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Technical Paper

1953 Paper Jet Operations in Retrospect with Connotations for the Supersonic Transport

A first attempt to study civil aircraft operations comprehensively, prior to having the airplane, occurred before the initial operation of U.S. subsonic jets. One airline carried out a manual-simulated “paper jet” operation lasting fifteen months. Today, computerized simulation of machines, methods, and operations has become commonplace, and replaces the slide rule and tedious day-by-day inputs of aircraft operational criteria. Computerized simulations are also applied to every aspect of the SST design and operations. These are important, but the results being should be used with caution and judgement.
Technical Paper

1998/1999 AIAA Foundation Graduate Team Aircraft Design Competition: Super STOL Carrier On-board Delivery Aircraft

The Cardinal is a Super Short Takeoff and Landing (SSTOL) aircraft, which is designed to fulfill the desire for center-city to center-city travel by utilizing river “barges” for short takeoffs and landings to avoid construction of new runways or heliports. In addition, the Cardinal will fulfill the needs of the U.S. Navy for a Carrier On-board Delivery (COD) aircraft to replace the C-2 Greyhound. Design requirements for the Cardinal included a takeoff ground roll of 300 ft, a landing ground roll of 400 ft, cruise at 350 knots with a range of up to 1500 nm with reserves, payload of 24 passengers and baggage for a commercial version or a military version with a 10,000 lb payload, capable of carrying two GE F110 engines for the F-14D, and a spot factor requirement of 60 feet by 29 feet.
Technical Paper

2-Color Thermometry Experiments and High-Speed Imaging of Multi-Mode Diesel Engine Combustion

Although in-cylinder optical diagnostics have provided significant understanding of conventional diesel combustion, most alternative combustion strategies have not yet been explored to the same extent. In an effort to build the knowledge base for alternative low-temperature combustion strategies, this paper presents a comparison of three alternative low-temperature combustion strategies to two high-temperature conventional diesel combustion conditions. The baseline conditions, representative of conventional high-temperature diesel combustion, have either a short or a long ignition delay. The other three conditions are representative of some alternative combustion strategies, employing significant charge-gas dilution along with either early or late fuel injection, or a combination of both (double-injection).
Technical Paper

2-D Measurements of the Liquid Phase Temperature in Fuel Sprays

Cross-sectional distributions of the liquid phase temperatures in fuel sprays were measured using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. The liquid fuel (n-hexadecane or squalane) was doped with pyrene(C16H10). The fluorescence intensity ratios of the pyrene monomer and excimer emissions has temperature dependence, and were used to determine the liquid phase temperatures in the fuel sprays. The measurements were performed on two kinds of sprays. One was performed on pre-heated fuel sprays injected into surrounding gas at atmospheric conditions. The other was performed on fuel sprays exposed to hot gas flow. The spray was excited by laser radiation at 266nm, and the resulting fluorescence was imaged by an intensified CCD camera. The cross-sectional distribution of the liquid phase temperature was estimated from the fluorescence image by the temperature dependence of the intensity ratio.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Diesel Engine for Light Aircraft: IDI vs. DI Combustion Systems

The paper presents a numerical study aimed at converting a commercial lightweight 2-Stroke Indirect Injection (IDI) Diesel aircraft engine to Direct Injection(DI). First, a CFD-1D model of the IDI engine was built and calibrated against experiments at the dynamometer bench. This model is the baseline for the comparison between the IDI and the DI combustion systems. The DI chamber design was supported by extensive 3D-CFD simulations, using a customized version of the KIVA-3V code. Once a satisfactory combustion system was identified, its heat release and wall transfer patterns were entered in the CFD-1D model, and a comparison between the IDI and the DI engine was performed, considering the same Air-Fuel Ratio limit. It was found that the DI combustion system yields several advantages: better take-off performance (higher power output), lower fuel consumption at cruise conditions, improved altitude performance, reduced cooling requirements.
Journal Article

