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Technical Paper

"Quattro"-Drive for Every Day Driving

1984-01-01
845070
An essential feature of the Audi Quattro permanent four-wheel drive system is in the inter-axle differential located on the hollow output shaft in the gearbox: the drive is taken from this differential forward to the front differential through the inside of the hollow shaft, and rearward to a propellor shaft driving the rear differential. The major advantages in everyday driving include improved traction and a reduced tendency toward throttle induced changes of attitude. The greater traction allows not only better progress in difficult road conditions; it also gives better acceleration in difficult traffic situations, such as when joining a busy main road. The more easily predictable handling response to throttle changes means that Quattro vehicles have better tracking stability. Altogether, the active safety and "roadability" are considerably improved.
Technical Paper

<PP/SEBS> Compounds: Sealing an Easier Future for Automotive Designers and Specifiers

2002-07-09
2002-01-1997
There is a definite trend toward the increasing use of “Glass Encapsulation Technology” in the automotive industry. In this technology a glass object such as a window is placed within a mould and an elastomer is injected around the window giving a tight sealing system. A wide variety of materials are currently used as the sealing materials in either static or semi-static encapsulated glazing systems, including a wide range of “elastomers”. New thermoplastic elastomer compounds are being developed that are characterized by their consistent properties; including high melt-fluidity, very good surface appearance, sealing properties, and resistance to weathering. Compound performance is highly dependent on formulation variables as well as the chemistries of the base materials. KRATON® SEBS polymers1 are block copolymers of styrene and ethylene/butylene.
Technical Paper

(CS)2 for Distributed Control Systems: A Better Approach to Developing and Maintaining ECU SW

2007-10-30
2007-01-4182
Electronic control units (ECUs) offer a modular, networked approach to real time machine control and diagnostics. Software embedded in these controllers offer agile and customizable solutions because of the intimate relationship with the ECU hardware and its inputs/outputs. In an idealistic view, embedded software should support the machine's life - 30 years or longer. Developing and maintaining software for these systems requires a strategy. A framework demonstrating common building blocks and long-term centralized support for ECUs on a machine is presented. This strategy reduces the detailed knowledge of the specific machine controls needed by ECU developers and provides the components and infrastructure key to extending the life and functionality of the ECU.
Standard

(R) Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Message Set Dictionary

2009-11-19
HISTORICAL
J2735_200911
This SAE Standard specifies a message set, and its data frames and data elements specifically for use by applications intended to utilize the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (DSRC/WAVE, referenced in this document simply as “DSRC”), communications systems. Although the scope of this Standard is focused on DSRC, this message set, and its data frames and data elements have been designed, to the extent possible, to also be of potential use for applications that may be deployed in conjunction with other wireless communications technologies. This Standard therefore specifies the definitive message structure and provides sufficient background information to allow readers to properly interpret the message definitions from the point of view of an application developer implementing the messages according to the DSRC Standards.
Technical Paper

04Road Feel Feedback Design for Vehicle Steer-by-Wire via Electric Power Steering

2013-11-27
2013-01-2898
A new road feel feedback control design of steer-by-wire (SBW) is proposed, which is produce the steering feel of conventional vehicle with equipped electronic power steering (EPS) system, due to SBW system removes mechanical linkages between steering system and front wheels. A dynamic model is established to study the road feel generation and deal with the need of computed rack force of steer system. Based on the analysis of the assisting characteristic and the active damping control strategy of the EPS system, an integrated road feel algorithm is proposed. For rack force is difficult to measure, an estimator is presented to estimate rack force by Kalman filter (KF). The hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) test bench results show that the proposed road feel control design make drivers get road feel information and SBW system can improve the vehicle maneuverability and comfortably.
Journal Article

1-g Suit Port Concept Evaluator 2008 Test Results

2009-07-12
2009-01-2572
The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), which was formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the lunar surface architectures that are under consideration in the Constellation Program. One element of the LER is the suit port, which is the means by which crew members perform Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: a 1-g suit port concept evaluator for functional integrated testing with the LER 1-g concept vehicle and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the 1-g suit port concept evaluator test results from the Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. The 1-g suit port concept evaluator was integrated with the 1-g LER cabin and chassis concepts.
Technical Paper

10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications

1992-08-03
929072
A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
Technical Paper

100 Million Smart Assistants on Wheels…

2006-10-16
2006-21-0014
Cars are undergoing major design changes, and typical usage scenarios are already showing significant departures from the main goal. What used to be mostly a transportation means is quickly becoming a mobile micro-world that replicates features, functions and services traditionally available in homes and offices. This paper will identify industry trends in the Driver-Machine-Interface area, and will try to anticipate how quickly and to what extent cars will morph into smart assistants to make the driving experience richer and even more enjoyable than it is today.
Technical Paper

100-kWe Lunar/Mars Surface Power Utilizing the SP-100 Reactor with Dynamic Conversion

1992-08-03
929446
An integration study was performed coupling an SP-100 reactor with either a Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystem. A power level of 100 kWe was selected for the study. The power system was to be compatible with both the lunar and Mars surface environment and require no site preparation. In addition, the reactor was to have integral shielding and be completely self-contained, including its own auxiliary power for start-up. Initial reliability studies were performed to determine power conversion redundancy and engine module size. Previous studies were used to select the power conversion optimum operating conditions (ratio of hot-side temperature to cold-side temperature). Results of the study indicated that either the Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystems could be integrated with the SP-100 reactor for either a lunar or Mars surface power application.
Technical Paper

