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Technical Paper

(Paint) Film Finishing in Practice

(Paint) film as an alternative to spray applied paint has received growing attention in recent years. The potential for economic and environmental advantage and quality enhancement with this technology has been reported in several technical papers (Ref. 1, 3 and 4). The actual practice of film finishing, however, has received only limited notice. Film finishes have been applied to aluminum, stainless steel, PVC, and ABS. Starting in 1982, part applications include: wheel covers, door edge guards, window surrounds, roof drip moldings, lower windshield moldings, rocker panels, body side moldings, B pillars, and A pillars. Industry awareness and acceptance of film finishing as a viable alternative to spray applied paint is increasing. The two technologies are similar in many ways, yet distinctly different in other ways. They share a common goal: To yield a durable finish, economically and with superior visual impact. This paper reviews the unique aspects of film finishing.
Technical Paper

1.8L Sierra-Mondeo Turbo-Diesel Valvetrain Friction Reduction Using a Solid Film Lubricant

A 1.8L turbocharged diesel engine valvetrain friction was investigated, and the effectiveness of using a solid film lubricant (SFL) coating in reducing friction was determined throughout the operable speed range. This valvetrain design features direct acting mechanical bucket valve lifters. Camshaft journal bearing surfaces and all camshaft rubbing surfaces except lobe tips were coated. The direct acting bucket shims were etched with a cross hatch pattern to a depth sufficient to sustain a SFL film coating on the shim rubbing surfaces subjected to high surface loads. The SFL coated valvetrain torque was evaluated and compared with uncoated baseline torque. Coating the cam bearing journal surfaces alone with II-25D SFL reduced valvetrain friction losses 8 to 17% for 250 to 2000 rpm cam speed range (i.e. 500 - 4000 rpm engine speed). When bucket tappet and shims were also coated with the SFL, further significant reductions in coated valvetrain friction were observed.
Technical Paper

100 Hour Endurance Testing of a High Output Adiabatic Diesel Engine

An advanced low heat rejection engine concept has successfully completed a 100 hour endurance test. The combustion chamber components were insulated with thermal barrier coatings. The engine components included a titanium piston, titanium headface plate, titanium cylinder liner insert, M2 steel valve guides and monolithic zirconia valve seat inserts. The tribological system was composed of a ceramic chrome oxide coated cylinder liner, chrome carbide coated piston rings and an advanced polyolester class lubricant. The top piston compression ring Included a novel design feature to provide self-cleaning of ring groove lubricant deposits to prevent ring face scuffing. The prototype test engine demonstrated 52 percent reduction in radiator heat rejection with reduced intake air aftercooling and strategic forced oil cooling.
Technical Paper

100% Post-Consumer Recycled Nylon 6: Repolymerized Resin Provides Full Mechanical, Physical, & Aesthetic Properties

The increased use of recycled resins can create a dilemma for automotive designers. On the one hand, there is a growing initiative to increase recycled materials content on vehicles, globally. On the other hand, traditional methods of recycling polymeric materials -both thermoplastics and thermosets - can lead to degradation of engineering, mechanical, processing, and / or aesthetic properties of the resin. In an era where quality rules, this situation forces designers to accept a much lower percentage of recyclate than they might otherwise wish to use or risk unacceptable property loss in molded parts - something no automaker can “afford ” for long. Hence, a valuable feedstream of materials (polymers) often ends up destined for a landfill once many consumer products are broken down and more easily reusable or recyclable materials are salvaged. As a case in point, each passenger car built globally contains an average of 15 - 20 kg of nylon polymers.
Technical Paper

1K and 2K Polyurethanes for Automotive Topcoats

The increased occurrence of environmental damage to automotive topcoats and the variety of abrasive conditions to which the coating is subjected have made increasing demands on the properties of these coatings. There is as yet, no single paint chemistry that fulfills these extreme requirements in all respects. On the other hand, the right choice of components in polyurethane can result in excellent etch resistance as well as improved scratch resistance compared to traditional melamine/acrylic systems. This paper will discuss some recent studies in the areas of two-component and one-component polyurethane chemistry, which address these rigorous quality requirements.
Technical Paper