2-Stroke High Speed Diesel Engines for Light Aircraft

The paper describes a numerical study, supported by experiments, on light aircraft 2-Stroke Direct Injected Diesel engines, typically rated up to 110 kW (corresponding to about 150 imperial HP). The engines must be as light as possible and they are to be directly coupled to the propeller, without reduction drive. The ensuing main design constraints are: i) in-cylinder peak pressure as low as possible (typically, no more than 120 bar); ii) maximum rotational speed limited to 2600 rpm. As far as exhaust emissions are concerned, piston aircraft engines remain unregulated but lack of visible smoke is a customer requirement, so that a value of 1 is assumed as maximum Smoke number. For the reasons clarified in the paper, only three cylinder in line engines are investigated. Reference is made to two types of scavenging and combustion systems, designed by the authors with the assistance of state-of-the-art CFD tools and described in detail in a parallel paper.

2009 Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide 2nd Ed

The Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide explains the most common rules, symbols, and concepts used in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. ...This one-of-a-kind reference guide includes over 100 detailed drawings to illustrate concepts, more than 40 charts for quick reference, explanations of each GD&T symbol and modifier and much more...Written by standards expert Alex Krulikowski, this valuable on-the-job reference clarifies how to interpret standard-compliant technical drawings that use ASME Y14.5-2009.
Technical Paper

210 Ft Medium Endurance Cutters

The U. S. Coast Guard has recently put into service new 210 ft cutters designed for search and rescue work, law enforcement, oceanographic work, and possible future ASW. This paper outlines the structure and capabilities of the vessel. An important feature of the cutter is its helicopter handling facilities, which have greatly increased the cutter's search and rescue capability by extending the area it can cover. The cutter is the first in Coast Guard service to be powered by a combination diesel engine and gas turbine installation. The combination gives a top speed of 18 knots and a cruising range of 5000 miles.
Technical Paper

21st Century Aircraft Potable Water Systems

Aircraft potable (drinking) water systems haven’t changed significantly in the last half-century. These systems consist of cylindrical water tanks pressurized by bleed air from the jet engines, with insulated stainless steel distribution lines. What has changed recently is the increase in the possibility of aircraft picking up contaminated drinking water at foreign and domestic stops. Customer awareness of these problems has also changed - to the point where having reliable drinking water is now a competitive issue among airlines. Old style potable water systems that are used on modern aircraft are high maintenance and exacerbate the growth of microbes because the water is static much of the time. The integrity of some pressurized water tanks are also a concern after years of use. Cost-effective mechanical and biological solutions exist that can significantly reduce the amount of chemicals added and provide good potable water.
Technical Paper

21st Century Lunar Exploration: Advanced Radiation Exposure Assessment

On January 14, 2004 President George W Bush outlined a new vision for NASA that has humans venturing back to the moon by 2020. With this ambitious goal, new tools and models have been developed to help define and predict the amount of space radiation astronauts will be exposed to during transit and habitation on the moon. A representative scenario is used that includes a trajectory from LEO to a Lunar Base, and simplified CAD models for the transit and habitat structures. For this study galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and trapped electron and proton environments are simulated using new dynamic environment models to generate energetic electron, and light and heavy ion fluences. Detailed calculations are presented to assess the human exposure for transit segments and surface stays.
Technical Paper

26 X 6.6 Radial-Belted Aircraft Tire Performance

Preliminary results from testing of 26 X 6.6 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are reviewed. These tire tests are part of a larger, on going joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction and Radial Tire (START) Program involving three different tire sizes. The 26 X 6.6 tire size evaluation includes cornering performance tests throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Static test results to define 26 X 6.6 tire vertical stiffness properties are also presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

