Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. While rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP and RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured by combining Stereolithography (SL), RP technique, with nickel electroforming process. The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called Accurate Clear Epoxy Solid (ACES).
Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. Rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools. While, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP & RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured directly from Stereolithography (SL). The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called QuickCast infiltrated with Aluminum-Filled Epoxy, designated as Quick Tool.
There is a definite trend toward the increasing use of “Glass Encapsulation Technology” in the automotive industry. In this technology a glass object such as a window is placed within a mould and an elastomer is injected around the window giving a tight sealing system. A wide variety of materials are currently used as the sealing materials in either static or semi-static encapsulated glazing systems, including a wide range of “elastomers”. New thermoplastic elastomer compounds are being developed that are characterized by their consistent properties; including high melt-fluidity, very good surface appearance, sealing properties, and resistance to weathering. Compound performance is highly dependent on formulation variables as well as the chemistries of the base materials. KRATON® SEBS polymers1 are block copolymers of styrene and ethylene/butylene.
It has been recently shown that (Ce, Zr)O2 mixed oxides provide improved catalytic performances compared to pure CeO2. Cerium oxide is the active Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC) component in three way catalysts. However, higher performances, including OSC enhancement, can be achieved with thermally stable solid solutions of Ce and Zr oxides. In the present paper, we describe the structure and the advantages of Ce rich (Ce, Zr)O2 solid solutions and the improved catalytic properties of these materials when used in association with platinum. Various analytical techniques were used including thermo-reduction methods, OSC measurements, surface area measurements, XRD, HRTEM, XPS, and XANES/EXAFS.
Limited and non-regulated emissions of scooters were analysed during several annual research programs of the Swiss Federal Office of Environment (BAFU) *). Small scooters, which are very much used in the congested centers of several cities, are a remarkable source of air pollution. Therefore every effort to reduce the emissions is an important contribution to improve the air quality in urban centers. In the present work detailed investigations of particle emissions of different 2-stroke scooters with direct injection and with carburettor were performed. The nanoparticulate emissions were measured by means of SMPS, (CPC) and NanoMet. Also the particle mass emission (PM) was measured with the same method as for Diesel engines. Extensive analyses of PM-residuum for SOF/INSOF, PAH and toxicity equivalence (TEQ), were carried out in an international project network. Particle mass emission (PM) of 2-S Scooters consists mostly of SOF.
(Paint) film as an alternative to spray applied paint has received growing attention in recent years. The potential for economic and environmental advantage and quality enhancement with this technology has been reported in several technical papers (Ref. 1, 3 and 4). The actual practice of film finishing, however, has received only limited notice. Film finishes have been applied to aluminum, stainless steel, PVC, and ABS. Starting in 1982, part applications include: wheel covers, door edge guards, window surrounds, roof drip moldings, lower windshield moldings, rocker panels, body side moldings, B pillars, and A pillars. Industry awareness and acceptance of film finishing as a viable alternative to spray applied paint is increasing. The two technologies are similar in many ways, yet distinctly different in other ways. They share a common goal: To yield a durable finish, economically and with superior visual impact. This paper reviews the unique aspects of film finishing.
This SAE Standard specifies a message set, and its data frames and data elements specifically for use by applications intended to utilize the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (DSRC/WAVE, referenced in this document simply as “DSRC”), communications systems. Although the scope of this Standard is focused on DSRC, this message set, and its data frames and data elements have been designed, to the extent possible, to also be of potential use for applications that may be deployed in conjunction with other wireless communications technologies. This Standard therefore specifies the definitive message structure and provides sufficient background information to allow readers to properly interpret the message definitions from the point of view of an application developer implementing the messages according to the DSRC Standards.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes minimum performance requirements for trucks, buses, truck-tractors, full trailers, and semitrailers with gross vehicle weight ratings greater than 4540 kg (10 000 lb) with regard to: a. Vehicle classification b. Vehicle load c. Percent grade d. Application force
In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
This work deals with the CAE simulation of the behaviour of a belt employed in a CVT transmission of a large displacement scooter engine. Both FEM and MBS simulations were performed, in order to estimate the dynamic loads acting on the component and the stress state the belt is subject to. The MBS simulations were backed up by simple FEM tests performed in order to estimate the elastic properties of elementary portions of the belt. The MBS system comprised the belt and the two pulleys. As a result, the force components the pulleys exert on the belt were calculated. FEM non-linear analyses were performed in order to estimate the stress state the belt experiences. The belt's both manufacturing and working conditions were simulated.
