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Technical Paper

1967 Guide to Governmental Assurance Documentation: In the Areas of Quality, Reliability, Maintainability, Value Engineering, Safety, Human Factors, and Zero Defects

Governmental assurance documentation bibliography updated; new tabulation effective as of April 1, 1967. Latest revision indicated in all instances, but no attempt was made to list supplements or amendments. Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (DODISS) published annually in three parts (alphabetic, numerical, and listing of Federal Supply Classification following unclassified documents.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Vehicle Aerodynamics - Updating a Legend

This paper documents the processes and methods used by the Ford GT team to meet aerodynamic targets. Methods included Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis, wind tunnel experiments (both full-size and scale model), and on-road experiments and measurements. The goal of the team was to enhance both the high-speed stability and track performance of the GT. As a result of the development process, significant front and rear downforce was achieved while meeting the overall drag target.

400 Hz Connection Aircraft Electrical Maintenance Procedures

This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes field-level procedures to determine if 400 Hz electrical connections for external power may have been subjected to excessive wear, which may result in inadequate disengagement forces.
Technical Paper

A 360×226 Pixel CMOS Imager Chip Optimized for Automotive Vision Applications

Multiple automotive systems are now being developed which require an imager or vision chip to provide information regarding vehicle surroundings, vehicle performance, and vehicle passenger compartment status. Applications include lane departure, lane tracking, collision avoidance, as well as occupant position, impaired driver, and occupant identification. These applications share many requirements, including robust design, tolerance for the automotive environment, built in self-test, wide dynamic range, and low cost. In addition, each application has unique requirements for resolution, sensitivity, imager aspect ratio, and output format. In many cases, output will go directly to vehicle systems for processing, without ever being displayed to the driver. Commercial imager chips do not address this wide spectrum of requirements. A CMOS imager chip has been designed to address these unique automotive requirements.
Technical Paper

A Backbone in Automotive Software Development Based on XML and ASAM/MSR

The development of future automotive electronic systems requires new concepts in the software architecture, development methodology and information exchange. At Bosch an XML and MSR based technology is applied to achieve a consistent information handling throughout the entire software development process. This approach enables the tool independent exchange of information and documentation between the involved development partners. This paper presents the software architecture, the specification of software components in XML, the process steps, an example and an exchange scenario with an external development partner.
Journal Article

A Comparison of 25 High Speed Tire Disablements Involving Full and Partial Tread Separations

Tire tread separation events, a category of tire disablements, can be sub-categorized into two main types of separations. These include full tread separations, in which the tread around the entire circumference of the tire separates from the tire carcass, and partial tread separations, in which a portion of the tread separates and the flap remains attached to the tire for an extended period of time. In either case, the tire can remain inflated or lose air. Relatively, there have been few partial tire tread separation tests presented in the literature compared to full tread separation tests. In this study, the results of 25 full and partial tire tread separation tests, conducted with a variety of vehicles at highway speeds, are reported. Cases in which the tire remains inflated and loses air pressure are both considered. The testing was performed on a straight section of road and primarily focused on rear tire disablements.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Engine Oil Viscosity, Emulsion Formation, and Chemical Changes for M85 and Gasoline-Fueled Vehicles in Short-Trip Service

Accumulation of fuel, water, acids, insolubles, and metals in engine oil is documented and compared for variable-fueled (fuel containing up to 85 percent methanol) and gasoline-fueled vehicles in short-trip service. The oil temperature at which various contaminants are removed is noted. As a consequence of emulsion formation, the viscosity of the oil in the M85-fueled vehicles increased. Due to the presence of gasoline, the viscosity of the oil in the gasoline-fueled vehicles decreased. Equations were developed to explain both the viscosity reduction due to gasoline and the viscosity increase due to emulsion-forming contaminants (water and methanol).
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Numerical Techniques for the Study of Lightning Indirect Effects

A comparison of various numerical tools and techniques was performed for calculating the lightning indirect effects to composite structures and internal systems. This paper is a summary of the initial comparison results. Detailed results of each technique considered are given in additional separate papers presented during this conference. The modeling considered current distributions over and within composite surfaces and the coupling of current and voltages to internal systems such as wire bundle cables and hydraulic and fuel tubes. The models were compared to each other and to measured data from low level swept continuous wave (LLCW) tests performed on two test fixtures. Other features of the codes such as run time, ease of use, computer requirements, availability of documentation and technical support, etc. are compared as well.
Technical Paper

A Computer-aided Production Planning System for Mass Customization of Non-rotational Parts

This paper introduces a comprehensive system of production planning for mass customization of non-rotational parts. The combined features are defined based on the concept of part families. The process parameters are associated with the feature parameters so that a rapid production planning can be achieved for product design changes. Setup planning is carried out based on both the best practice knowledge in industry and the analysis based generation of setups. Manufacturing resource, fixture design, and tolerance issues are considered in the system. The cycle time estimation and standard documentation are included in the system.
Technical Paper

A Critique of Critical Speed Yaw Mark Research

Critical speed yaw marks are commonly used in collision reconstruction to estimate vehicle speed. Research and laboratory testing have demonstrated that critical speed calculations can be used to accurately estimate vehicle speed. Thus, the principles supporting critical speed yaw analysis are fundamentally and theoretically valid and are not being challenged in this study. However, there are observed and documented limitations with respect to the appropriate application and execution of critical speed yaw analysis. This paper reviews the published research to-date and identifies limitations of critical speed yaw analysis. Examples of collision scenes are provided which quantify the inaccuracies associated with the misuse of critical speed yaw calculations. Areas for further research are identified and detailed.
Technical Paper