110 Ton Payload on Two Axles with Hydro-Mechanical Drive

1966-02-01
660237
Late developments in tires and in lightweight, high horsepower engines and transmissions have enabled the earthmoving and mining industry equipment manufacturers to design and produce several types of preproduction 100-ton capacity trucks. A straight-forward approach to the design of a 110-ton end dump truck on two axles with a hydro-mechanical drive was followed by KW-Dart Truck Co. to produce a low cost per ton-mile vehicle.
Technical Paper

12 Present situation of Automated Guided Vehicle

2002-10-29
2002-32-1781
Many automated guided golf cars using the electromagnetic guide technology are used in Japan to obtain more convenient and safer golf play. Now this technology is beginning to be used outside of the golf course as an on-demand people mover system. This paper presents an example of the engineering system of automated guided golf cars along for the 2 principles of automated guided vehicle. The first principle is “the steering control system including the automatic sensitivity adjustment function”, and the other principle is “the vehicle speed control system”.
Technical Paper

120VAC Power Inverters

1983-02-01
830131
Inverters are solid state devices which change DC to 120VAC electricity. They are sufficiently rugged and reliable to make them practical for use on utility vehicles for operating thumpers, tools, lights and induction motor loads. The SCR type rather than the transistor type inverter is generally required for inductive and reactive loads. Static inverters operate from battery input. They provide power without running an engine, but are limited by battery capacity so work best in intermittent load applications. Dynamic inverters operate from alternator input and will handle continuous loads to 7200 watts with truck engine running.
Technical Paper

14 Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model for Roll Dynamics Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-1277
A vehicle model is an important factor in the development of vehicle control systems. Various vehicle models having different complexities, assumptions, and limitations have been developed and applied to many different vehicle control systems. A 14 DOF vehicle model that includes a roll center as well as non-linear effects due to vehicle roll and pitch angles and unsprung mass inertias, is developed. From this model, the limitations and validity of lower order models which employ different assumptions for simplification of dynamic equations are investigated by analyzing their effect on vehicle roll response through simulation. The possible limitation of the 14 DOF model compared to an actual vehicle is also discussed.
Standard

15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers with 12 Volt Nominal Supply

2018-04-15
CURRENT
J2691_201804
This SAE standard establishes the minimum construction and performance requirements for a 15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers, for trucks, trailers, and dollies in conjunction with SAE J2742. The connector accommodates both power and ISO 11992-1 signal circuits along with dual ground wires to accommodate grounding requirements within the constraints of the SAE J2691 terminal capacity.
Standard

15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers with 12 Volt Nominal Supply

2013-04-09
HISTORICAL
J2691_201304
This SAE standard establishes the minimum construction and performance requirements for a 15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers, for trucks, trailers, and dollies in conjunction with SAE J2742 “Combination 11 Conductors and 4 Pairs ECBS Cable”. The connector accommodates both power and ISO 11992-1 signal circuits along with dual ground wires to accommodate grounding requirements within the constraints of the SAE J2691 terminal capacity.
Standard

15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers with 12 Volt Nominal Supply

2019-09-12
WIP
J2691
This SAE standard establishes the minimum construction and performance requirements for a 15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers, for trucks, trailers, and dollies in conjunction with SAE J2742. The connector accommodates both power and ISO 11992-1 signal circuits along with dual ground wires to accommodate grounding requirements within the constraints of the SAE J2691 terminal capacity.
Technical Paper

175°C-Capable Thermoplastic Elastomers for Automotive Air Management and Sealing Applications

2007-11-28
2007-01-2576
Flexibility, oil resistance, and the need for heat resistance to 150°C-plus temperatures have traditionally limited automotive design engineers to two options - thermoset rubber or heat-shielding conventional thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). Both of these options present limitations in part design, the ability to consolidate the number of components in a part of assembly, and on total cost. This paper presents a class of high-performance, flexible thermoplastic elastomers based on dynamically vulcanized polyacrylate (ACM) elastomer dispersed in a continuous matrix of polyamide (PA) thermoplastic. These materials are capable of sustained heat resistance to 150°C and short-term heat resistance to 175°C, without requiring heat shielding. Recent advancements in blow molding and functional testing of the PA//ACM TPEs for automotive air management (ducts) and underhood sealing applications will be shown.
Technical Paper

18000 Series Power Shift Transmission Development

1974-02-01
740673
This paper describes the concept, design, and options of a new power shift transmission family for industrial equipment in the 50-100 hp range. The converter, clutch, and gearing arrangements provide the basis for various transmission configurations with both a drop and straight through output. The designs allow multiple usage of components within a transmission and between different sizes of transmissions. The various gearing, bearing, and clutch designs are based on proved experience factors, and as such will provide a new reliable family of transmissions.
Technical Paper

1958 Chevrolet LEVEL AIR SUSPENSION

1958-01-01
580049
CHEVROLET has made its new air-suspension system easily interchangeable in production line assembly with standard full-coil suspension by adopting a 4-link-type rear suspension with short and long arms. A feature of the system is the mounting of the leveling valves within the air-spring assemblies. These valves correct riding height continually at a moderate rate, regardless of whether the springs are leveling or operating in ride motion. The system provides constant frequency ride—ride comfort remains the same whether the car is occupied by the driver alone or is fully loaded.
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