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Technical Paper

1-D Model of Roots Type Supercharger

This paper introduces research work on 1-D model of Roots type supercharger with helical gears using 1-D simulation tool. Today, passenger car engine design follows approach of downsizing and the reduction of number of engine cylinders. Superchargers alone or their combination with turbochargers can fulfill low-end demands on engine torque for such engines. Moreover, low temperature combustion of lean mixture at low engine loads becomes popular (HCCI, PCCI) requiring high boost pressure of EGR/fresh air mixture at low exhaust gas temperature, which poses too high demands on turbocharger efficiency. The main objective of this paper is to describe Roots charger features and to amend Roots charger design.
Technical Paper

100,000 HP Gas Turbine Load Test Facility

The problem of testing large gas turbines at full load in the factory has been solved with the construction of a load test facility utilizing a gas turbine compressor as the load absorption device. Design philosophy and features are reviewed, and a summary, of operating experience to date is presented.
Journal Article

1D Simulation and Experimental Analysis of a Turbocharger Compressor for Automotive Engines under Unsteady Flow Conditions

Turbocharging technique will play a fundamental role in the near future not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions both in Spark Ignition and diesel automotive applications. To achieve excellent engine performance for road application, it is necessary to overcome some typical turbocharging drawbacks i.e., low end torque level and transient response. Experimental studies, developed on dedicated test facilities, can supply a lot of information to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, especially if tests can be extended to the typical engine operating conditions (unsteady flow). Different numerical procedures have been developed at the University of Naples to predict automotive turbocharger compressor performance both under steady and unsteady flow conditions. A classical 1D approach, based on the employment of compressor characteristic maps, was firstly followed.
Technical Paper

2-Ply Windshields: Laboratory Impactor Tests of the Polyurethane Construction

A test program was conducted to characterize the impact response of an experimental 2-ply windshield construction with a polyurethane (PUR) plastic inner layer. Windshield impact tests were conducted using a linear impactor test facility. Principle among the findings was that the impact response of prototype PUR 2-ply windshields does not differ that significantly from that of baseline 3-ply HPR (High Penetration Resistance) windshields for the subcompact vehicle geometry tested. However, the impact responses of both PUR 2-ply and 3-ply HPR subcompact vehicle windshields were found to be highly variable. Average performance of either construction could thus be enhanced if ways could be found (and then implemented) to reduce this variability.
Technical Paper

2-Ply Windshields: Laboratory Impactor Tests of the Polyvinyl Butyral/Polyester Construction

A test program was conducted to characterize the impact response of an experimental 2-ply windshield construction with a polyvinyl butyral / polyester (PVB/PET) inner plastic laminate. Windshield impact tests were conducted using a linear impactor test facility. Principal among the findings was that the measured impact response of prototype PVB/PET 2-ply windshields was highly variable. Average performance of this construction could thus be improved if ways could be found (and then implemented) to reduce this variability.
Technical Paper

21 Cubic Yard 580 PAY® Loader

To effectively utilize larger trucks (85 ton and up), open-pit mines and quarries need a larger front-end loader with high reliability and performance. This paper describes the design approach and tests carried out to design 21 cubic yard 580 PAY® loader to meet these requirements. Long fatigue life of structures was obtained by use of full penetration welds. New concept for power control was designed to effectively distribute power between hydraulics and drive train. Spring applied - pressure released brakes were designed into the axle. Tests were carried out in our laboratory and proving grounds to determine performance and reliability.
Technical Paper

22M-0156, Loading Classification for Fatigue Design Applied to Automotive Time-Series

This study focuses on variable amplitude loadings applied to automotive chassis parts experiencing carmaker’s specific proving grounds. They are measured with respect to time at the wheel centres and composed of the six forces and torques at each wheel, within the standard vehicle reference frame. In the scope of high cycle fatigue, the loadings considered are supposedly acting under the structure yield stress. Among the loadings encountered during the vehicle lifetime, two classes stand out: Driven Road: loads measured during the vehicle manoeuvre; Random Road: loads mainly coming from the road asperity. To separate both effects, a frequency decomposition method is proposed before applying any lifetime assessment methods. The usual Rainflow counting method is applied to the Driven Road signal. These loadings, depending on the vehicle dynamics, are time-correlated. Thus, the load spectra is set only thanks to the vehicle accelerations time-measurement.
Technical Paper

2D Polar Assessment in Icing Wind Tunnel for iced Helicopter Blade Profiles

A helicopter blade profile was tested in the DGA Aero-engine Testing's icing altitude test facility S1 in Saclay, France during the winter of 2013/2014. The airfoil was a helicopter main rotor OA312 blade profile made out of composite material and with a metallic erosion shield. Dry air and ice accretion tests have been performed in order to assess the iced airfoil's aerodynamic behaviour. Several icing conditions were tested up through Mach numbers around 0.6. This paper presents the test setup, the test model and some of the test results. The test results presented in this paper include the ice shapes generated as well as dry air and iced airfoil lift and drag curves (polars) which were obtained with the real ice shapes on the airfoil.
Technical Paper

