Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 20 of 10067
Collection

0-D and 1-D Modeling and Numerics, 2017

2017-03-28
Papers in the session cover zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines with respect to: engine breathing, boosting, and acoustics; SI combustion and emissions; CI combustion and emissions; fundamentals of engine thermodynamics; numerical modeling of gas dynamics; thermal management; mechanical and lubrication systems; system level models for controls; and system level models for vehicle fuel economy and emissions predictions.
Collection

0-D and 1-D Modeling and Numerics, 2018

2018-04-03
Papers in the session cover zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines with respect to: engine breathing, boosting, and acoustics; SI combustion and emissions; CI combustion and emissions; fundamentals of engine thermodynamics; numerical modeling of gas dynamics; thermal management; mechanical and lubrication systems; system level models for controls; and system level models for vehicle fuel economy and emissions predictions.
Journal Article

2-D CFAR Procedure of Multiple Target Detection for Automotive Radar

2017-09-23
Abstract In Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS), the automotive radar is used to detect targets or obstacles around the vehicle. The procedure of Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) plays an important role in adaptive targets detection in noise or clutter environment. But in practical applications, the noise or clutter power is absolutely unknown and varies over the change of range, time and angle. The well-known cell averaging (CA) CFAR detector has a good detection performance in homogeneous environment but suffers from masking effect in multi-target environment. The ordered statistic (OS) CFAR is more robust in multi-target environment but needs a high computation power. Therefore, in this paper, a new two-dimension CFAR procedure based on a combination of Generalized Order Statistic (GOS) and CA CFAR named GOS-CA CFAR is proposed. Besides, the Linear Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (LFMCW) radar simulation system is built to produce a series of rapid chirp signals.
Technical Paper

2-Door Vehicle Body Local Force Evaluation with the IIHS, EuroNCAP, and LINCAP Side Impact Barriers

2004-03-08
2004-01-0333
Structure enhancement based on data monitored in a traditional side impact evaluation is primarily a trial and error exercise resulting in a large number of computer runs. This is because how the structure gets loaded and the degree of contribution of local structural components to resist the impact while absorbing energy during a side collision is not completely known. Developing real time complete load profiles on a body side during the time span of an impact is not an easy task and these loads cannot be calculated from that calculated at the barrier mounting plate. This paper highlights the load distribution, calculated by a procedure using computer aided engineering (CAE) tools, on a typical 2-door vehicle body side when struck by moving deformable barriers used in the insurance institute for highway safety (IIHS), EuroNCAP and LINCAP side impact evaluations.
Technical Paper

2-Ply Windshields: Laboratory Impactor Tests of the Polyurethane Construction

1995-02-01
950048
A test program was conducted to characterize the impact response of an experimental 2-ply windshield construction with a polyurethane (PUR) plastic inner layer. Windshield impact tests were conducted using a linear impactor test facility. Principle among the findings was that the impact response of prototype PUR 2-ply windshields does not differ that significantly from that of baseline 3-ply HPR (High Penetration Resistance) windshields for the subcompact vehicle geometry tested. However, the impact responses of both PUR 2-ply and 3-ply HPR subcompact vehicle windshields were found to be highly variable. Average performance of either construction could thus be enhanced if ways could be found (and then implemented) to reduce this variability.
Technical Paper

2-Ply Windshields: Laboratory Impactor Tests of the Polyvinyl Butyral/Polyester Construction

1995-02-01
950047
A test program was conducted to characterize the impact response of an experimental 2-ply windshield construction with a polyvinyl butyral / polyester (PVB/PET) inner plastic laminate. Windshield impact tests were conducted using a linear impactor test facility. Principal among the findings was that the measured impact response of prototype PVB/PET 2-ply windshields was highly variable. Average performance of this construction could thus be improved if ways could be found (and then implemented) to reduce this variability.
Journal Article

26,500km Down the Pan-American Highway in an Electric Vehicle A Battery's Perspective

2012-04-16
2012-01-0123
This paper presents a novel battery degradation model based on empirical data from the Racing Green Endurance project. Using the rainflow-counting algorithm, battery charge and discharge data from an electric vehicle has been studied in order to establish more reliable and more accurate predictions for capacity and power fade of automotive traction batteries than those currently available. It is shown that for the particular lithium-iron phosphate (LiFePO₄) batteries, capacity fade is 5.8% after 87 cycles. After 3,000 cycles it is estimated to be 32%. Both capacity and power fade strongly depend on cumulative energy throughput, maximum C-rate as well as temperature.
Technical Paper

