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Technical Paper

11 Rules of Design for Manufacturing when Producing Pre-Impregnated Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Components - an Application at SAAB Aerostructures

2016-09-27
2016-01-2124
Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is one of the most commonly used materials in the aerospace industry today. CFRP in pre-impregnated form is an anisotropic material whose properties can be controlled to a high level by the designer. Sometimes, these properties make the material hard to predict with regards to how the geometry affects manufacturing aspects. This paper describes eleven design rules originating from different guidelines that describe geometrical design choices and deals with manufacturability problems that are connected to them, why they are connected and how they can be minimized or avoided. Examples of design choices dealt with in the rules include double curvature shapes, assembly of uncured CFRP components and access for non-destructive testing (NDT). To verify the technical content and ensure practicability, the rules were developed by, inter alia, studying literature and performing case studies at SAAB Aerostructures.
Technical Paper

135 Days in Isolation and Confinement: The Hubes Simulation

1995-07-01
951512
The EUROMIR-95 flight was selected as model for the HUBES experiment: a similar duration (135 days), a similar crew (3 men), similar schedule organisation (8 hours work, 8 hours sleep, 8 hours off-duties), similar workload for the crew and the mission control (performance of scientific experiments), similar setup for communication and data processing, and similar layout of the MIR station, as the simulation was performed in the MIR simulator located at the Institute for BioMedical Problems (IBMP) in Moscow. The Scientific Programme of HUBES had been elaborated by integration of 31 experiments from more than 80 research proposals from Principal Investigators from Europe, USA and Russia, in domains of Physiology, Psychology, Operations and Technology.
Technical Paper

1980 Mini-Baja East

1980-09-01
800955
For the engineering students involved, the Mini-Baja competition is demanding, yet rewarding. It provides in microcosm professional project experience characteristic of contemporary industrial practice. In this paper, the competition is described, the vehicles themselves are discussed, and some helpful hints for future hosts are given.
Technical Paper

1998 POLARIS INDY TRAIL: An Entry by Minnesota State University, Mankato in the “Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2000”

2000-09-11
2000-01-2574
A student team from Minnesota State University, Mankato's Automotive Engineering Technology program entered the Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2000. A 1998 Polaris Indy Trail was converted to indirect fuel injection running on a computer controlled closed loop fuel system. Also chassis, exhaust, and hood design modifications were made. The snowmobile was designed to compete in eight events. These events included acceleration, emissions, hill climb, cold start, noise, fuel economy/range, handling/driveability, and static display. The snowmobile modifications involved every aspect of the snowmobile with special emphasis on emissions and noise. Laboratory testing led to the final design. This paper details the modifications and test results.
Technical Paper

20 Years of UNSW Australia's Sunswift Solar Car Team: A New Moment in the Sun, but Where to Next?

2015-03-10
2015-01-0073
The Sunswift Solar Car project has been running at UNSW Australia in Sydney for 20 years as of 2015. It is an entirely student-run endeavour which revolves around the design and development of a solar/electric vehicle nominally designed to compete in the World Solar Challenge rally from Darwin to Adelaide every 2 years. The student cohort is drawn from a range of schools, disciplines and backgrounds, and the team has been increasingly successful and high-profile particularly in its second decade. The excellent level of hands-on training that the project provides to students is not rewarded with academic credit yet many of the alumni credit the project with launching their careers and ambitions. The team's world record-breaking latest vehicle, eVe, is the fifth constructed and presents a radical departure from previous cars in that it carries a passenger in a conventional layout and is based around a road-going sports car.
Technical Paper

2002 Joint EPA/SAE-ESSC Workshop Environmental Systems Decision Making

2003-03-03
2003-01-0549
This is a report of a workshop held in mid-August of 2002 at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, to explore what it takes to make a decision regarding environmental systems in the US. The participants in the workshop represented federal government, industry, non-governmental organizations and academia. During the two and a half day workshop, discussions were held on the policy drivers, the strategies and tactics (through a SWOT analysis), the decisions the automotive industry is facing today and the tools available to support decision making.
Book

2009 Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide 2nd Ed

2017-03-27
The Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide explains the most common rules, symbols, and concepts used in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. ...This one-of-a-kind reference guide includes over 100 detailed drawings to illustrate concepts, more than 40 charts for quick reference, explanations of each GD&T symbol and modifier and much more...Written by standards expert Alex Krulikowski, this valuable on-the-job reference clarifies how to interpret standard-compliant technical drawings that use ASME Y14.5-2009.
Book