A Demographic Analysis and Reconstruction of Selected Cases from the Pedestrian Crash Data Study

This study involves two areas of research. The first is the finalization of the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) in order to provide detailed information regarding the vehicle/pedestrian accident environment and how it has changed from the interim PCDS information. The pedestrian kinematics, injury contact sources, and injuries were analyzed relative to vehicle geometry. The second area presented is full-scale attempts at reconstruction of two selected PCDS cases using the Polar II pedestrian dummy to determine if the pre-crash motion of the pedestrian and vehicle could somehow be linked to the injuries and vehicle damage documented in the case.
Technical Paper

A Discussion of Issues Affecting the Transition of NASA’s Standard Offgassing Test Method to an International Test Method

The toxicity test method utilized by The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is being modified to create an International Standard. The method, NHB 8060.1 C, Test 7, is utilized to determine the identity and quantity of offgassed products from materials and hardware. This paper focuses on the resolution of technical issues faced during its transition from a US specific document to an International Standard. NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) have been very active in bringing ISO 14624-3 through several revisions to its current form. It is anticipated that the document could be an international standard by the end of 1999, with the full support of NASA, ESA, NASDA, and the other national programs represented in Working Group 1.
Technical Paper

A Flexible Production Environment

New technologies, evolving customer requirements, different process procedures, part changes, inequities between CAD model and actual fixtures and parts, and other problems all require a flexible process environment. However, increased process complexities place a burden on production operators. CIMCORP has developed a flexible environment for drilling, routing and waterjet cutting composites. The system accepts off-line CAD/CAM generated part programs, allows on-line creation and editing of programs, integrates customer expertise to help optimize production, yet maintains a simple production level environment. The environment utilizes pop-up menus and pull down interaction windows to reduce operator input to known values. An on-line RS-274 editor, communication with intelligent peripheral devices, and system administration screens for reconfiguration of process parameters are also included.
Technical Paper

A Generic Process for Human Model Analysis

The purpose of this paper is to provide a general process for human model analysis in the digital mock-up environment. It is also intended to provide some basic guidelines for the use and application of human models. This document is intended for anyone who will be performing human model analyses. It is assumed that the person performing the analysis has at least a minimal level of training in the use of the software involved. Note that this document is limited to anthropometric and ergonomic modeling.
Technical Paper

A Method for Documenting Locations of Rib Fractures for Occupants in Real-World Crashes Using Medical Computed Tomography (CT) Scans

A method has been developed to identify and document the locations of rib fractures from two-dimensional CT images obtained from occupants of crashes investigated in the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN). The location of each rib fracture includes the vertical location by rib number (1 through 12), the lateral location by side of the thorax (inboard and outboard), and the circumferential location by five 36-degree segments relative to the sternum and spine. The latter include anterior, anterior-lateral, lateral, posterior-lateral, and posterior regions. 3D reconstructed images of the whole ribcage created from the 2D CT images using Voxar software are used to help identify fractures and their rib number. A geometric method for consistently locating each fracture circumferentially is described.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Framework for Automotive Embedded Control Systems

This work is part of a larger effort to define a modeling approach suitable for complex embedded control systems for which modeling techniques are in the progress of maturing. Modeling constitutes an indispensable part of engineering, forming an important basis for documentation, communication, and design automation. In order to describe and compare different modeling techniques, a framework has been developed. The current state of the framework is presented together with lessons learned. We will illustrate the framework with an automotive application. The framework combines a generic concept of systems and the modeling concepts that have been extracted from a study of 12 modeling approaches covering different levels of design and disciplines. Future work will refine the framework by studying additional modeling techniques and by considering more domain specific modeling needs in automotive systems.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Process-Oriented and Tool Based Calibration Tasks for Engine Management Systems

This paper describes a new approach for the calibration of engine management systems based on a newly developed calibration tool. This approach is based on the idea to design the calibration process of a certain calibration task by means of a computer based stateflow/workflow diagram. By means of library methods for certain calibration routines, the calibration engineer can design his calibration process in a Stateflow diagram and then transfer this function in an executable file, guiding and supporting the engineer for performing his task. Due to this approach a documentation of the calibration process, the performed calibration task and a guided and automated calibration process can be performed.
Technical Paper

A New Calibration Specification for Linear Displacement Transducers

Linear displacement transducers may be used to measure deflection and, based on time histories, calculate rates of deflection and viscous criterion (VC). The current study documents that these transducers are subject to damage affecting the linearity of their responses, that this damage is not uncommon, and that the deviations from linearity can greatly affect calculations of deflection rate and VC. A calibration procedure to identify transducers with significantly non-linear responses is proposed.
Technical Paper

A New Procedure For Customizing A Requirements Engineering Environment To Generate Requirements Reports Automatically

In this work we present a new procedure for customizing, in the desired format, requirements reports generated by a Requirements Engineering Environment. This environment includes tools for: 1- capturing textual and pictoric requirements; 2- templating requirements documents that can be adjustable to the formats required by the certification authorities or system engineering groups; 3- translating features from/to the main word processors used in the industry (Word, Excel, etc. formats); 4- managing requirements configuration. It provides gains of productivity, correctness, reusability, traceability, coverage, etc, improving the efficiency of the projects. The procedure emphasizes items 2 and 3, and is illustrated with some examples driven from the aerospace industry.
Technical Paper

A New Technique for Measuring Spider Compliance

A new system for measuring spider compliance has been developed. The result of the measurement is a plot that maps the compliance versus displacement. The technique quickly and nondestructively generates the data and is almost completely automated. The method is reviewed and results documenting performance and improvement over an EIA standard test are presented. Several examples of actual measurements that illustrate the usefulness of the measurement are shown as well.