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Technical Paper

100-kWe Lunar/Mars Surface Power Utilizing the SP-100 Reactor with Dynamic Conversion

An integration study was performed coupling an SP-100 reactor with either a Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystem. A power level of 100 kWe was selected for the study. The power system was to be compatible with both the lunar and Mars surface environment and require no site preparation. In addition, the reactor was to have integral shielding and be completely self-contained, including its own auxiliary power for start-up. Initial reliability studies were performed to determine power conversion redundancy and engine module size. Previous studies were used to select the power conversion optimum operating conditions (ratio of hot-side temperature to cold-side temperature). Results of the study indicated that either the Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystems could be integrated with the SP-100 reactor for either a lunar or Mars surface power application.
Technical Paper

16-Channel Portable Data Acquisition and Reduction System

A Microprocessor Data Acquisition System has been designed to be cab-mounted in vehicles or used in laboratories to acquire up to 16 channels of test data. This data may be acquired as time-at-level histograms in one or two dimensions with min-max-mean data recovery, time histories, or peaks and valleys stored on digital tape. The system includes a microcomputer-based Playback/Support Box that simplifies playback of data tapes for computer analysis or stand-alone data plotting using a graphics terminal.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Electrical & Electronics

The Ford GT Program Team was allocated just 22 months from concept to production to complete the Electrical and Electronics systems of the Ford GT. This reduced vehicle program timing - unlike any other in Ford's history -- demanded that the team streamline the standard development process, which is typically 54 months. This aggressive schedule allowed only 12 weeks to design the entire electrical and electronic system architecture, route the wire harnesses, package the components, and manufacture and/or procure all components necessary for the first three-vehicle prototype build.
Technical Paper

4994 Tractor Hydraulic System

J I Case Company has produced four-wheel-drive agricultural tractors since 1964. In 1984 however, the flagship of the Case fleet changed hands. Rising labor costs and larger farming operations spearheaded the need for a more efficient larger tractor. January 1984 marked the introduction of the largest four-wheel-drive tractor in the history of Case, the 4994, a 400-gross engine horsepower tractor, Figure 1. Sheer horsepower alone however, would not meet the requirements of today's farming operations. Case Engineering realized that tomorrows tractors must have sufficient power to handle the wide variety of attachments available. They also realized that along with the unmatched power must come precise control of the attachment. These advancements in farming have required improvements to the tractor hydraulic system. This paper describes the hydraulic system of the 4994, Case's new flagship.
Journal Article

5.9 GHz DSRC Standards Overview and Status

Over the past several years the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standards Association has developed standards for the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications protocols, also known as Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments. These standards consist of IEEE 1609 as well as an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 standard or 802.11p. The 1609 standards were published for Trial Use and these as well as the 802.11p draft have been implemented in a variety of test beds to provide lessons learned and feedback into the standards working groups. Based on ongoing testing, the protocols display a strong capability to address the requirements of crash avoidance and transportation mobility applications. The corresponding test results provide information necessary to update the standards after the first trial phase as industry moves toward commercial implementations.
Technical Paper


A colorful series of 150 slides was presented tracing 5 HP to 1200 HP marine gear design evolution beginning in 1906, followed by pre-WWI developments, Liberty Aircraft engine usage and a 1924 to 1972 series of pleasure boat and work boat marine gear photographs. The entire slide presentation is available in 35 m.m. film strip and may be ordered (at cost) from the author, R. C. McRoberts, Twin Disc, Incorporated, Racine, Wisconsin, 53403, U.S.A. For short time usage, a loan film is available. This history of U. S. marine gear development includes information contributed by the Snow-Nabstedt Gear Corp., Capitol Gears, Inc., Paragon Gears, Inc., The Walter Machine Co., Inc., Detroit Diesel Allison Div. of General Motors Corp., Caterpillar Tractor Co., Warner Gear Div. Borg-Warner Corp. and Twin Disc, Incorporated.
Technical Paper

50 Years of Agricultural Tractor Development

The story of Power Farming is the great saga of our times. It is a story of free enterprise, perseverance and endurance of the individual, of vision, idealism and cooperation among men, of the lightening of human toil and the release of millions of workers from farms to feed the ever hungry industrial revolution. By no means least, it is the story of producing food necessary to win two global wars, keep our allies alive and millions of the defeated enemy from starvation. FOREWARD By 1915, the Steam Traction Engine had attained its highest development. It was the forerunner, rather than the predecessor, of the farm tractor. The former was the instrument of expansion; the latter, the instrument of progress. The invention of the tractor, following by only sixteen years Otto's practical embodiment application of the Beau de Rochas power cycle to a heat engine, marked the advent of a new order - - the age of Power Farming.
Technical Paper