2016 Mobility Engineering Professionals Salary Survey

2016-07-14
EXCLUSIVE MEMBER BENEFIT: 2016 MOBILITY ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL SALARY SURVEY AND CALCULATOR Gain better insight into compensation practices: this salary survey is the only study its kind to explore levels and changes in compensation and employment for engineers and technical employees in the automotive, aerospace, and commercial vehicle industries. It benchmarks compensation levels based by geography, education, industry sector, experience, and managerial and budgetary responsibility. The full report is available to SAE International members by signing into your My SAE account and downloading it into your My Library area. Members also have full access to the updated online interactive salary calculator by visiting SAE’s website. Become a member of SAE International to access this exclusive benefit for free, or purchase it today. YOU BELONG HERE. Membership helps you succeed both personally and professionally. Join us today.
Technical Paper

3-Dimensional Simulation of Vehicle Response to Tire Blow-outs

1998-02-23
980221
Sudden tire deflation, or blow-out, is sometimes cited as the cause of a crash. Safety researchers have previously attempted to study the loss of vehicle control resulting from a blow-out with some success using computer simulation. However, the simplified models used in these studies did little to expose the true transient nature of the handling problem created by a blown tire. New developments in vehicle simulation technology have made possible the detailed analysis of transient vehicle behavior during and after a blow-out. This paper presents the results of an experimental blow-out study with a comparison to computer simulations. In the experiments, a vehicle was driven under steady state conditions and a blow-out was induced at the right rear tire. Various driver steering and braking inputs were attempted, and the vehicle response was recorded. These events were then simulated using EDVSM. A comparison between experimental and simulated results is presented.
Technical Paper

3D Simulation of Soot Loading and Regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filter Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1143
A novel CFD simulation technique has been developed that unites realistic three-dimensional resolution of diesel particulate filter systems with computational efficiency. Three-dimensional resolution of the thermofluiddynamic behaviour during transient soot loading and regeneration is necessary for the optimization of the function, durability, weight and cost of DPF systems. Computational efficiency is required to allow its use as a standard development tool during all engineering phases and to allow the simulation of driving cycles. The detailed conclusions that can be drawn about soot distribution and thermal characteristics during the regeneration assist in ensuring the DPF function and avoiding DPF failures over the operational lifetime.
Technical Paper

4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation of Special Conditions

2011-09-13
2011-01-2158
This paper introduces the characteristics of the 4 wheel independent driving/4 wheel independent steering (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle (EV). Models of Subsystems and the vehicle are constructed based on Matlab/simulink. The vehicle model allows the inputs of different drive torques and steer angles of four wheels. The dynamic characteristics of drive motors and steer motors are considered, and also it can reflect the vehicle longitudinal dynamics change due to the increase of the mass and inertia of the four wheels. Besides, drive mode selection function that is unique to this type vehicle is involved. Simulations and analyses of crab, oblique driving and zero radius turning which are the special conditions of 4WID/4WIS EV are conducted. The results show that the model can reflect the dynamic response characteristics. The model can be used to the simulation analyses of handling, stability, energy saving and control strategies verification of 4WID/4WIS EVs.
Technical Paper

4WS Technology and the Prospects for Improvement of Vehicle Dynamics

1990-10-01
901167
FOUR-WHEEL STEERING (4WS) is beginning to find widespread use as a new approach to improving vehicle dynamics, especially in the medium and high speed ranges. Steering the rear wheels in the same phase as the front wheels enhances vehicle stability. Four-wheel steering systems have an even greater potential to improve stability and steering response through suitable control over the transient characteristics of the rear wheel steer angle. This paper traces the course of Nissan research and development work on four-wheel steering and the evolution of Nissan's HICAS (4WS) technology. It also describes research activities under way on vehicle dynamics using a newly developed Simulator Vehicle, equipped with a front and rear angle transient control system which makes it possible to vary the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle instantaneously and at will while driving.
Technical Paper

57 2- (3)-Cylinder Concepts for High Output Motorcycles and Commuter

2002-10-29
2002-32-1826
Four new 2-cylinder 4-stroke concepts are displayed as design and fitted in vehicles. These four different concepts comprise a Modular Concept V2- and W3-cylinder a MotoGP / Superbike concept with 2 and 3 cylinders, a narrow angle V-engine and a Building Block System Commuter CVT engine. Each engine concept is designed to meet the different requirements of the four segments. Specific analysis and simulation concerning 1D thermodynamics, vehicle simulation and delivered performance and tractive force was done for each concept. The concepts are compared in the aspects of uniform rotation, inertia forces and moments, and the effect on performance by the pulse effects of the manifolded intake and exhaust systems. The Modular Concept contains an OHC engine with a wide range of displacements and commonality of many parts. Good versatility is obtained as the concepts can be applied for sport- or custom bikes.
Journal Article

