of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases and to demonstrate fuel economy improvements was held in Charlottetown during the week of July 14 to 19, 1980. The program was a co-operative effort of the Centre of Energy Studies of the Technical University of Nova Scotia, the Mobile Sources Division of the Air Pollution Control Directorate, Environment Canada and the Prince Edward Island Energy Corporation. Five hundred and twenty vehicles were tested during the period. The program was well received by the public and indicated that only 32% of the vehicle fleet were within specification when initially tested. A large percentage of these vehicles were satisfactorily adjusted. Mailback record cards were used to obtain an indication of the improved fuel economy. The data suggests that a substantial saving in fuel can be attained through carburetor tuning for low exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

1985 Body Corrosion Field Survey - 5 and 6 Year Old Vehicles

1986-12-08
862025
The Body Division of the Automotive Corrosion and Prevention Committee of SAE (ACAP) concluded that an automotive body corrosion survey for public consumption was needed. The committee proceeded to develop a survey methodology and conducted an initial survey in the Detroit area. Similar surveys can be conducted at regular biyearly intervals for comparison to track the results of industry wide improvements in corrosion protection. Over two hundred 1980 and 1981 model year vehicles were surveyed covering a wide range of domestic models and some foreign models. Twenty six panel or partial panel categories were developed and evaluated for a closed car parking lot survey. Each panel was checked for perforation, blistering and surface rust.
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