2D Finite Element Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Processes

1999-03-01
1999-01-1004
A 2D finite element program, known as FAST_FORM2D, was developed at FTI to carry out section analysis in die design. Incremental method is employed and plane strain condition is assumed for 2D sections. Contact behavior and friction force are simulated by a developed algorithm. Therefore, the divergence problems related to the conventional contact techniques can be reduced or avoided. An adaptive mesh generation scheme is implemented to achieve computation efficiency. With the code, it is possible to evaluate tension, strain, thickness distributions and punch force at different stages for any 2D section cut from 3D panels. User can easily input or modify forming conditions to get the best solution.
Technical Paper

3-D Crash Analysis Using ADAMS

1988-09-01
885076
The dynamics of vehicle front end crash are studied using the ADAMS dynamic simulation code. The analysis is carried out in three dimensions and can capture the behavior associated with an asymmetrical structure or impact mode. Subroutines which allow the modeling of structural crush and plastic hinge formation, contact forces and friction forces are discussed. The method is relatively inexpensive, but does require a good understanding of the problem on the part of the analyst. A discussion of the techniques that are used to model the structural system is given. The results of the analysis are compared with experimental data and the correlation is very encouraging.
Technical Paper

3-D Machine-Vision Technique for Rapid 3D Shape Measurement and Surface Quality Inspection

1999-03-01
1999-01-0418
A novel computer vision technique for rapid measurement of surface coordinates is presented. The technique is based on the marriage of a digital fringe projection technique and a fringe-phase extraction algorithm. A digitally controlled video signal in the form of linear and parallel fringes of cosinusoidal intensity variation is projected onto an object. The fringe pattern is perturbed by the three-dimensional object surface with fringe-phase containing information on the depth of the object. A phase extraction algorithm is used to determine the fringe-phase distribution, from which the three-dimensional surface coordinates are determined. The theoretical basis of this technique and some experimental results are presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

3-D Shell Topology Optimization Using a Design Domain Method

1995-04-01
951105
3-D shell components are used intensively in the automotive industry. Many structural topology optimization techniques were developed to reduced the total weight of shell structures while retaining its structural performance. One common approach is to utilize the concept of the design domain, such as the homogenization method and the density function approach. In this paper, a new micro-structure based design domain method is introduced to solve 3-D shell topology optimization problems. Based on physical micro-structure model, simple closed-form expressions for effective Young's modulus and effective shear modulus are rigorously derived. Using these simple relations, topology optimization problems can be formulated and solved with sequential convex approximation algorithms. Two design examples obtained from the new method are presented.
Technical Paper

3-Dimensional Simulation of Vehicle Response to Tire Blow-outs

1998-02-23
980221
Sudden tire deflation, or blow-out, is sometimes cited as the cause of a crash. Safety researchers have previously attempted to study the loss of vehicle control resulting from a blow-out with some success using computer simulation. However, the simplified models used in these studies did little to expose the true transient nature of the handling problem created by a blown tire. New developments in vehicle simulation technology have made possible the detailed analysis of transient vehicle behavior during and after a blow-out. This paper presents the results of an experimental blow-out study with a comparison to computer simulations. In the experiments, a vehicle was driven under steady state conditions and a blow-out was induced at the right rear tire. Various driver steering and braking inputs were attempted, and the vehicle response was recorded. These events were then simulated using EDVSM. A comparison between experimental and simulated results is presented.
Journal Article

360° Surround View System with Parking Guidance

2014-04-01
2014-01-0157
In this paper, we present a real-time 360 degree surround system with parking aid feature, which is a very convenient parking and blind spot aid system. In the proposed system, there are four fisheye cameras mounted around a vehicle to cover the whole surrounding area. After correcting the distortion of four fisheye images and registering all images on a planar surface, a flexible stitching method was developed to smooth the seam of adjacent images away to generate a high-quality result. In the post-process step, a unique brightness balance algorithm was proposed to compensate the exposure difference as the images are not captured with the same exposure condition. In addition, a unique parking guidance feature is applied on the surround view scene by utilizing steering wheel angle information as well as vehicle speed information.
Technical Paper