270-Vdc/Hybrid 115-Vac Electric Power Generating System Technology Demonstrator

Sundstrand is investigating 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac electrical power generating and distribution systems technology so as to be well prepared to offer such systems for future aircraft applications. The approach taken has been to design, build, and test a representative system that meets or exceeds the tightest of the performance standards as defined by miliary standards. This paper describes a single-channel, 120-kW hybrid system and presents some typical performance data. The dc bus supplies a 30-kVA, 400-Hz, 115-Vac inverter; constant power load banks of up to 150 kW; and a resistive load bank of up to 90 kW. System simulation studies indicated the potential for unstable operation due to the negative impedance of the constant power load in conjunction with the source ripple filter and the load EMI filters. Unstable voltage and current were observed in system testing when the magnitude of the source impedance was not sufficiently below that of the load impedance.
Technical Paper

270-Vdc/Hybrid 115-Vac Electric Power Generating System Technology Demonstrator Evolution to a Dual-Channel, More Electric Aircraft Technology Development Testbed

Sundstrand has been investigating 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac electrical power generating systems (EPGS) technology in preparation for meeting the electrical power generating system (EPGS) requirements for future aircraft (1). Systems such as the one being investigated are likely to be suitable for the More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) concepts presently under industry and military study. The present Sundstrand single-channel testbed is being further expanded to better understand the electrical system performance characteristics and power quality requirements of an MEA in which traditional mechanical subsystems are replaced by those of a “more-electric” nature. This paper presents the most recent Sundstrand 270-Vdc system transient performance data, and describes the modifications being made to the 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac testbed.
Technical Paper

2D Ice Shape Scaling for Helicopter Blade Profiles in Icing Wind Tunnel

Different Airbus Helicopters main rotor blade profiles were tested in different icing wind tunnels and for different icing conditions. One of the objectives of the accretion tests was to validate the use of 2D icing scaling laws established for fixed wing aircraft on helicopter blade profiles. Therefore, ice shapes resulting from tests with the same icing similarity parameters are compared to each other allowing the assessment of icing scaling laws for helicopter applications. This paper presents the icing scaling laws used at Airbus Helicopters on blade profiles, the different test set ups and test models and it presents the comparison of the ice shapes collected during the icing wind tunnel test campaigns.
Technical Paper

2D Polar Assessment in Icing Wind Tunnel for iced Helicopter Blade Profiles

A helicopter blade profile was tested in the DGA Aero-engine Testing's icing altitude test facility S1 in Saclay, France during the winter of 2013/2014. The airfoil was a helicopter main rotor OA312 blade profile made out of composite material and with a metallic erosion shield. Dry air and ice accretion tests have been performed in order to assess the iced airfoil's aerodynamic behaviour. Several icing conditions were tested up through Mach numbers around 0.6. This paper presents the test setup, the test model and some of the test results. The test results presented in this paper include the ice shapes generated as well as dry air and iced airfoil lift and drag curves (polars) which were obtained with the real ice shapes on the airfoil.
Technical Paper

3-Dimensional Lightning Observations Using a Time-of-Arrival Lightning Mapping System

A lightning mapping system has been developed that locates the sources of VHF radiation from lightning discharges in three spatial dimensions and time. The system consists of several VHF receivers distributed over an area of about 100 km diameter. The system locates VHF radiation sources over the array with an accuracy of about 100 m. The system locates sources out to 250 km from the center of the array with reduced accuracy. The observations are found to reflect the basic charge structure of electrified storms.
Technical Paper

3D Simulation Methodology to Predict Passenger Thermal Comfort Inside a Cabin

The vehicle Heating, Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) system is designed to meet both the safety and thermal comfort requirements of the passengers inside the cabin. The thermal comfort requirement, however, is highly subjective and is usually met objectively by carrying out time dependent mapping of parameters like the velocity and temperature at various in-cabin locations. These target parameters are simulated for the vehicle interior for a case of hot soaking and its subsequent cool-down to test the efficacy of the AC system. Typically, AC performance is judged by air temperature at passenger locations, thermal comfort estimation along with time to reach comfortable condition for human. Simulating long transient vehicle cabin for thermal comfort evaluation is computationally expensive and involves complex cabin material modelling.


This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes field-level procedures to determine if 400 Hz electrical connections for external power may have been subjected to excessive wear, which may result in inadequate disengagement forces.