(CS)2 for Distributed Control Systems: A Better Approach to Developing and Maintaining ECU SW
Electronic control units (ECUs) offer a modular, networked approach to real time machine control and diagnostics. Software embedded in these controllers offer agile and customizable solutions because of the intimate relationship with the ECU hardware and its inputs/outputs. In an idealistic view, embedded software should support the machine's life - 30 years or longer. Developing and maintaining software for these systems requires a strategy. A framework demonstrating common building blocks and long-term centralized support for ECUs on a machine is presented. This strategy reduces the detailed knowledge of the specific machine controls needed by ECU developers and provides the components and infrastructure key to extending the life and functionality of the ECU.
(R) Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Message Set Dictionary
This SAE Standard specifies a message set, and its data frames and data elements specifically for use by applications intended to utilize the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (DSRC/WAVE, referenced in this document simply as “DSRC”), communications systems. Although the scope of this Standard is focused on DSRC, this message set, and its data frames and data elements have been designed, to the extent possible, to also be of potential use for applications that may be deployed in conjunction with other wireless communications technologies. This Standard therefore specifies the definitive message structure and provides sufficient background information to allow readers to properly interpret the message definitions from the point of view of an application developer implementing the messages according to the DSRC Standards.
10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications
A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
12 Present situation of Automated Guided Vehicle
Many automated guided golf cars using the electromagnetic guide technology are used in Japan to obtain more convenient and safer golf play. Now this technology is beginning to be used outside of the golf course as an on-demand people mover system. This paper presents an example of the engineering system of automated guided golf cars along for the 2 principles of automated guided vehicle. The first principle is “the steering control system including the automatic sensitivity adjustment function”, and the other principle is “the vehicle speed control system”.
14 Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model for Roll Dynamics Study
A vehicle model is an important factor in the development of vehicle control systems. Various vehicle models having different complexities, assumptions, and limitations have been developed and applied to many different vehicle control systems. A 14 DOF vehicle model that includes a roll center as well as non-linear effects due to vehicle roll and pitch angles and unsprung mass inertias, is developed. From this model, the limitations and validity of lower order models which employ different assumptions for simplification of dynamic equations are investigated by analyzing their effect on vehicle roll response through simulation. The possible limitation of the 14 DOF model compared to an actual vehicle is also discussed.
15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers with 12 Volt Nominal Supply
This SAE standard establishes the minimum construction and performance requirements for a 15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers, for trucks, trailers, and dollies in conjunction with SAE J2742 “Combination 11 Conductors and 4 Pairs ECBS Cable”. The connector accommodates both power and ISO 11992-1 signal circuits along with dual ground wires to accommodate grounding requirements within the constraints of the SAE J2691 terminal capacity.
15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers with 12 Volt Nominal Supply
This SAE standard establishes the minimum construction and performance requirements for a 15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers, for trucks, trailers, and dollies in conjunction with SAE J2742. The connector accommodates both power and ISO 11992-1 signal circuits along with dual ground wires to accommodate grounding requirements within the constraints of the SAE J2691 terminal capacity.
1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation of a High Performance Lamborghini V12 S.I. Engine
This paper describes the development and application of the 1D thermo-fluid dynamic research code GASDYN to the simulation of a Lamborghini 12 cylinder, V 60°, 6.2 L automotive S.I. engine. The model has been adopted to carry out an integrated simulation (thermodynamic, fluid dynamic and chemical) of the engine coupled to its intake and exhaust manifolds, in order to predict not only the wave motion in the ducts and its influence on the cylinder gas exchange process, but also the in-cylinder combustion process and the pollutant emission concentration along the exhaust system. The gas composition in the exhaust pipe system is dictated by the cylinder discharge process, after the calculation of the combustion via a thermodynamic multi-zone model, based on a “fractal geometry” approach.
2 Stroke Fuel Injected Outboard Motor with Oxygen Sensor Feedback Control System
This paper describes new 2 stroke fuel injected spark ignition outboard motor equipped with unique oxygen sensor feed back control system to assure constantly optimized air/fuel ratio. First, the general concept and the engineering target of commercial model are explained, and then the design and arrangement of oxygen sensor feedback fuel injection control system are described. Common automotive oxygen sensor is utilized in this system, and it is devised to overcome the problems inherent in 2-stroke engines. This paper also describes the controlled combustion system that enhances consistent and stable performance, and improves fuel efficiency. Applying these technologies, 40% less fuel consumption in cruise range was demonstrated by the comparative test with conventional fuel injected 2-stroke model.
25cc HCCI Engine Fuelled with DEE
This paper describes the set-up and testing of a single cylinder 25cc, air cooled, 4-stroke Spark Ignition (SI) engine converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode with the aid of various combustion control systems. The combustion control systems were investigated regarding their effects on combustion stability and heat release phasing. Engine operation was compared with unique findings from previous work done on a very small 2-stroke HCCI engine. HCCI engine operation was possible between 1000 - 4000 rpm when using Diethyl Ether (DEE) as the test fuel. Maximum operational fuel-air equivalence ratio (Φ) was 0.75 when operating without Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). This relatively high equivalence ratio was attainable due to thermal gradients induced by the high surface area to volume ratio of the small engine combustion chamber, resulting in high chamber heat transfer.