6 Speed Automatic Transmission Vibration Magnitude Prediction and Whine Noise Improvement through Transmission System Modeling

As automotive technology has been developed, gear whine has become a prominent contributor for cabin noise as the masking has been decreased. Whine is not the loudest source, but it is of high tonal noise which is often highly unpleasant. The gear noise originates at gear mesh. Transmission Error acts as an excitation source and these vibrations pass through gears, shafts and bearings to the housing which vibrates to produce noise on surrounding air. As microgeometry optimization target to reduce the fundamental excitation source of the noise, it has been favored method to tackle gear whine noise, especially for manual transmission. However, practicality of microgeometry optimization for the planetary gear system has been still in question, because of complex system structure and interaction among multi mesh gear sets make it hard to predict and even harder to improve. In this paper, successful case of whine noise improvement by microgeometry is presented.
Technical Paper

7 DOF Vehicle Model for Understanding Vehicle Fluctuation During Straight Running

This paper concerns an introduction on how to lead the 7 degrees of freedom (7DOF) model for understanding the vehicle-fluctuation during straight running. Despite the steering wheel being fixed at on-center by anchor rod connected to the floor, vehicle run with a very slow lateral fluctuation, of which amplitude is small but becomes maximum at a certain speed zone, was observed by a vehicle test on a flat road of the proving ground. For understanding this phenomenon, I provided the motion equation of the 7DOF model. By analysis using the motion equation, the existence of a speed zone where the amplitude becomes maximum is confirmed. This appears when the rear compliance steer is the proverse compliance steer and disappears by changing it to the adverse compliance steer. Where, the adverse/proverse compliance steer mean the characteristics of compliance steer that increase/decrease the side-slip angle versus the vector direction of the vehicle(1).
Technical Paper

A 1:3 Small Scale Vehicle Model Investigation in Small Scale Wind Tunnel and Correlation with Full Vehicle Testing

In present study a comparative investigation and correlation attempted on small scale vehicle model for aerody-namic drag performance at small scale wind tunnel test facility in India vs full vehicle tested at globally know and accepted full scale test facility in Pininfarina, Italy. Current investigation aims to assess the small-scale wind tunnel suitable for testing 1:3 small scale car models A scale model of 1:3 scale size was tested in small scale wind tunnel (at IISC,Bengaluru, India) having test section area of 11.68 Sq. m. To understand the overall vehicle aerodynamic drag performance small scale model was test-ed for different configurations such as baseline, spoiler removal, underbody cover and different yaw condition. To understand the correlation between small scale vs full vehicle’s aerodynamic performance one actual vehicle was also tested at full scale wind tunnel Pinifarina Italy.
Journal Article

A Batch Blending System for Continuous Production of Multi-Component Fuel Blends for Engine Laboratory Tests

The increased rates of research on complex fuel blends in engine applications poses a need for more efficient and accurate fuel blending processes in engine laboratories. Making the fuel blending process automatic, effective, accurate and flexible saves time, storage space and cost without compromising the tests of future fuel alternatives. To meet these requirements, an automatic fuel blending system, following a sequential batch process, was designed and tested for engine laboratory application. The fuel blending system was evaluated in terms of functionality, safety, accuracy and repeatability. The functionality and safety was evaluated through a risk analysis. Whereas, the accuracy and repeatability of the system was investigated through blend preparation tests. The results show that the minimum fuel mass limitation of the system is 0.5 kg. This allows for blends with fuel ratios as low as 7 vol-% to be prepared by the system.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test Facility for Engine Muffler Evaluation

The problem associated with laboratory evaluation of muffler acoustical characteristics are complicated both by the acoustical considerations involved in obtaining an adequate noise source and by the ambiguities involved in defining what constitutes quality in a muffler built for general application. In order to quantitatively define the characteristics of quality mufflers, an extensive series of field tests were conducted on a variety of sizes and types of mufflers in conjunction with four engine configurations. Work then turned to the development of a wide band siren noise source and acoustical test system which would simulate the high impedance character of an engine exhaust noise source, and in addition generate the necessary intensity and spectral characteristics required to obtain test data over the range of noise conditions encountered in the field.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test Procedure for Evaluating the Cylinder Liner Pitting Protection Performance of Engine Coolant Additives for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Applications

