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Technical Paper

"Quattro"-Drive for Every Day Driving

An essential feature of the Audi Quattro permanent four-wheel drive system is in the inter-axle differential located on the hollow output shaft in the gearbox: the drive is taken from this differential forward to the front differential through the inside of the hollow shaft, and rearward to a propellor shaft driving the rear differential. The major advantages in everyday driving include improved traction and a reduced tendency toward throttle induced changes of attitude. The greater traction allows not only better progress in difficult road conditions; it also gives better acceleration in difficult traffic situations, such as when joining a busy main road. The more easily predictable handling response to throttle changes means that Quattro vehicles have better tracking stability. Altogether, the active safety and "roadability" are considerably improved.

"Startle Effect" and Crew Performance

The scope of this ARP, "Startle Effect" and Crew Performance, includes pilots of turbine powered transport category aircraft and may also pertain to general aviation, the military, and/or other sectors of aircraft operations. It is focused on flight crews certified by the United States, however, may also pertain to crews certified by other countries. The scope describes all phases of training (initial, recurrent, upgrade, remedial, and operational) in both domestic and international flight operations, with the intent of assisting flight crews in responding to "startle effect".

(R) Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Message Set Dictionary

This SAE Standard specifies a message set, and its data frames and data elements specifically for use by applications intended to utilize the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (DSRC/WAVE, referenced in this document simply as “DSRC”), communications systems. Although the scope of this Standard is focused on DSRC, this message set, and its data frames and data elements have been designed, to the extent possible, to also be of potential use for applications that may be deployed in conjunction with other wireless communications technologies. This Standard therefore specifies the definitive message structure and provides sufficient background information to allow readers to properly interpret the message definitions from the point of view of an application developer implementing the messages according to the DSRC Standards.
Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

This paper presents an overview of the evolution & revolution of automotive E/E architectures and how we at Bosch, envision the technology in the future. It provides information on the bottlenecks for current E/E architectures and drivers for their evolution. Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases. Implementation of these functionalities in mainstream vehicles will demand a paradigm shift in E/E architectures with respect to in-vehicle communication networks, power networks, connectivity, safety and security. This paper expounds on these points at a system level.
Technical Paper

10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications

A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
Technical Paper

10 Year-Old Hybrid III ATD Positions in Panic Brake Conditions

Panic braking can cause an “in-position” unbelted occupant to become “out-of-position.” Although the braking event dynamics and initial positioning of the occupant affect the final position at time of impact (if any), general trends are assumed. FMVSS208 now includes “out-of-position” (OOP) performance for Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) sizes twelve month to six year-old. Airbag suppression technologies currently address that range of OOP occupants. The objective of this study is to develop an approach to defining OOP test positions for the recently released 10 year old ATD and to assist restraint engineers in developing strategies to help reduce the risk of inflation induced injury to the larger out-of-position child. A series of panic brake tests was conducted with the 10 year-old Hybrid III to study panic braking kinematics. Antilock braking (ABS) generated the desired constant deceleration from high initial speeds (40 to 60mph) in three types of vehicles.
Technical Paper

100% LPG Long Haul Truck Conversion - Economy and Environmental Benefits

Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT), a Ballarat Australia based company, has developed the World's first diesel to 100% LPG conversion for heavy haul trucks. There is no diesel required or utilized on the trucks. The engine is converted with minimal changes into a spark ignition engine with equivalent power and torque of the diesel. The patented technology is now deployed in 2 Mercedes Actros trucks. The power output in engine dynamometer testing exceeds that of the diesel (in excess of 370 kW power and 2700 Nm torque). In on-road application the power curve is matched to the diesel specifications to avoid potential downstream power-train stress. Testing at the Department of Transport Energy & Infrastructure, Regency Park, SA have shown the Euro 3 truck converted to LPG is between Euro 4 and Euro 5 NOx levels, CO2 levels 10% better than diesel on DT80 test and about even with diesel on CUEDC tests.
Technical Paper

100-kWe Lunar/Mars Surface Power Utilizing the SP-100 Reactor with Dynamic Conversion

