This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes procedures for use in the field to determine if 115/200 Volt, 400 Hz aircraft external electrical power connectors are excessively worn, which may result in the inability of the external power plug to be retained, intermittent electrical performance and arcing.
A first attempt to study civil aircraft operations comprehensively, prior to having the airplane, occurred before the initial operation of U.S. subsonic jets. One airline carried out a manual-simulated “paper jet” operation lasting fifteen months. Today, computerized simulation of machines, methods, and operations has become commonplace, and replaces the slide rule and tedious day-by-day inputs of aircraft operational criteria. Computerized simulations are also applied to every aspect of the SST design and operations. These are important, but the results being should be used with caution and judgement.
The Cardinal is a Super Short Takeoff and Landing (SSTOL) aircraft, which is designed to fulfill the desire for center-city to center-city travel by utilizing river “barges” for short takeoffs and landings to avoid construction of new runways or heliports. In addition, the Cardinal will fulfill the needs of the U.S. Navy for a Carrier On-board Delivery (COD) aircraft to replace the C-2 Greyhound. Design requirements for the Cardinal included a takeoff ground roll of 300 ft, a landing ground roll of 400 ft, cruise at 350 knots with a range of up to 1500 nm with reserves, payload of 24 passengers and baggage for a commercial version or a military version with a 10,000 lb payload, capable of carrying two GE F110 engines for the F-14D, and a spot factor requirement of 60 feet by 29 feet.
Although in-cylinder optical diagnostics have provided significant understanding of conventional diesel combustion, most alternative combustion strategies have not yet been explored to the same extent. In an effort to build the knowledge base for alternative low-temperature combustion strategies, this paper presents a comparison of three alternative low-temperature combustion strategies to two high-temperature conventional diesel combustion conditions. The baseline conditions, representative of conventional high-temperature diesel combustion, have either a short or a long ignition delay. The other three conditions are representative of some alternative combustion strategies, employing significant charge-gas dilution along with either early or late fuel injection, or a combination of both (double-injection).
Cross-sectional distributions of the liquid phase temperatures in fuel sprays were measured using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. The liquid fuel (n-hexadecane or squalane) was doped with pyrene(C16H10). The fluorescence intensity ratios of the pyrene monomer and excimer emissions has temperature dependence, and were used to determine the liquid phase temperatures in the fuel sprays. The measurements were performed on two kinds of sprays. One was performed on pre-heated fuel sprays injected into surrounding gas at atmospheric conditions. The other was performed on fuel sprays exposed to hot gas flow. The spray was excited by laser radiation at 266nm, and the resulting fluorescence was imaged by an intensified CCD camera. The cross-sectional distribution of the liquid phase temperature was estimated from the fluorescence image by the temperature dependence of the intensity ratio.
The paper presents a numerical study aimed at converting a commercial lightweight 2-Stroke Indirect Injection (IDI) Diesel aircraft engine to Direct Injection(DI). First, a CFD-1D model of the IDI engine was built and calibrated against experiments at the dynamometer bench. This model is the baseline for the comparison between the IDI and the DI combustion systems. The DI chamber design was supported by extensive 3D-CFD simulations, using a customized version of the KIVA-3V code. Once a satisfactory combustion system was identified, its heat release and wall transfer patterns were entered in the CFD-1D model, and a comparison between the IDI and the DI engine was performed, considering the same Air-Fuel Ratio limit. It was found that the DI combustion system yields several advantages: better take-off performance (higher power output), lower fuel consumption at cruise conditions, improved altitude performance, reduced cooling requirements.
The paper describes a numerical study, supported by experiments, on light aircraft 2-Stroke Direct Injected Diesel engines, typically rated up to 110 kW (corresponding to about 150 imperial HP). The engines must be as light as possible and they are to be directly coupled to the propeller, without reduction drive. The ensuing main design constraints are: i) in-cylinder peak pressure as low as possible (typically, no more than 120 bar); ii) maximum rotational speed limited to 2600 rpm. As far as exhaust emissions are concerned, piston aircraft engines remain unregulated but lack of visible smoke is a customer requirement, so that a value of 1 is assumed as maximum Smoke number. For the reasons clarified in the paper, only three cylinder in line engines are investigated. Reference is made to two types of scavenging and combustion systems, designed by the authors with the assistance of state-of-the-art CFD tools and described in detail in a parallel paper.
The Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide explains the most common rules, symbols, and concepts used in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. ...This one-of-a-kind reference guide includes over 100 detailed drawings to illustrate concepts, more than 40 charts for quick reference, explanations of each GD&T symbol and modifier and much more...Written by standards expert Alex Krulikowski, this valuable on-the-job reference clarifies how to interpret standard-compliant technical drawings that use ASME Y14.5-2009.
