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Technical Paper

12-Volt Vacuum Fluorescent Display Drive Circuitry for Electronically Tuned Radios

The trend towards battery voltage vacuum fluorescent displays continues the technological advances in design and construction of VFD's, as they are applied to the automobile environment. With the ever increasing use of electronic displays for electronically tuned radios (ETR's), compact disc (CD) players, and other entertainment systems, advances in battery voltage displays and their associated drive circuitry have become a necessity. With the inherent advantages of low voltage operation and high information density, VFD's will continue to dominate the automobile audio markets. This paper will discuss battery voltage displays, the basic circuitry necessary to operate a vacuum fluorescent display, and comment on the “off the shelf” controller and driver circuitry available.
Technical Paper

120VAC Power Inverters

Inverters are solid state devices which change DC to 120VAC electricity. They are sufficiently rugged and reliable to make them practical for use on utility vehicles for operating thumpers, tools, lights and induction motor loads. The SCR type rather than the transistor type inverter is generally required for inductive and reactive loads. Static inverters operate from battery input. They provide power without running an engine, but are limited by battery capacity so work best in intermittent load applications. Dynamic inverters operate from alternator input and will handle continuous loads to 7200 watts with truck engine running.
Journal Article

2-D CFAR Procedure of Multiple Target Detection for Automotive Radar

Abstract In Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS), the automotive radar is used to detect targets or obstacles around the vehicle. The procedure of Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) plays an important role in adaptive targets detection in noise or clutter environment. But in practical applications, the noise or clutter power is absolutely unknown and varies over the change of range, time and angle. The well-known cell averaging (CA) CFAR detector has a good detection performance in homogeneous environment but suffers from masking effect in multi-target environment. The ordered statistic (OS) CFAR is more robust in multi-target environment but needs a high computation power. Therefore, in this paper, a new two-dimension CFAR procedure based on a combination of Generalized Order Statistic (GOS) and CA CFAR named GOS-CA CFAR is proposed. Besides, the Linear Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (LFMCW) radar simulation system is built to produce a series of rapid chirp signals.

2015 Passenger Car and 2014 Concept Car Yearbook

Every year global automakers introduce new or significantly re-engineered passenger vehicles with increasingly advanced technology intended to exceed consumer expectations and satisfy increasingly stringent government regulations. Some of these technologies are firsts-of-their-kind and start trends that other automakers soon follow—with the innovations becoming adopted across the board. The supply community is also increasingly playing a more significant role in helping the original equipment manufacturers research, develop, and introduce the latest engineering innovations that help bring competitive advantage for their automaker partners. Each year, the editors of SAE’s Automotive Engineering magazine publish many articles focused on the technology and engineering innovations of new passenger and concept vehicles, and these articles have been collected into this volume.

2022 Thermal Management Systems Symposium

Thermal Management Systems Symposium industry discusses latest regulatory impacts, applications to reduce engine emissions, conserve energy, reduce noise, improve the cabin environment, increase overall vehicle performance passenger, commercial vehicle industry.
Technical Paper

3D Audio Reproduction via Headrest Equipped with Loudspeakers—Investigations on Acoustical Design Criteria

This paper focuses on the analysis and evaluation of acoustical design criteria to produce a plausible 3D sound field solely via headrest with integrated loudspeakers at the driver/passenger seats in the car cabin. Existing audio systems in cars utilize several distributed loudspeakers to support passengers with sound. Such configurations suffer from individual 3D audio information at each position. Therefore, we present a convincing minimal setup focusing sound solely at the passenger’s ears. The design itself plays a critical role for the optimal reproduction and control of a sound field for a specific 3D audio application. Moreover, the design facilitates the 3D audio reproduction of common channel-based, scene-based, and object-based audio formats. In addition, 3D audio reproduction enables to represent warnings regarding monitoring of the vehicle status (e.g.: seat belts, direction indicator, open doors, luggage compartment) in spatial accordance.
Technical Paper

3D Automotive Millimeter-Wave Radar with Two-Dimensional Electronic Scanning

The radar-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) like autonomous emergency braking (AEB) and forward collision warning (FCW) can reduce accidents, so as to make vehicles, drivers and pedestrians safer. For active safety, automotive millimeter-wave radar is an indispensable role in the automotive environmental sensing system since it can work effectively regardless of the bad weather while the camera fails. One crucial task of the automotive radar is to detect and distinguish some objects close to each other precisely with the increasingly complex of the road condition. Nowadays almost all the automotive radar products work in bidimensional area where just the range and azimuth can be measured. However, sometimes in their field of view it is not easy for them to differentiate some objects, like the car, the manhole covers and the guide board, when they align with each other in vertical direction.
Journal Article

3D-Printed Antenna Design Using Graphene Filament and Copper Tape for High-Tech Air Components

Abstract Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies can produce lighter parts; reduce manual assembly processes; reduce the number of production steps; shorten the production cycle; significantly reduce material consumption; enable the production of prostheses, implants, and artificial organs; and produce end-user products since it is used in many sectors for many reasons; it has also started to be used widely, especially in the field of aerospace. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) was preferred for the antenna substrate because it is environmentally friendly, easy to recycle, provides convenience in production design with a three-dimensional (3D) printer, and is less expensive compared to other available materials. Copper (Cu) tape and graphene filament were employed for the antenna patch component due to their benefits.
Technical Paper