An integration study was performed coupling an SP-100 reactor with either a Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystem. A power level of 100 kWe was selected for the study. The power system was to be compatible with both the lunar and Mars surface environment and require no site preparation. In addition, the reactor was to have integral shielding and be completely self-contained, including its own auxiliary power for start-up. Initial reliability studies were performed to determine power conversion redundancy and engine module size. Previous studies were used to select the power conversion optimum operating conditions (ratio of hot-side temperature to cold-side temperature). Results of the study indicated that either the Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystems could be integrated with the SP-100 reactor for either a lunar or Mars surface power application.
Technical Paper

14/42V - Electrical Power Supply Systems Consequences for Electrical Interconnections and Switches

This paper provides an overview about the consequences of a 14/42 V - Electrical Power Supply System for the Electrical Interconnection and Switching Technology. It presents design guidelines and solutions for connector systems including advanced applications like fuse and relay boxes and gives an overview of those existing connectors already suited for 42 V and even higher voltages. The problem of arcing due to the increased voltage is discussed for the case that mating and unmating under load has to be taken into consideration. Arcing also has a tremendous impact on the design of 42 V proof relays. Therefore, some basic results be presented along with proposals how these problems can be overcome by appropriate designs. Another part of the paper looks at the electrical power supply system itself. Here interconnection techniques for new battery systems are discussed. Finally, the chances for new technologies are highlighted.
Technical Paper

1963 Pure Oil Performance Trials

Background of the Pure Oil performance trials on six classes of automobiles is presented and the evolution of test requirements described. Three tests are run: the economy test to establish how far a vehicle can go over a prescribed course on one gallon of gasoline; the acceleration test which determines acceleration time from 25 to 70 mph in seconds; and the braking test where stopping distance in feet is measured for a stop from 60 mph. Each test is described from the point of view of rules, recording instruments, and penalties for infractions of rules. Test results are presented.
Technical Paper

1964 Pure Oil Performance Trials

A review of the Pure Oil Performance Trials conducted at Daytona International Speedway are presented. Background information pertaining to conducting of tests, design of the equipment, and instrumentation required for the various events are discussed. The performance trials have evolved into three basic tests -- Economy, Acceleration, and Braking. The objective of the Performance Trials is to provide data that motorists can utilize in evaluating new cars and selecting new models.
Technical Paper

1974 Accident Experience with Air Cushion Restraint Systems

An air cushion restraint system has been available to the public on certain model passenger cars since January 1974. In response to this opportunity to obtain field experience, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has established a nationwide reporting network and investigative capability for accidents involving air-bag equipped cars. The reporting criteria for accidents require that the car be towed as a result of the accident, or that a front-seat occupant was injured, or that bag deployment occurred. The principal objective is to obtain the injury-reducing effectiveness of this restraint system in the total accident environment. This environment encompasses “towaway” accidents resulting in bag deployment and non-deployment. Definitive results are expected at the conclusion of the study. This paper summarizes the experience during the first year of the program, during which time the rate of accident occurrence was far less than originally expected.
Technical Paper

1989 Suzuki Sidekick/Geo Tracker Body structure Analysis

This paper presents a summary of body structural analysis applied to the 1989 Suzuki Sidekick/Geo Tracker at various stages of development and design. The structure analysis techniques were applied previously to rigidity, vibration, strength, crashworthiness and optimization. The studies confirm that the CAE technique for body structure analysis is more beneficial if it is utilized in the earlier structure development stages particularly for vibration and crashworthiness. Through the extensive use of the structural analysis technique in conjunction with the experiment, the design concept of the Sidekick/Tracker body has been optimized to a most extent.
Technical Paper

2 Development of Motorcycle Using Electronic Controlled Continuously Variable Transmission

Recently, society has demanded better performance from motorcycle regarding comfort, fuel economy, exhaust emission, and safety, in addition to traditional performance indicators. In the development of power trains, therefore, compact and lightweight hardware with improved transmission efficiency has been introduced, along with system technologies that optimize the engine revolution speed range and reduction ratio to suit driving conditions. This approach focuses on improving overall efficiency and addressing the issues of easier drivability and greater active safety. Electronic Controlled Continuously Variable Transmission (ECCVT) with high transmission efficiency is characterized by a Dry Hybrid Belt, in addition to an electronic controlled DC motor-driven shift mechanism, and an Electronic Controlled wet multi-plates Clutch (ECC).
Technical Paper