Each year car manufacturers release new production models that are unique and innovative. The production model is the result of a lengthy process of testing aerodynamics, safety, engine components, and vehicle styling. The new technologies introduced in these vehicles reflect changing standards as well as trends of the market. From Acura to Volvo, this book provides a snapshot of the key engineering concepts and trends of the passenger vehicle industry over the course of a year. For each of the 43 new production models, articles from Automotive Engineering International (AEI) magazine detail technology developments as well as a comprehensive look at the 2013 passenger car models. This book provides those with an interest in new vehicles with all the information on the key automotive engineering and technology advancements of the year.
Each year car manufacturers release new production models that are unique and innovative. These cars begin as concepts then go through the process of prototyping. The process of creating a new model can take years, involving extensive testing and refining of aerodynamics, safety, engine components, and vehicle styling. The production model is the result of this lengthy process, and its new technologies reflect the latest engineering standards as well as market trends. The 2014 Passenger Car Yearbook details the key engineering developments in the passenger vehicle industry of the year. Each new car model is profiled in its own chapter with one or more articles that were previously published and written by the award-winning editors of Automotive Engineering International. The novel engineering aspects of each new model are explored in depth.
Every year global automakers introduce new or significantly re-engineered passenger vehicles with increasingly advanced technology intended to exceed consumer expectations and satisfy increasingly stringent government regulations. Some of these technologies are firsts-of-their-kind and start trends that other automakers soon follow—with the innovations becoming adopted across the board. The supply community is also increasingly playing a more significant role in helping the original equipment manufacturers research, develop, and introduce the latest engineering innovations that help bring competitive advantage for their automaker partners. Each year, the editors of SAE’s Automotive Engineering magazine publish many articles focused on the technology and engineering innovations of new passenger and concept vehicles, and these articles have been collected into this volume.
Carmakers release new models every year with advanced technology to attract consumer interest and to satisfy increasingly stringent government regulations. Some of these technologies are firsts or leading-edge, and they start trends that more companies will soon follow. Snapshots of the direction of the automotive industry, along with OEM and supplier perspectives, are presented in these articles that have been collected by the Editors of Automotive Engineering whose aim is to provide the reader with a complete overview of the key advances that took place over the course of one model year. • Provides a single source for information on the key engineering trends of one year. • Allows the reader to skip to chapters that cover specific car models that interest them, or read about all models from beginning to end. • Includes plenty of big, full-color images and the facts about the most recent technology and engineering innovations.
The search for ever-lower emission technology for future generations of aircraft engines is actively progressing on both sides of the Atlantic. Tucked away on a modest-size stand at this year’s Farnborough International Airshow was a highly varied collection of unconventional engine technology displays – a clear indication of radical innovation already being investigated as a part of Ultimate, the European Horizon 2020 research and innovation project.
In part two of a two-part series, Richard Gardner discusses various aerospace propulsion innovations and continued work by aerospace engineers and scientists to advance aircraft engine technologies to increase efficiency and lower emissions.
The U. S. Coast Guard has recently put into service new 210 ft cutters designed for search and rescue work, law enforcement, oceanographic work, and possible future ASW. This paper outlines the structure and capabilities of the vessel. An important feature of the cutter is its helicopter handling facilities, which have greatly increased the cutter's search and rescue capability by extending the area it can cover. The cutter is the first in Coast Guard service to be powered by a combination diesel engine and gas turbine installation. The combination gives a top speed of 18 knots and a cruising range of 5000 miles.
Aircraft potable (drinking) water systems haven’t changed significantly in the last half-century. These systems consist of cylindrical water tanks pressurized by bleed air from the jet engines, with insulated stainless steel distribution lines. What has changed recently is the increase in the possibility of aircraft picking up contaminated drinking water at foreign and domestic stops. Customer awareness of these problems has also changed - to the point where having reliable drinking water is now a competitive issue among airlines. Old style potable water systems that are used on modern aircraft are high maintenance and exacerbate the growth of microbes because the water is static much of the time. The integrity of some pressurized water tanks are also a concern after years of use. Cost-effective mechanical and biological solutions exist that can significantly reduce the amount of chemicals added and provide good potable water.
On January 14, 2004 President George W Bush outlined a new vision for NASA that has humans venturing back to the moon by 2020. With this ambitious goal, new tools and models have been developed to help define and predict the amount of space radiation astronauts will be exposed to during transit and habitation on the moon. A representative scenario is used that includes a trajectory from LEO to a Lunar Base, and simplified CAD models for the transit and habitat structures. For this study galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and trapped electron and proton environments are simulated using new dynamic environment models to generate energetic electron, and light and heavy ion fluences. Detailed calculations are presented to assess the human exposure for transit segments and surface stays.
Preliminary results from testing of 26 X 6.6 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are reviewed. These tire tests are part of a larger, on going joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction and Radial Tire (START) Program involving three different tire sizes. The 26 X 6.6 tire size evaluation includes cornering performance tests throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Static test results to define 26 X 6.6 tire vertical stiffness properties are also presented and discussed.