270-Vdc/Hybrid 115-Vac Electric Power Generating System Technology Demonstrator Evolution to a Dual-Channel, More Electric Aircraft Technology Development Testbed
Sundstrand has been investigating 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac electrical power generating systems (EPGS) technology in preparation for meeting the electrical power generating system (EPGS) requirements for future aircraft (1). Systems such as the one being investigated are likely to be suitable for the More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) concepts presently under industry and military study. The present Sundstrand single-channel testbed is being further expanded to better understand the electrical system performance characteristics and power quality requirements of an MEA in which traditional mechanical subsystems are replaced by those of a “more-electric” nature. This paper presents the most recent Sundstrand 270-Vdc system transient performance data, and describes the modifications being made to the 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac testbed.
3-D Scanning Vibrometry Enables Efficient Experimental Modal Analysis of Large and Complex Structures for NVH-Optimised Vehicles
In the design and development of modern cars with respect to comfort, silence and safety, state of the art experimental modal analysis is one of the essential development tools. Due to the large amount of degrees of freedom of such a large and complex system like a car with all its components, a complete simulation by FEM can not be realised easily and requires an enormous expenditure of work and calculations. In addition the simulations are based on assumed system parameters and thus the vibration behaviour of the resulting prototypes often is not completely identical to the simulated model. In contrast to conventional measurements with accelerometers, the 3-D Scanning Vibrometer enables fast and efficient non-contact measurements of the in-plane and out-of-plane vibration behaviour at all optical accessible surfaces. The method easily allows to increase the number of measured points to obtain a high measurement point density.
3D Design and Surface Mapping of Disc Brake Pad for High Speed Train Using FEA
Recurrently, the increase in production of high-speed trains worldwide has become a confirmed fact. Seeking to use the high-speed trains locally to link the capital of Egypt “Cairo” with the new industrial cities has become a national requirement. Modeling 3D surface maps using finite element analysis (FEA) is one of the most important mechanical design tools for frictional parts to facilitate the manufacture of brake systems for heavy duty vehicles, especially high-speed trains due to difficult working conditions. In this paper, we presented simulate 3D surface maps for proposed frictional material pad using FEA at certain design parameters and experimental result conductions. The typical surface characteristics of disc brake pad are compared with commonly used materials in railway and vehicle brakes in Egypt.
4-Sensor 2-Channel Anti-Lock System for FWD Cars
The possibility of 2 Channel anti-lock system, which controls each of two independent hydraulic circuits of diagonal split braking system of FWD car seperately, were studied. Theoretical investigation suggested two out of four possible control logics to be promising and they were proved to be practically satisfactory through vehicle test. This system is almost as effective as expensive 3-channel or 4-channel system, when the braking force distribution between front and rear axles is correct as required by EEC Braking regulation. Under extreme condition that rear wheels lock earlier than fronts, the compromise between stopping distance and stability is necessary.
42V Power Control System for Mild Hybrid Vehicle (MHV)
In the 42V Mild Hybrid System introduced into market by Toyota for the first time in the world, the crankshaft using belt(s) drives the motor/generator (MG). The set-up employs an inverter unit to control the MG electronically. This paper describes the system configuration, operations, characteristic features and development results of the new power control system. The focus is on the MG, the inverter-for-MG-control and energy regeneration, as well as DC/DC converter for the power supply to the 14V devices.
4WS Technology and the Prospects for Improvement of Vehicle Dynamics
FOUR-WHEEL STEERING (4WS) is beginning to find widespread use as a new approach to improving vehicle dynamics, especially in the medium and high speed ranges. Steering the rear wheels in the same phase as the front wheels enhances vehicle stability. Four-wheel steering systems have an even greater potential to improve stability and steering response through suitable control over the transient characteristics of the rear wheel steer angle. This paper traces the course of Nissan research and development work on four-wheel steering and the evolution of Nissan's HICAS (4WS) technology. It also describes research activities under way on vehicle dynamics using a newly developed Simulator Vehicle, equipped with a front and rear angle transient control system which makes it possible to vary the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle instantaneously and at will while driving.
5th Generation Electronic Gas Injection Control System
The long time needed for the application and the money involved are some of the main obstacles preventing the CNG vehicles market penetration, costs are always too high and application time always too long compared with the relatively small volumes. Besides the activities to be carried out on the original engine control system to integrate the gas system are unwelcome by the OEM as they require a re-validation of already validated components/systems. This issue became more critical since the EOBD system has been installed into the vehicles as the extremely heavy validation activity are jeopardized by the gas system and the major part of the calibration/validation work shall be repeated. A new gas control system has been developed with the aims to achieve the best performances in terms of power, driveability, emissions, without any modifications on the OEM system, very short application time and costs.
777 Wing and Engine Ice Protection System
This paper describes the wing and engine ice protection system, used on all 777 aircraft. The 777 ice protection system is unique in two ways: it has an advanced control system which minimizes aircraft power consumption. In addition, the system was procured by the prime contractor, Boeing, as a fully integrated subsystem from a single supplier.
A 5 Phase Brake Insulator Engineering Selection Process
Brake squeal signatures (2 kHz to 18 kHz) have tonal content highly dependent on the specific brake system structural architecture. The challenge in minimizing squeal involves correctly identifying the conditions (temperature, apply pressure, rotor speed as some basic parameters) of occurrence, defining the underlying structural dynamics of the system and applying appropriate suppression solutions. The quantitative metric of improvement is the cumulative event percentage of occurrence. Design variables of the brake system and performance attribute targets extend the challenge beyond the level of just reducing noise. Consideration of material costs, manufacturing/assembly factors, durability, thermal management as well as other factors narrow the solution space significantly. Compressed late stage development is not uncommon in reaching acceptable levels of performance and is a primary reason for following a well defined process flow with provision for alternative solutions.