2-Color Thermometry Experiments and High-Speed Imaging of Multi-Mode Diesel Engine Combustion

Although in-cylinder optical diagnostics have provided significant understanding of conventional diesel combustion, most alternative combustion strategies have not yet been explored to the same extent. In an effort to build the knowledge base for alternative low-temperature combustion strategies, this paper presents a comparison of three alternative low-temperature combustion strategies to two high-temperature conventional diesel combustion conditions. The baseline conditions, representative of conventional high-temperature diesel combustion, have either a short or a long ignition delay. The other three conditions are representative of some alternative combustion strategies, employing significant charge-gas dilution along with either early or late fuel injection, or a combination of both (double-injection).

2-D CAD Template for SAE J826 H-point Machine

This document describes the 2-D computer-aided design (CAD) template for the HPM-1 H-point machine or HPD available from SAE. The elements of the HPD include the curve shapes, datum points and lines, and calibration references. The intended purpose for this information is to provide a master CAD reference for design and benchmarking. The content and format of the data files that are available are also described.
Technical Paper

2-D Measurements of the Liquid Phase Temperature in Fuel Sprays

Cross-sectional distributions of the liquid phase temperatures in fuel sprays were measured using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. The liquid fuel (n-hexadecane or squalane) was doped with pyrene(C16H10). The fluorescence intensity ratios of the pyrene monomer and excimer emissions has temperature dependence, and were used to determine the liquid phase temperatures in the fuel sprays. The measurements were performed on two kinds of sprays. One was performed on pre-heated fuel sprays injected into surrounding gas at atmospheric conditions. The other was performed on fuel sprays exposed to hot gas flow. The spray was excited by laser radiation at 266nm, and the resulting fluorescence was imaged by an intensified CCD camera. The cross-sectional distribution of the liquid phase temperature was estimated from the fluorescence image by the temperature dependence of the intensity ratio.
Technical Paper

2-Door Vehicle Body Local Force Evaluation with the IIHS, EuroNCAP, and LINCAP Side Impact Barriers

Structure enhancement based on data monitored in a traditional side impact evaluation is primarily a trial and error exercise resulting in a large number of computer runs. This is because how the structure gets loaded and the degree of contribution of local structural components to resist the impact while absorbing energy during a side collision is not completely known. Developing real time complete load profiles on a body side during the time span of an impact is not an easy task and these loads cannot be calculated from that calculated at the barrier mounting plate. This paper highlights the load distribution, calculated by a procedure using computer aided engineering (CAE) tools, on a typical 2-door vehicle body side when struck by moving deformable barriers used in the insurance institute for highway safety (IIHS), EuroNCAP and LINCAP side impact evaluations.
Technical Paper

2-Ply Windshields: Laboratory Impactor Tests of the Polyurethane Construction

A test program was conducted to characterize the impact response of an experimental 2-ply windshield construction with a polyurethane (PUR) plastic inner layer. Windshield impact tests were conducted using a linear impactor test facility. Principle among the findings was that the impact response of prototype PUR 2-ply windshields does not differ that significantly from that of baseline 3-ply HPR (High Penetration Resistance) windshields for the subcompact vehicle geometry tested. However, the impact responses of both PUR 2-ply and 3-ply HPR subcompact vehicle windshields were found to be highly variable. Average performance of either construction could thus be enhanced if ways could be found (and then implemented) to reduce this variability.
Technical Paper

2-Ply Windshields: Laboratory Impactor Tests of the Polyvinyl Butyral/Polyester Construction

A test program was conducted to characterize the impact response of an experimental 2-ply windshield construction with a polyvinyl butyral / polyester (PVB/PET) inner plastic laminate. Windshield impact tests were conducted using a linear impactor test facility. Principal among the findings was that the measured impact response of prototype PVB/PET 2-ply windshields was highly variable. Average performance of this construction could thus be improved if ways could be found (and then implemented) to reduce this variability.