3D Deformation and Dynamics of the Human Cadaver Abdomen under Seatbelt Loading

2008-11-03
2008-22-0011
According to accident analysis, submarining is responsible for most of the frontal car crash AIS 3+ abdominal injuries sustained by restrained occupants. Submarining is characterized by an initial position of the lap belt on the iliac spine. During the crash, the pelvis slips under the lap belt which loads the abdomen. The order of magnitude of the abdominal deflection rate was reported by Uriot to be approximately 4 m/s. In addition, the use of active restraint devices such as pretensioners in recent cars lead to the need for the investigation of Out-Of-Position injuries. OOP is defined by an initial position of the lap belt on the abdomen instead of the pelvis resulting in a direct loading of the abdomen during pretensioning and the crash. In that case, the penetration speed of the belt into the abdomen was reported by Trosseille to be approximately 8 to 12 m/s. The aim of this study was to characterize the response of the human abdomen in submarining and OOP.
Technical Paper

3D Large Scale Simulation of the High-Speed Liquid Jet Atomization

2007-04-16
2007-01-0244
In this paper three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulations (i.e., LES) by using a PLIC-VOF method have been adopted to investigate the atomization process of round liquid jets issuing from automotive multi-hole injector-like nozzles. LES method is used to compute directly the effect of the large flow structure, being the smallest one modelled. A mesh having a cell size of 4 μm was used in order to derive a statistics of the detached liquid structures, i.e. droplets and ligaments. The latter have been identified by using an algorithm coded by authors. Cavitation modeling has not been included in the present computations. Two different mean injection nozzle flow velocities of 50 m/s and 270 m/s, corresponding to two mean nozzle flow Reynolds numbers of 1600 and 8700, respectively, have been considered in the calculations as representative of laminar and turbulent nozzle flow conditions.
Technical Paper

5-years status report of the advanced offset frontal crash protection

2001-06-04
2001-06-0131
This paper will provide an overview of the work progress of the advanced offset frontal crash protection group of IHRA. It resumes, including tables, the strategy of the group to cope with the assigned task. This is the commitment to achieve an harmonized frontal crash protection procedure taking into account the different world wide views in this field.
Technical Paper

50 KVA High Temperature Bi-directional Converter for On-Engine Application in More Electric Aircraft

2014-09-16
2014-01-2111
The transition towards More Electric Aircraft (MEA) architectures has challenges relating to integration of power electronics with the starter generator system for on-engine application. To efficiently operate the power electronics in the hostile engine environment at high switching frequency and for better thermal management, use of silicon carbide (SiC) power devices for a bi-directional power converter is examined. In this paper, development of a 50 kVA bi-directional converter operating at an ambient temperature of about 2000C is presented. The design and operation of the converter with details of control algorithm implementation and cooling chamber design are also discussed.
Technical Paper

5th Percentile Driver Out of Position Computer Simulation

2000-03-06
2000-01-1006
A finite element model of a folded airbag with the module cover and steering wheel system was developed to estimate the injury numbers of a 5th percentile female dummy in an out-of-position (OOP) situation. The airbag model was correlated with static airbag deployments and standard force plate tests. The 5th percentile finite element dummy model developed by First Technology Safety Systems (FTSS) was used in the simulation. The following two OOP tests were simulated with the airbag model including a validated steering wheel finite element model: 1. Chest on air bag module for maximum chest interaction from pressure loading (MS6-D) and 2. Neck on air bag module for maximum neck interaction from membrane loading (MS8-D). These two simulations were then compared to the test results. Satisfactory correlation was found in both the cases.
Technical Paper

61 Fundamental Analysis of Motorcyclist Injury Risk Using A Statistical Model Based on Real-world Crashes

2002-10-29
2002-32-1830
This paper describes the risk of injury to the rider in a crash using a statistical model based on real-world accident data. We analyzed the road traffic accidents data in Los Angeles and Hanover. Logistic regression modeling technique was used to clarify the relationship among probabilities of minor, serious, fatal injury risk to the rider, and the influence of risk factors in accidents involving opposing vehicle contact point, motorcycle contact point, opposing vehicle speed, motorcycle speed, relative heading angle of impact, and helmet use. The odds ratio, which was adjusted for risk factors simultaneously, was estimated by using the developed technique, and was compared with the effects of risk factors individually. The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between minor and serious injuries and opposing vehicle speed, motorcycle speed and opposing vehicle contact point.
Technical Paper

747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft/Space Shuttle Orbiter Mated Ground Vibration Test: Data via Transient Excitation and Fast Fourier Transform Analysis

1977-02-01
770970
The experimental procedure employed to define the natural modes of vibration of the 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft and Space Shuttle Orbiter mated configuration is described. A discussion of test results and comparison to structural analysis results is also included. Random transient signals were used as inputs to electromagnetic shakers to provide excitation to the mated vehicle test configuration. Acceleration signals were processed via the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. Magnitude and phase transfer functions were formed and processed to produce modal frequencies, damping, and modal displacements.
X