Evaluations of the liner pitting protection performance provided by engine coolant corrosion inhibitors and supplemental coolant additives have presented many problems. Current practice involves the use of full scale engine tests to show that engine coolant inhibitors provide sufficient liner pitting protection. These are too time-consuming and expensive to use as the basis for industry-wide specifications. Ultrasonic vibratory test rigs have been used for screening purposes in individual labs, but these have suffered from poor reproducibility and insufficient additive differentiation. A new test procedure has been developed that reduces these problems. The new procedure compares candidate formulations against a good and bad reference fluid to reduce the concern for problems with calibration and equipment variability. Cast iron test coupons with well-defined microstructure and processing requirements significantly reduce test variability.
Technical Paper

A Brief Survey on Squeak & Rattle Evaluation Techniques at General Motors do Brasil

This paper describes the activities in the area of Squeak & Rattle developed by GM do Brasil at Cruz Alta Proving Ground (CAPG) in the last years. It presents the experimental methods employed to evaluate and eliminate Squeak & Rattle during the development of new vehicles. Emphasis is given to new techniques in the effort made by General Motors worldwide to move from “road to lab”.
Technical Paper

A Capacity Oriented Quality Assurance Method by Using Modular Containerized Test Cells

The requirements for diesel and gasoline engines are continuously increasing with respect to emissions, fuel consumption and durability. Besides the engine development process the quality of the production engine itself has to be ensured. This paper discusses alternative philosophies and approaches in terms of the quality management process. Based on a detailed analysis of the required equipment advanced solutions are presented. Modular containerized test cells are described being equipped exactly to the current testing task ready to use in low infrastructure. The testing capacity of the facility can be adjusted to the actual production volume by simply removing or adding modular test cells. Thus, at every facility the testing tasks can be executed successfully and the investment can be kept low.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Durability Analysis of Automotive Lower Control Arm Using Self Transducer Approach

A competitive market and shrinking product development cycle have forced automotive companies to move from conventional testing methods to virtual simulation techniques. Virtual durability simulation of any component requires determination of loads acting on the structure when tested on the proving ground. In conventional method wheel force transducers are used to extract loads at wheel center. Extracted wheel center forces are used to derive component loads through multi-body simulation. Another conventional approach is to use force transducers mounted directly on the component joineries where load needs to be extracted. Both the methods are costly and time-consuming. Sometimes it is not feasible to place a load cell in the system to measure hard point loads because of its complexities. In that case, it would be advantageous to use structure itself as a load transducer by strain gauging the component and use those strain values to extract hard point loads in virtual simulation.
Technical Paper

A Close Up View of a Comparative Test on Electric Vehicle Batteries in ENEA

ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) has been involved in research and development in the transport sector since the '80s, to reduce energy consumption and environmental impact. Specific testing facilities have been set up in ENEA Casaccia Research Center to perform such activities: a battery test laboratory with test-bench and climatic chambers, a test track for EVs, a fleet of electric passenger cars and vans, a roller bench for medium-size vehicles and a test bed for the complete drivetrains of electric and hybrid vehicles. A test aimed at comparing bench and on-board performance of lead-acid batteries was carried out on a VRLA system, equipping a Panda Larel, using test benches for battery cycling in thermal chambers, a track and the roller stand. For the track testing of a vehicle a special cycle was elaborated, that is similar in some specific properties to the ECE 15, an European cycle proposed for evaluating energy consumption.
Technical Paper

A Collision-Avoidance Warning System Using Laser Radar

The serious highway accidents related to heavy-duty trucks were caused mainly by absent-minded conditions of drivers, according to an investigation of highway accidents in Japan. Thus, a collision avoidance warning system has been developed. A laser radar sensor detects the distance to a reflector of the target vehicle. Together with information of the own vehicle speed detected by a magnetic pick-up, a microcomputer assesses the risk of a rear-end collision and provides warning when a dangerous condition has developed. Warning suppresion is considered in unnecessary situations, such as driving in curves, driving at constant speed and distance, and driving at low speed. The system was installed on a heavy-duty truck, and a system evaluation test was carried out on proving grounds and highways. As the result, false alarms created by reflectable objects located adjacent to the road and unnecessary warning could be sufficiently suppressed, and the system was found to be useful.
Technical Paper

A Combustion System for a Vehicular Regenerative Gas Turbine Featuring Low Air Pollutant Emissions

The combustion system developed for the General Motors GT-309 regenerative gas turbine is used to illustrate pertinent structural, performance, and exhaust emission considerations when designing for a vehicular gas turbine application. The development of each major component and the performance of the combustion system as a whole are reviewed. The satisfactory performance and durability potential of the GT-309 engine combustion system have been demonstrated by extensive operation in a component test facility and in several test cell and vehicle installed engines. Exhaust emissions of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are minimal and are of no concern from an air pollution standpoint. No objectionable exhaust smoking and odor are produced.