6 DOF Bench Test on a New Active Kinematics Rear Suspension for Functional Development

2012-04-16
2012-01-0550
To optimize the tyre contact patch in a sports car, Ferrari has developed an active camber and toe (ACT) system comprising of 4 actuators for the rear axle. This complex and completely new system is difficult to model accurately and for this reason, it was decided to combine a physical prototype with a full vehicle model to carry out the functional tests. The method of combining a virtual model with a physical test is known as hybrid simulation. This functional testing of both the actuators and the vehicle dynamics logic will be performed on an MTS 6DOF bench test prior to physical track testing on a prototype vehicle using Ferrari facility in Maranello, Italy. In support of this functional testing, we will use hybrid simulation techniques with software and methods specifically developed. The planned hybrid test system described in the paper will allow dynamic coupling between the physical bench test and a modified full vehicle simulation model.
Technical Paper

6DOF RTS Drive File Development Technique for Solid-Axle-Type Rear Suspensions Instrumented for 4DOF Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0855
The MTS 329LT six degree-of-freedom road test simulator (6DOF RTS) provides additional controls for camber and steer moments resulting in more realistic simulation results compared with results for a 4DOF RTS. However, the 6DOF RTS requires that additional transducers be installed on the data acquisition vehicle to provide the road load information necessary to control these additional moments. Occasionally, road load data available for drive file development may not include the necessary information for controlling steer and camber moments (typically for 4DOF applications). Under such circumstances, it is still possible to develop drive files for solid-axle-type rear suspensions. A technique used to accomplish this task is presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

777 Wing Fastener Machine Training Simulator

1993-09-01
931761
Wing panels for Boeing's new 777 airplane are assembled using fastening machines called Wing Fastener Systems (WFS). Compared to the wing riveting machines currently used to squeeze rivets for other airplane models, the 777 WFS provides significantly more features in that it also installs two part fasteners, collects process data for Statistical Process Control analysis, plus other functions. Historically, new operators for wing riveting machines have needed six months of on-the-job training to achieve basic qualification. Because of the increased functionality of the 777 WFS, an eight to nine month O.J.T. requirement was anticipated. Training requirements were further compounded by our need for up to thirty qualified operators in a relatively short time frame and a maintenance staff thoroughly trained in the new control architecture. Boeing's response to this challenge was to use simulation methods similar to those used to train pilots for our customer airlines.
Technical Paper

A "Hardware-Emulated" Test Analysis of a PEM-Fuel-Cell Hybrid Powertrain

2005-09-11
2005-24-040
Two testing campaigns were performed in Turin by CRF (the Fiat Research Center), and in Rome by ENEA (the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) and the University "ROMA TRE". The work demonstrates the feature of a FC emulator to characterize fuel-cell-propelled drivetrains without employing an expensive PEM fuel cell and it points out how the vehicle fuel consumption, on a specific mission, depends on two fundamental parameters, the accordance of the FC nominal power with the requested power of the mission and the battery State-of-Charge. In the ENEA Research Center "Casaccia", near Rome, the behaviors of PEM Fuel Cells of different sizes (7, 15, 22 kW) were simulated by replacing them with a controlled AC/DC converter, this fuel cell emulator powering a full-scale hybrid drive train.
Technical Paper

A 1D Method for Transient Simulations of Cooling Systems with Non-Uniform Temperature and Flow Boundaries Extracted from a 3D CFD Solution

2015-04-14
2015-01-0337
The current work investigates a method in 1D modeling of cooling systems including discretized cooling package with non-uniform boundary conditions. In a stacked cooling package the heat transfer through each heat exchanger depends on the mass flows and temperature fields. These are a result of complex three-dimensional phenomena, which take place in the under-hood and are highly non-uniform. A typical approach in 1D simulations is to assume these to be uniform, which reduces the authenticity of the simulation and calls for additional calibrations, normally done with input from test measurements. The presented work employs 3D CFD simulations of complete vehicle in STAR-CCM+ to perform a comprehensive study of mass-flow and thermal distribution over the inlet of the cooling package of a Volvo FM commercial vehicle in several steady-state operating points.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Flame Visualisation Technique Applied to the I.C. Engine

1986-02-01
860025
A two dimensional flame front visualisation technique, based on Mie scattering from particles dispersed in the combusting mixture, has been developed. The technique was used in an I.C. engine simulator to study the freely propagating flame in premised combustion. It is shown that flame front structures can be resolved for scales as low as 2×10−4 m. These scales were observed at 1500 RPM where velocity fluctuations are known to be on the order of 6 m/s. For lean propane combustion, peninsulas and pockets of unburned mixture are observed in the postflame regions at 600 RPM. Higher turbulence levels increase the global flame front area by creating flame front corrugations of various length scales. Evidence of flame front wrinkles having sizes comparable to previously reported flame thickness in engines suggests that I.C. engine models should take into account the interaction between the velocity field and the detailed structure of the diffusive-reactive flame front zone.
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