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Technical Paper

<PP/SEBS> Compounds: Sealing an Easier Future for Automotive Designers and Specifiers

2002-07-09
2002-01-1997
There is a definite trend toward the increasing use of “Glass Encapsulation Technology” in the automotive industry. In this technology a glass object such as a window is placed within a mould and an elastomer is injected around the window giving a tight sealing system. A wide variety of materials are currently used as the sealing materials in either static or semi-static encapsulated glazing systems, including a wide range of “elastomers”. New thermoplastic elastomer compounds are being developed that are characterized by their consistent properties; including high melt-fluidity, very good surface appearance, sealing properties, and resistance to weathering. Compound performance is highly dependent on formulation variables as well as the chemistries of the base materials. KRATON® SEBS polymers1 are block copolymers of styrene and ethylene/butylene.
Technical Paper

(Particle) Emissions of Small 2-& 4-Stroke Scooters with (Hydrous) Ethanol Blends

2010-04-12
2010-01-0794
The objectives of the present work are to investigate the regulated and unregulated (particle) emissions of a classical and modern 2-stroke and a typical 4-stroke scooter with different ethanol blend fuels. There is also comparison of two different ethanol fuels: pure ethanol (E) *) and hydrous ethanol (EH) which contains 3.9% water and is denatured with 1.5% gasoline. Special attention is paid in this research to the hydrous ethanol, since the production costs of hydrous ethanol are much less than those for (dry) ethanol. The vehicles are with carburettor and without catalyst, which represents the most frequent technology in Eastern Asia and offers the information of engine-out emissions. Exhaust emissions measurements have been performed with fuels containing ethanol (E), or hydrous ethanol (EH) in the portion of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume. During the test systematical analysis of particle mass (PM) and nano-particles counts (NP) were carried out.
Journal Article

0W-16 Fuel Economy Gasoline Engine Oil Compatible with Low Speed Pre-Ignition Performance

2017-10-08
2017-01-2346
It has been long established fact that fuel economy is a key driving force of low viscosity gasoline engine oil research and development considered by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and lubricant companies. The development of low viscosity gasoline engine oils should not only focus on fuel economy improvement, but also on the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) prevention property. In previous LSPI prevention literatures, the necessity of applying Ca/Mg-based detergents system in the engine oil formulations was proposed. In this paper, we adopted a specific Group III base oil containing Ca-salicylate detergent, borated dispersant, Mo-DTC in the formulation and investigated the various effects of Mg-salicylate and Mg-sulfonate on the performance of engine oil. It was found that Mg-sulfonate showed a significant detrimental impact on silicone rubber compatibility while the influence from Mg-salicylate remains acceptable.
Journal Article

1-g Suit Port Concept Evaluator 2008 Test Results

2009-07-12
2009-01-2572
The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), which was formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the lunar surface architectures that are under consideration in the Constellation Program. One element of the LER is the suit port, which is the means by which crew members perform Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: a 1-g suit port concept evaluator for functional integrated testing with the LER 1-g concept vehicle and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the 1-g suit port concept evaluator test results from the Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. The 1-g suit port concept evaluator was integrated with the 1-g LER cabin and chassis concepts.
Technical Paper

1.8L Sierra-Mondeo Turbo-Diesel Valvetrain Friction Reduction Using a Solid Film Lubricant

1994-10-01
941986
A 1.8L turbocharged diesel engine valvetrain friction was investigated, and the effectiveness of using a solid film lubricant (SFL) coating in reducing friction was determined throughout the operable speed range. This valvetrain design features direct acting mechanical bucket valve lifters. Camshaft journal bearing surfaces and all camshaft rubbing surfaces except lobe tips were coated. The direct acting bucket shims were etched with a cross hatch pattern to a depth sufficient to sustain a SFL film coating on the shim rubbing surfaces subjected to high surface loads. The SFL coated valvetrain torque was evaluated and compared with uncoated baseline torque. Coating the cam bearing journal surfaces alone with II-25D SFL reduced valvetrain friction losses 8 to 17% for 250 to 2000 rpm cam speed range (i.e. 500 - 4000 rpm engine speed). When bucket tappet and shims were also coated with the SFL, further significant reductions in coated valvetrain friction were observed.
Technical Paper

