In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
An efficient design of the gearbox is crucial for the expected performance of the vehicle both in terms of life and NVH. This involves design and analysis of gears, shafts, bearings, gear layout and speed ratios. Conventionally gears, shafts and bearings are designed and analysed independently. When the design of these parts change, their effect on related parts is estimated separately, leading to loss of time. Alternately, an integrated approach through simulation is adopted for the new two wheeler's gearbox by modeling on Romax designer software, consisting of shafts, bearings and gears. For the target load cycle, gear and bearing lives, shaft deflections and stresses are estimated. While the targets for stresses, deflections and lives are set logically and with experience, these are also compared with those of reference vehicle by creating and analysing reference gearbox model.
This paper summarizes the techniques and guidelines which were used to reduce the driver perceived noise level of a 145-210 HP series of agricultural tractors. Graphs of case study test results and comments on subjective noise quality are provided to guide the acoustic novice through the complexities of the vehicle sound environment in a methodical problem solving format.
Transfer path analysis is a powerful tool to support the vehicle NVH development. On the one hand it is a fast method to gain an overview of the complex interplay in the vehicle noise generation process. On the other hand it can be used to identify critical noise paths and vehicle components responsible for specific noise phenomena. FEV has developed several tools, which are adapted to the considered noise phenomena: Powertrain induced interior noise and vibration is analyzed by VINS (Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation), which allows the deduction of improvement measures fast enough for application in the accelerated vehicle development process. Further on vehicle/powertrain combinations not realized in hardware can be evaluated by virtual installation of the powertrain in the vehicle, which is especially interesting in the context of engine downsizing from four to three or six to four cylinders.
In a running engine, various impacts are excitation sources for structural vibrations and engine noises. Engine noises are classified, depending on their excitation sources, into the combustion noise, the combustion induced mechanical noise and the mechanical noise. It is difficult to measure such noises separately because some impacts occur closely in time and space. In this paper, a transient noise generation model of an engine was proposed considering vibration and its damping of engine structure. The present model was verified through the single explosion excitation experiment for a stationary engine. Using the noise generation model, the combustion noise was separated from the total noise radiating from a running four-stroke gasoline engine for motorcycles. It was found that the combustion noise had larger power at lower frequencies than higher frequencies. However, its contribution to the total engine noise was relatively small.
This paper presents a summary of body structural analysis applied to the 1989 Suzuki Sidekick/Geo Tracker at various stages of development and design. The structure analysis techniques were applied previously to rigidity, vibration, strength, crashworthiness and optimization. The studies confirm that the CAE technique for body structure analysis is more beneficial if it is utilized in the earlier structure development stages particularly for vibration and crashworthiness. Through the extensive use of the structural analysis technique in conjunction with the experiment, the design concept of the Sidekick/Tracker body has been optimized to a most extent.
General Motors Powertrain Group (GMPTG) has developed an all new small block V8 engine, designated LS1, for introduction into the 1997 Corvette. This engine was designed to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges while also meeting the ever increasing legislated requirements of emissions and fuel economy. This 5.7L V8 provides increased power and torque while delivering higher fuel economy. In addition, improvements in both QRD and NVH characteristics were made while meeting packaging constraints and achieving significant mass reductions.
A student team from Minnesota State University, Mankato's Automotive Engineering Technology program entered the Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2000. A 1998 Polaris Indy Trail was converted to indirect fuel injection running on a computer controlled closed loop fuel system. Also chassis, exhaust, and hood design modifications were made. The snowmobile was designed to compete in eight events. These events included acceleration, emissions, hill climb, cold start, noise, fuel economy/range, handling/driveability, and static display. The snowmobile modifications involved every aspect of the snowmobile with special emphasis on emissions and noise. Laboratory testing led to the final design. This paper details the modifications and test results.
Without engine noise, the cabin of an electric vehicle is quiet, but on the other hand, it becomes easy to perceive refrigerant-induced noise in the automotive air-conditioning (A/C) system. When determining the A/C system at the design stage, it is crucial to verify whether refrigerant-induced noise occurs in the system or not before the real A/C systems are made. If refrigerant-induced noise almost never occurs during the design stage, it is difficult to evaluate by vehicle testing at the development stage. This paper presents a 1D modeling methodology for the assessment of refrigerant-induced noise such as self-excitation noise generated by pressure pulsation through the thermal expansion valve (TXV). The GT-SUITE commercial code was used to develop a refrigerant cycle model consisting of a compressor, condenser, evaporator, TXV and the connecting pipe network.
Two vehicle level test methods were developed that illustrate the relationship between 1st order noise in a cabin, and driveline imbalance contributors. At the launch of a new 2005 4WD sport utility vehicle program, a significant boom noise complaint was observed on many vehicles between 55-70 mph. The full time, electronic actively controlled, torque biasing transfercase was intensely reviewed as a potential source of excessive torque induced imbalance. Testing of the transfercase was performed on imbalance measurement stands, dynamometers, and in the vehicle. The result was the identification of two issues. First was that two internal to the transfercase parts were found to have excessive runout. Second was that there was a lack of vehicle correlation to transfercase imbalance. An extensive effort involving over 50 vehicles of the same model was pursued to find the source of the problem.
