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Journal Article

2-D CFAR Procedure of Multiple Target Detection for Automotive Radar

Abstract In Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS), the automotive radar is used to detect targets or obstacles around the vehicle. The procedure of Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) plays an important role in adaptive targets detection in noise or clutter environment. But in practical applications, the noise or clutter power is absolutely unknown and varies over the change of range, time and angle. The well-known cell averaging (CA) CFAR detector has a good detection performance in homogeneous environment but suffers from masking effect in multi-target environment. The ordered statistic (OS) CFAR is more robust in multi-target environment but needs a high computation power. Therefore, in this paper, a new two-dimension CFAR procedure based on a combination of Generalized Order Statistic (GOS) and CA CFAR named GOS-CA CFAR is proposed. Besides, the Linear Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (LFMCW) radar simulation system is built to produce a series of rapid chirp signals.
Technical Paper

3.5 hp in an 8 lb Package

A new lightweight gasoline, two-cycle engine for portable tools is described. The total weight of 8 lb with an output of 3.5 hp was achieved by means of compact design with the use of standardized parts wherever possible, rather than by creating all new parts.
Journal Article

3D Auditory Displays for Parking Assistance Systems

The objective of this study was to investigate if 3D auditory displays could be used to enhance parking assistance systems (PAS). Objective measurements and estimations of workload were used to assess the benefits of different 3D auditory displays. In today’s cars, PAS normally use a visual display together with simple sound signals to inform drivers of obstacles in close proximity. These systems rely heavily on the visual display, as the sound does not provide information about obstacles' location. This may cause the driver to lose focus on the surroundings and reduce situational awareness. Two user studies (during summer and winter) were conducted to compare three different systems. The baseline system corresponded to a system normally found in today’s cars. The other systems were designed with a 3D auditory display, conveying information of where obstacles were located through sound. A visual display was also available. Both normal parking and parallel parking was conducted.
Technical Paper

3D Automotive Millimeter-Wave Radar with Two-Dimensional Electronic Scanning

The radar-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) like autonomous emergency braking (AEB) and forward collision warning (FCW) can reduce accidents, so as to make vehicles, drivers and pedestrians safer. For active safety, automotive millimeter-wave radar is an indispensable role in the automotive environmental sensing system since it can work effectively regardless of the bad weather while the camera fails. One crucial task of the automotive radar is to detect and distinguish some objects close to each other precisely with the increasingly complex of the road condition. Nowadays almost all the automotive radar products work in bidimensional area where just the range and azimuth can be measured. However, sometimes in their field of view it is not easy for them to differentiate some objects, like the car, the manhole covers and the guide board, when they align with each other in vertical direction.


This specification defines general architectural philosophy and specific design guidance for the proper installation and interface of various cabin equipment within the seats. Consistency with this specification allows each component installed on the seat to operate in concert when integrated with other relevant cabin type equipment. Standard electrical and mechanical interfaces of the In- Flight Entertainment System (IFES) equipment for the 3rd Generation Cabin Network (3GCN) associated with the seat are defined. This equipment consists of the headphone jacks (HPJ), passenger control unit (PCU)/multi function handset (including the cord), seat video display (SVD), remote data outlet (RDO), integrated seat box (ISB) which includes the seat power box (SPB)/seat data box (SDB), remote power outlet (RPO), and in-seat cables. Appropriate definitions are also provided for other electrical devices associated with the seat control/position mechanism.

649 Handbook

This handbook is intended to assist the user to understand the ANSI/EIA-649B standard principles and functions for Configuration Management (CM) and how to plan and implement effective CM. It provides CM implementation guidance for all users (CM professionals and practitioners within the commercial and industry communities, DoD, military service commands, and government activities (e.g., National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)) with a variety of techniques and examples. Information about interfacing with other management systems and processes are included to ensure the principles and functions are applied in each phase of the life cycle for all product categories.
Technical Paper

77 GHz Radar Based Multi-Target Tracking Algorithm on Expressway Condition

Multi-Target tracking is a central aspect of modeling the surrounding environment of autonomous vehicles. Automotive millimeter-wave radar is a necessary component in the autonomous driving system. One of the biggest advantages of radar is it measures the velocity directly. Another big advantage is that the radar is less influenced by environmental conditions. It can work day and night, in rainy or snowy conditions. In the expressway scenario, the forward-looking radar can generate multiple objects, to properly track the leading vehicle or neighbor-lane vehicle, a multi-target tracking algorithm is required. How to associate the track and the measurement or data association is an important question in a multi-target tracking system. This paper applies the nearest-neighbor method to solve the data association problem and uses an extended Kalman filter to update the state of the track.
Journal Article

A Bibliographical Review of Electrical Vehicles (xEVs) Standards

Abstract This work puts presents an all-inclusive state of the art bibliographical review of all categories of electrified transportation (xEVs) standards, issued by the most important standardization organizations. Firstly, the current status for the standards by major organizations is presented followed by the graphical representation of the number of standards issued. The review then takes into consideration the interpretation of the xEVs standards developed by all the major standardization organizations across the globe. The standards are differentiated categorically to deliver a coherent view of the current status followed by the explanation of the core of these standards. The ISO, IEC, SAE, IEEE, UL, ESO, NTCAS, JARI, JIS and ARAI electrified transportation vehicles xEV Standards from USA, Europe, Japan, China and India were evaluated. A total approximated of 283 standards in the area have been issued.
Journal Article

A Brain Wave-Verified Driver Alert System for Vehicle Collision Avoidance

Abstract Collision alert and avoidance systems (CAS) could help to minimize driver errors. They are instrumental as an advanced driver-assistance system (ADAS) when the vehicle is facing potential hazards. Developing effective ADAS/CAS, which provides alerts to the driver, requires a fundamental understanding of human sensory perception and response capabilities. This research explores the premise that external stimulation can effectively improve drivers’ reaction and response capabilities. Therefore this article proposes a light-emitting diode (LED)-based driver warning system to prevent potential collisions while evaluating novel signal processing algorithms to explore the correlation between driver brain signals and external visual stimulation. When the vehicle approaches emerging obstacles or potential hazards, an LED light box flashes to warn the driver through visual stimulation to avoid the collision through braking.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Applying a Product Line Approach for Car Periphery Supervision Systems

Car Periphery Supervision (CPS) systems comprise a family of automotive systems that are based on sensors installed around the vehicle to monitor its environment. The measurement and evaluation of sensor data enables the realization of several kinds of higher level applications such as parking assistance or blind spot detection. Although a lot of similarity can be identified among CPS applications, these systems are traditionally built separately. Usually, each single system is built with its own electronic control unit, and it is likely that the application software is bound to the controller's hardware. Current systems engineering therefore often leads to a large number of inflexible, dedicated systems in the automobile that together consume a large amount of power, weight, and installation space and produce high manufacturing and maintenance costs.