100,000 Miles of Fueling 5.9L Cummins Engines with 100% Biodiesel

1996-10-01
962233
Two Cummins B5.9L engines were fueled with 100% biodiesel in excess of 48 months by the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The engines used to power Dodge pickups. The engine lubricating oil was sampled at 1000 mile intervals for analysis. Statistical analysis of the engine lubricating oil indicated that the wear metal levels in the lubricating oil were normal. A reduction in power was noted when the engines were tested using a chassis dynamometer. The 1991 pickup has been driven 110,451 km and the 1992 pickup has been driven approximately 177,022 km. The pickups averaged 6.9 km/L. Engine fuel efficiency and material compatibility issues are addressed in the paper.
Technical Paper

100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20)

2006-10-16
2006-01-3253
Nine identical 40-ft. transit buses were operated on B20 and diesel for a period of two years - five of the buses operated exclusively on B20 (20% biodiesel blend) and the other four on petroleum diesel. The buses were model year 2000 Orion V equipped with Cummins ISM engines, and all operated on the same bus route. Each bus accumulated about 100,000 miles over the course of the study. B20 buses were compared to the petroleum diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, vehicle maintenance cost, road calls, and emissions. There was no difference between the on-road average fuel economy of the two groups (4.41 mpg) based on the in-use data, however laboratory testing revealed a nearly 2% reduction in fuel economy for the B20 vehicles. Engine and fuel system related maintenance costs were nearly identical for the two groups until the final month of the study.
Technical Paper

175°C-Capable Thermoplastic Elastomers for Automotive Air Management and Sealing Applications

2007-11-28
2007-01-2576
Flexibility, oil resistance, and the need for heat resistance to 150°C-plus temperatures have traditionally limited automotive design engineers to two options - thermoset rubber or heat-shielding conventional thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). Both of these options present limitations in part design, the ability to consolidate the number of components in a part of assembly, and on total cost. This paper presents a class of high-performance, flexible thermoplastic elastomers based on dynamically vulcanized polyacrylate (ACM) elastomer dispersed in a continuous matrix of polyamide (PA) thermoplastic. These materials are capable of sustained heat resistance to 150°C and short-term heat resistance to 175°C, without requiring heat shielding. Recent advancements in blow molding and functional testing of the PA//ACM TPEs for automotive air management (ducts) and underhood sealing applications will be shown.
Technical Paper

1962 passenger-car engineering trends

1962-01-01
620066
The phenomenal success of the small car is leading to many engineering changes in the automobile industry. It has brought increased emphasis on weight reduction on both small and full-size cars. Improving reliability and designing to eliminate grease fittings have also become important objectives.
Technical Paper

26 Development of “BF-Coat” for Snowmobile Piston

2002-10-29
2002-32-1795
The pistons in a snowmobile engine are subjected to severe temperature conditions not only because snowmobiles are operated in extremely cold temperatures but also because the engine has a high output per unit volume of approximately 150kW/liter. The temperature of the piston top may go from -40°C (when a cold engine is started) to 400°C or higher (when the engine is running at full load). When the piston and cylinder inner wall are cold, the performance of the lubricating oil drops; when they are hot, scuffing may be produced by problems such as tearing of the oil film between the piston and cylinder. When the engine is run at full load for a long time, moreover, the piston is subjected to prolonged high-temperature use, which is conducive to the production of piston boss hole abrasion and ring groove adhesive wear.
Technical Paper

3D Engine Analysis and MLS Cylinder Head Gaskets Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0663
Multi-layer steel (MLS) cylinder head gaskets are becoming more widely used to seal an engine. Therefore, it is important to understand the interaction between the engine head, block and head gasket. While experimental methods for determining necessary gasket tightening loads and experimental data relating some gasket design parameters to failure are available, it is very costly and time consuming. A numerical method, such as the finite element (FE) method, has proven to be very useful and efficient in aiding gasket design. A 3D engine FE analysis can predict a number of parameters. Of particular interest are the motion as well as the contact profile of the head, block and gasket. This information, usually difficult or impossible to obtain from a 2D FE analysis, can be used to predict the two most common failure modes of a gasket, fatigue crack and leakage.
Technical Paper

42 V Electric Air Conditioning Systems (E-A/CS) for Low Emissions, Architecture, Comfort and Safety of Next Generation Vehicles

2001-08-20
2001-01-2500
Electrical Air Conditioning Systems for 42 V vehicles will provide many benefits in terms of Environment protection, car Architecture, cabin Comfort and overall Safety. E-A/C Systems essentially differ from conventional ones by the use of electrical compressors. First of all, they will be particularly well adapted to new powertrains, helping to make them more environmentally friendly. Accurate control and high efficiency under the most common thermal conditions will reduce the A/C impact on fuel consumption. Besides, higher sealing integrity will cut emissions of refrigerant during normal operation and maintenance. Secondly, the use of an electrically driven compressor (EDC) will suppress a belt, and will reduce the packaging constraints. This will help to design new vehicle architectures. Thirdly, the electrification of air conditioning will allow better thermal comfort. In particular, E-A/C Systems provide a good opportunity for cabin pre-conditioning.
Technical Paper