The demands for comfort and a cleaner environment have been increasing for the past years for motorcycle as well as car manufacturers. With the need to decrease the time-to-market, there is a clear drive to apply CAE-based methods in order to evaluate new designs and to propose design changes that solve any identified problems. More specifically, the demands on the comfort of the rider are not only related to ride & handling and vibration levels(1), but also to the noise levels generated by the motorcycle. This paper presents the virtual modeling of one-cylinder engine of a motorcycle that identifies the mechanism behind the generation of an annoying noise. Furthermore, different possible design changes were evaluated in order to solve the problem. A combined experimental and numerical approach was followed to achieve this. Experiments were used to identify important parameters that determine the engine behavior and thus are critical for the modeling of such an engine.
The potential contributions of acoustical technology to manufacturing companies pervade nearly all of its functions from marketing and product planning to design engineering and quality control. Despite this, however, companies generally feel uneasy when they embark on programs to use acoustics in their operations because the technology seems complicated and somehow harder to “get a handle on” than it is in other cases. But the issues of product sound, and the benefits of acoustics on a diagnostic tool are too important to ignore, so in this paper we discuss these issues in a “20 questions” format to help planners, engineers and managers as they proceed to implement acoustical technology in their organizations.
This paper documents a joint development process between General Motors and Dow Automotive to improve primary body structure frequencies on the GM family of midsize vans by utilizing cavity-filling structural foam. Optimum foam locations, foam quantity, and foam density within the body structure were determined by employing both math-based modeling and vehicle hardware testing techniques. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the Body-In-White (BIW) and “trimmed body” were used to predict the global body structure modes and associated resonant frequencies with and without structural foam. The objective of the FEA activity was to quantify frequency improvements to the primary body structure modes of matchboxing, bending, and torsion when using structural foam. Comprehensive hardware testing on the vehicle was also executed to validate the frequency improvements observed in the FEA results.
To provide optimal performance of a small DI diesel in relation to noise, emissions and fuel economy, an experimental investigation was carried out using Taguchi methods. A single cylinder 3.5 kW diesel was selected for performance test at different engine speeds, loads and static injection timings. These controlled parameters were varied at three levels and the resulting changes in response variables viz. engine noise, smoke, HC, NOx, CO, CO2 emissions and fuel economy (b.s.f.c) were observed. The levels for low noise, smoke, emissions and b.s.f.c could be predicted and relevant combination of controlled parameters specified. Confirmation engine runs were carried out and the results showed good agreement with the predicted optimized quantities of interest based on Taguchi analysis. The effect of engine parameters to the above responses was evaluated in terms of percent contributions by using analysis of variance.
In order to reproduce heavy bass with a small diameter loudspeaker for automotive use similar to the intensity and low distortion of a home-use Hi-Fi system, a large volume velocity must be obtained. This is done by lowering the minimum resonant frequency of system and by linearly expanding the amplitude range of diaphragm. We have developed a 3-D woofer system using a centering suspension that consists of four tubes of square cross-section continuously laid in the circumferential direction and a cone suspension that has V-shaped pleats in both of the circumferential and diameter directions for the vibration system. The results are good acoustic characteristics in an automotive cabin that are low in distortion with high output in the low frequency range up to 100Hz.
In the design and development of modern cars with respect to comfort, silence and safety, state of the art experimental modal analysis is one of the essential development tools. Due to the large amount of degrees of freedom of such a large and complex system like a car with all its components, a complete simulation by FEM can not be realised easily and requires an enormous expenditure of work and calculations. In addition the simulations are based on assumed system parameters and thus the vibration behaviour of the resulting prototypes often is not completely identical to the simulated model. In contrast to conventional measurements with accelerometers, the 3-D Scanning Vibrometer enables fast and efficient non-contact measurements of the in-plane and out-of-plane vibration behaviour at all optical accessible surfaces. The method easily allows to increase the number of measured points to obtain a high measurement point density.
Examining the noise reduction of a motorcycle, the requirement of an effective method of reducing a drive chain noise has been a pending issue similarly to noise originating from an engine or exhaust system, etc. Through this study, it became clear that the mechanism of chain noise could be classified into two; low frequency noise originated from cordal action according to the degree of chain engagement and high frequency noise generated by impact when a chain roller hits sprocket bottom. An improvement of urethane resin damper shape, mounted on a drive side sprocket, was effective for noise reduction of the former while our development of a chain drive that combined an additional urethane resin roller with an iron roller worked well for the latter. The new chain system that combined this new idea has been proven to be capable of reducing the chain noise to half compared with a conventional system.
Beside the automotive industry, where 2-cylinder inline engines are catching attention again, twin-cylinder configurations are quite usual in the small engine world. From stationary engines and range-extender use to small motorcycles up to big cruisers and K-Cars this engine architecture is used in many types of applications. Because of very good overall packaging, performance characteristics and not least the possibility of parts-commonality with 4-cylinder engines nearly every motorcycle manufacturer provides an inline twin in its model range. Especially for motorcycle applications where generally the engine is a rigid member of the frame and vibrations can be transferred directly to the rider an appropriate balancing system is required.
Health related problems in over populated areas are a major concern and as such, there are specific legislations for noise generated by transport vehicles. In diesel powered commercial vehicles, the source for noise are mainly related to rolling, transmission, aerodynamics and engine. Considering internal combustion engine, three factors can be highlighted as major noise source: combustion, mechanical and tailpipe. The tailpipe noise is considered as the noise radiated from the open terminations of intake and exhaust systems, caused by both pressure pulses propagating to the open ends of the duct systems, and by vortex shedding as the burst leaves the tailpipe (flow generated noise). In order to reduce noise generated by vehicles, it is important to investigate the gas interactions and what can be improved in exhaust line design during the product development phase.