A Basic Approach to Gearbox Noise Prediction

This paper provides an overview of a strategy for the prediction of noise from industrial gearboxes. A review of the history of predictive noise control in gearboxes is given. The historical lead is followed in developing the strategy, but significant changes in the approach to predictive noise control have been made. The heart of the approach is the dynamic modeling of the gearbox from inside out. Thus one must start this process with the prediction of the internal dynamic response of the gear train system. This paper then details the computational strategy for the determination of the dynamic response of the internal gearbox components. The approaches presented here are significant departures from those carried out in the past.
Technical Paper

A Better Mousetrap

Past success of the Volkswagen Beetle is due largely to its basic functional design. They were marketed as small, dependable, economical cars and the American public accepted them. Future success is expected of the entire Volkswagen line because of their philosophy of continued refinement and improvement of the product.
Technical Paper

A Brief History of Auto Radio Styling

“There's nothing new under the sun,” the old proverb says. But you only have to read a magazine, scan a periodical, listen to the radio, watch television, or glance at the multitude of ads that promise that such and such product is the latest trend or has up-to-date, state-of-the-art technology, to seemingly prove the old proverb wrong. However, old proverbs become old because they withstand the test of time. In this case, a hasty judgement should be withheld. Currently, as in the past, the above holds true for car radios as well. Whether in the United States, Europe, Canada or Latin America, the public has always been susceptible to last minute technological advances. It is curious then, that as far as car radio styling is concerned, their appearance has been typically rather conservative, and that it is only recently that styling has begun to change to be more in tune with the times.
Technical Paper

A Cartridge Type Pivotal Pin and Bushing Joint

A cartridge type pivotal pin and bushing joint has been patented and is being tested and refined both in the laboratory and on construction machinery. It features “dry lubricated” (Teflon) bearings which are assembled and sealed prior to installation. It is suitable for heavy unit loads and use under severe wear conditions, such as in crawler track chains and loader bucket pivotal pin joints. A brief history of U. S. manufactured track pin joints is included to show the progress in extending the service life of these devices.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gas Turbine Concepts Proposed for Automobiles

With the passage of the Automotive Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978 (Public Law 95–238), the government has made funding available to supplement industry in long term-high risk Research and Development (R&D) on advanced automotive propulsion systems. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which had a number of on-going programs in alternative automotive powertrains, has been chartered to carry out the intent of the Act. One of the programs sponsored by DOE has been in Advanced Gas Turbines (AGT) suitable for automobiles with high fuel economy, low exhaust gas emissions and the ability to operate on alternative fuels. This program is the outgrowth of government supported R&D in automotive gas turbines dating back to 1972. It is currently in the beginning phase of two major contracts awarded in late 1979.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Two Cycle Counting Algorithms

Two cycle counting algorithms, based on Range Pair and Rainflow methodologies, are quantitatively compared using three typical automotive load histories. Both algorithms were found to produce essentially equivalent counted spectra based on the resultant amplitude exceedance data. Because of the output format, the range pair algorithm is generally recommended for applications requiring damage accumulation calculations and spectrum analysis. The rainflow algorithm is recommended for applications involving cycle counting of arbitrary duration field load histories.
Technical Paper

A Concept for a Manned Artificial Gravity Research Ship

In the first half of the next century, Mankind will expand its sphere of existence to the Moon and space, and they will stand on Mars and study the other planets. Then, humans will inevitably be required to live for long periods, two years or more, in micro-gravity and/or low gravity environments. However, it is well known that such micro or low gravity environments adversely affect human physiology and psychology. The longer the period the greater such effects are and these can result in serious health problems. To improve living conditions in space by generating artificial gravity will be important to solving these problems.
Technical Paper

A Concise History of Thermoplastic Sealing Engine Cover Systems

The technology to manufacture thermoplastic rocker covers has evolved significantly since early applications in the US launched in 1980. New sealing methods and the widespread use of aluminum in cylinder heads make it easier to take advantage of the cost, weight and part integration opportunities that thermoplastics and the injection molding process have to offer. By understanding these developments, a functional, lightweight, low-cost, full-featured cover can be designed and manufactured.
Technical Paper

A Configurable Solid State Power Management and Distribution System

Future vehicle power systems must achieve greater flexibility and reliability than those used in previous generations. New functions that enhance safety, such as arc detection and wiring integrity verification, are essential for new systems. Embedded autonomous control, and fault correction can be built into Fault Tolerant Processors that integrate into a vehicle Open System Architecture. This approach will provide status and fault detection information to maintenance interfaces and provide fault correction. Safety is enhanced by the prevention of dangerous restarts from crew and personnel. The embedded features allow for pre-flight mission configuration to setup systems before takeoff and on-board and off-board maintenance control. This enables operators to evaluate power system health and history to help reduce turn around time.