50,000km On-Road Durability Test of Common-Rail Vehicle with 10% Blend of High Quality Biodiesel (H-FAME) from Jatropha

2015-03-30
2015-01-0115
The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand popular brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Spacecab, equipped with 4JK1-STD engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro III emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Jatropha-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 10% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
Technical Paper

50,000km On-Road Durability Test of Common-Rail Vehicle with 20% Blend of High Quality Palm Biodiesel (H-FAME)

2016-03-27
2016-01-1736
The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Extended cab, equipped with 4JK1-TCX engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro IV emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Palm-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 20% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
Technical Paper

5000 Hours Aging of THERBAN® (HNBR) Elastomers in an Aggressive Biodiesel Blend

2012-04-16
2012-01-0943
TERBAN® hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) is a specialty elastomer used in demanding engineering applications such as the automotive, heavy duty, and industrial markets. It has excellent combination of heat, oil and abrasion resistance in addition to its high mechanical strength, very good dynamic and sealing properties. This paper will present data on aging HNBR for five thousand hours in an aggressive and un-stabilized B30A biodiesel fuel blend (70% ULSD, 30% SME, and an aggressive additive package) and explore the effect of HNBR polymer properties and vulcanizate composition on the performance in such fuel blends.
Technical Paper

59 The Rotating Cylinder Valve 4-Stroke Engine A Practical Alternative

2002-10-29
2002-32-1828
The Rotating Cylinder Valve (RCV) Engine is a novel 4 cycle engine that is a practical alternative to conventional 2 and 4 stroke designs, in particular for small capacity single cylinder applications. It is primarily intended to address applications where emissions legislation is forcing manufacturers to abandon the traditional carburetted 2 stroke. It has particular benefits for the moped/light motorcycle market. The engine operates on a simple principle. The cylinder liner is rotated around the piston at half engine speed via a pair of bevel gears. A port in the side of this cylinder indexes with inlet and exhaust ports in the surrounding casing. This rotary valve serves the cylinder as the engine cycles through the conventional 4 stroke cycle. The main technical issue that has been addressed is the design of a practical rotary valve seal.
Technical Paper

8000 psi Hydraulic System Seals and Materials Test Program-A Progress Report

1985-10-01
851913
Flight control technology for 8000 psi has emerged almost simultaneously with new fire-resistant hydraulic fluids, such as MIL-H-83282 and CTFE. A proliferation of industry recommendations has resulted in a wide variety of mechanisms for solving associated actuator design problems, including tighter clearances, special seals, finishes, materials, and many others. As there are few common agreements on the issues, an extensive three-phase test program was undertaken to attempt to corroborate some of these approaches or suggest others that may be better or more cost effective.
Technical Paper

8000 psi Hydraulic System Seals and Materials Test Program-Final Report

1987-10-01
871895
An 8000 psi test program was conducted to resolve conflicts and issues surrounding the use of CTFE and MIL-H-83282 fluid with vented and unvented actuator rod seals. Each of the four possible combinations had unique problems and each responded to appropriate corrections including new backup rings designed to operate with standard clearances. It was concluded that all combinations were viable within certain limits. Advantages and disadvantages of each configuration were identified and specific recommendations made for both dynamic and static seals within the context of existing military specifications.
Standard

8000 psi Hydraulic Systems: Experience and Test Results

1994-09-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4002
Shortly after World War II, as aircraft became more sophisticated and power-assist, flight-control functions became a requirement, hydraulic system operating pressures rose from the 1000 psi level to the 3000 psi level found on most aircraft today. Since then, 4000 psi systems have been developed for the U.S. Air Force XB-70 and B-1 bombers and a number of European aircraft including the tornado multirole combat aircraft and the Concorde supersonic transport. The V-22 Osprey incorporates a 5000 psi hydraulic system. The power levels of military aircraft hydraulic systems have continued to rise. This is primarily due to higher aerodynamic loading, combined with the increased hydraulic functions and operations of each new aircraft. At the same time, aircraft structures and wings have been getting smaller and thinner as mission requirements expand. Thus, internal physical space available for plumbing and components continues to decrease.
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