60 GHz Vehicle Radar for Japan

This paper describes an advanced vehicle radar system operating at a frequency of 60.5 GHz that has been jointly developed for the Japanese automobile and truck market by Eaton VORAD Technologies of San Diego, California, and Hitachi, Ltd. of Japan. The radar system is used for both collision warning system (CWS) applications and for adaptive cruise control (ACC) applications. The radar system employs monopulse radar technology to measure azimuth angle to each vehicle in the forward direction. The techniques used to reduce cost and complexity of monopulse radar for low cost use on commercial vehicles are described. These techniques combine Doppler radar technology with digitally derived monopulse processing. Japan is the only country that has selected the frequency band of 60 GHz for vehicle radar systems. The reasons for this selection are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of this frequency band are presented.
Technical Paper

76 GHz Automotive Millimeter-wave Radar Using Spread Spectrum Technique

Automotive radar is one of the most important key technologies in sensors for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). It is considered very important to conduct analysis of the results which the radar took under various road conditions. In this paper, we shall report the results of a 76GHz automotive millimeter-wave radar using SS modulation technique, which were evaluated on roads under various situations. For example, multi-path was observed from the results that were analyzed from inside a tunnel. We believe that the results are very useful for development of the object discrimination algorithm.
Technical Paper

77 GHz Radar Based Multi-Target Tracking Algorithm on Expressway Condition

Multi-Target tracking is a central aspect of modeling the surrounding environment of autonomous vehicles. Automotive millimeter-wave radar is a necessary component in the autonomous driving system. One of the biggest advantages of radar is it measures the velocity directly. Another big advantage is that the radar is less influenced by environmental conditions. It can work day and night, in rainy or snowy conditions. In the expressway scenario, the forward-looking radar can generate multiple objects, to properly track the leading vehicle or neighbor-lane vehicle, a multi-target tracking algorithm is required. How to associate the track and the measurement or data association is an important question in a multi-target tracking system. This paper applies the nearest-neighbor method to solve the data association problem and uses an extended Kalman filter to update the state of the track.
Technical Paper

94 GHz MMW Imaging Radar System

The 94 GHz MMW airborne radar system that provides a runway image in adverse weather conditions is now undergoing tests at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). This system, which consists of a solid state FMCW transceiver, antenna and digital signal processor, has an update rate of 10 times per second, 0.35° azimuth resolution and up to 3.5 meter range resolution. The radar B scope (range versus azimuth) image, once converted to C scope (elevation versus azimuth), is compatible with the standard TV presentation and can be displayed on the Head Up Display (HUD) or Head Down Display (HDD) to aid the pilot during landing and takeoff in limited visibility conditions.
Technical Paper

A 10KW Modular Inverter for 28 VDC to 120/240 VAC Power Conversion

U S Army tactical vehicles are equipped with a wide range of electrical and electronic equipment to support a variety of missions. This equipment typically requires AC input power with varying voltage, power and phasing requirements. Presently, separate inverters with different voltage, power, and phase ratings are necessary to power the equipment, which imposes maintenance and support problems during field deployments. Avionic Instruments Inc. has developed a scalable inverter system that operates from 28V vehicular power and provides outputs that can easily be configured for a variety of load requirements.
Technical Paper

A 1200-V 600-A Silicon-Carbide Half-Bridge Power Module for Drop-In Replacement of an IGBT IPM

A 1200-V, 600-A silicon carbide (SiC) JFET half-bridge module has been developed for drop-in replacement of a 600-V, 600-A IGBT intelligent power module (IPM). Advances in the development of SiC field effect transistors have resulted in reliable high yield devices that can be paralleled and packaged to produce high-voltage and high-current power modules not only competitive with existing IGBT technology but the modules have expanded capabilities. A SiC vertical junction field effect transistor VJFET has been produced with the properties of lower conduction loss, zero tail current, higher thermal conductivity, and higher power density when compared to a similarly rated silicon IGBT or any practical SiC MOSFETs previously reported. Three prototype SiC JFET half-bridge modules with gate drivers have been successfully integrated into a three-phase 30-kW (continuous), 100-kW (intermittent) AC synchronous motor drive designed to control a traction motor in an electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Baseband Radar System for Auto Braking Application

This paper describes a BAseband Radar (BAR) sensor for radar braking application; an early version of the BAR concept was reported previously as a precollision sensor for air bag activation. In this paper we show how the normally wide effective beamwidth of the BAR is narrowed by using interferometry in conjunction with a novel delay line digital processor scheme. The beamwidth of the breadboard system spans a traffic lane width at 45 meters. The paper describes the details of the BAR sensor front-end and preliminary test results sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Institute for Telecommunication Sciences.
Journal Article

A Batch Blending System for Continuous Production of Multi-Component Fuel Blends for Engine Laboratory Tests

The increased rates of research on complex fuel blends in engine applications poses a need for more efficient and accurate fuel blending processes in engine laboratories. Making the fuel blending process automatic, effective, accurate and flexible saves time, storage space and cost without compromising the tests of future fuel alternatives. To meet these requirements, an automatic fuel blending system, following a sequential batch process, was designed and tested for engine laboratory application. The fuel blending system was evaluated in terms of functionality, safety, accuracy and repeatability. The functionality and safety was evaluated through a risk analysis. Whereas, the accuracy and repeatability of the system was investigated through blend preparation tests. The results show that the minimum fuel mass limitation of the system is 0.5 kg. This allows for blends with fuel ratios as low as 7 vol-% to be prepared by the system.