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are worldwide recognized as one of the best and most immediate opportunities to solve the problems of fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and fossil fuels depletion, thanks to the high reliability of engines and the high efficiencies of motors. Moreover, as transport policy is becoming day by day stricter all over the world, moving people or goods efficiently and cheaply is the goal that all the main automobile manufacturers are trying to reach. In this context, the municipalities are performing their own action plans for public transport and the efforts in realizing high efficiency hybrid electric buses, could be supported by the local policies. For these reasons, the authors intend to propose an efficient control strategy for a hybrid electric bus, with a series architecture for the power-train.
It has been long established fact that fuel economy is a key driving force of low viscosity gasoline engine oil research and development considered by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and lubricant companies. The development of low viscosity gasoline engine oils should not only focus on fuel economy improvement, but also on the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) prevention property. In previous LSPI prevention literatures, the necessity of applying Ca/Mg-based detergents system in the engine oil formulations was proposed. In this paper, we adopted a specific Group III base oil containing Ca-salicylate detergent, borated dispersant, Mo-DTC in the formulation and investigated the various effects of Mg-salicylate and Mg-sulfonate on the performance of engine oil. It was found that Mg-sulfonate showed a significant detrimental impact on silicone rubber compatibility while the influence from Mg-salicylate remains acceptable.
The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), which was formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the lunar surface architectures that are under consideration in the Constellation Program. One element of the LER is the suit port, which is the means by which crew members perform Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: a 1-g suit port concept evaluator for functional integrated testing with the LER 1-g concept vehicle and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the 1-g suit port concept evaluator test results from the Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. The 1-g suit port concept evaluator was integrated with the 1-g LER cabin and chassis concepts.
To reduce the Body in White (BIW) mass, it is necessary to expand the application of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) to complex shaped parts. In order to apply AHSS to complex shaped parts with thinner gauge, high formability steel is required. However, higher strength steels tend to display lower elongations, compared with low/medium strength steels. Current AHSS are applied to limited parts for this reason. The new 1.2GPa material, with high formability, was developed to solve this issue. The mechanical property targets for the high elongation 1.2GPa material were achieved by precise metallurgical optimization. Many material aspects were studied, such as formability, weldabilty, impact strength, and delayed fracture. As the result of this development, 1.2GPa AHSS has been applied to a new vehicle launched in 2013.The application of this material was the 1st in the world, and achieved a 11kg mass reduction.
A 1.8L turbocharged diesel engine valvetrain friction was investigated, and the effectiveness of using a solid film lubricant (SFL) coating in reducing friction was determined throughout the operable speed range. This valvetrain design features direct acting mechanical bucket valve lifters. Camshaft journal bearing surfaces and all camshaft rubbing surfaces except lobe tips were coated. The direct acting bucket shims were etched with a cross hatch pattern to a depth sufficient to sustain a SFL film coating on the shim rubbing surfaces subjected to high surface loads. The SFL coated valvetrain torque was evaluated and compared with uncoated baseline torque. Coating the cam bearing journal surfaces alone with II-25D SFL reduced valvetrain friction losses 8 to 17% for 250 to 2000 rpm cam speed range (i.e. 500 - 4000 rpm engine speed). When bucket tappet and shims were also coated with the SFL, further significant reductions in coated valvetrain friction were observed.