2006 Corvette Z06 Carbon Fiber Fender- Engineering, Design, and Material Selection Considerations

General Motor's Corvette product engineering was given the challenge to find mass reduction opportunities on the painted body panels of the C6 Z06 through the utilization of carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC). The successful implementation of a carbon fiber hood on the 2004 C5 Commemorative Edition Z06 Corvette was the springboard for Corvette Team's appetite for a more extensive application of CFRC on the C6 Z06 model. Fenders were identified as the best application for the technology given their location on the front of the vehicle and the amount of mass saved. The C6 Z06 CFRC fenders provide 6kg reduction of vehicle mass as compared to the smaller RRIM fenders used on the Coupe and Convertible models.
Technical Paper

2D/3D Painted TPO Fascia Testing to Mimic Real World Friction Induced Damage by Cohesive and Delamination Failures

Durability tests have been initiated on olefinic and production painted fascias. Both 2D and 3D tests have provided insights into Friction Induced Damage (FID) failure mechanics. Full scale, 3D tests of automotive fascia mimic the parking lot rubbing contact between cars with friction forces exceeding 5000. N. 2D tests provide the cost effective approach to materials research by isolating the failure mechanics in the upper 250 μm of the decorated TPO where the cosmetic damage is initiated. Initial findings show some olefinic paint, TPO combinations to be more damage resistant for realistic frictional contact scenarios.
Technical Paper

2K Clearcoat for Automotive Plastics

2k clearcoat is the progressive step that is keeping coatings for elastomeric fascia in pace with the current automobile design, performance, and durability demands. Initially, rigid 2k coatings were applied over plastic for low temperature cure. Over metal, 2k rigid clearcoat produced a dramatic improvement in appearance and durability. Flexibility is the key attribute that a 2k clearcoat engineered for use over fascias must posses. Utilizing the same basecoat and primer, 2k flexible clearcoats are being successfully applied to flexible fascia, generating excellent appearance and outstanding durability.
Technical Paper

3 Wet Technology - A Novel Approach for Greener, Efficient, Smart Practice in Automotive Paint Application

The upcoming latest 3-wet Technology is the most ideal design for a Green field project as well as for a brown field facility which provides the best of both worlds. The foremost take away for a brown field project emanates from this technology which demands a smaller foot prints & hence could accommodates a capacity higher than what was perceived during the green field project planning thus saving millions of dollar of investment & giving that extra capacity which today the BRIC countries are thriving for. Apart from making the ideal investment choice, 3 Wet Technology provides impetus to business case in terms of reduction of VOC emission, Energy consumption, Material and labor cost and gaining on Green Environment front as well as leading to smart and Efficient-Paint-Process. The paper depicts the journey of roll out of 3-Wet process in Ford India and creating the bench mark in terms of product quality and process standards and manufacturing practices.
Technical Paper

3D Engine Analysis and MLS Cylinder Head Gaskets Design

Multi-layer steel (MLS) cylinder head gaskets are becoming more widely used to seal an engine. Therefore, it is important to understand the interaction between the engine head, block and head gasket. While experimental methods for determining necessary gasket tightening loads and experimental data relating some gasket design parameters to failure are available, it is very costly and time consuming. A numerical method, such as the finite element (FE) method, has proven to be very useful and efficient in aiding gasket design. A 3D engine FE analysis can predict a number of parameters. Of particular interest are the motion as well as the contact profile of the head, block and gasket. This information, usually difficult or impossible to obtain from a 2D FE analysis, can be used to predict the two most common failure modes of a gasket, fatigue crack and leakage.
Technical Paper

4000 F Oxidation Resistant Thermal Protection Materials

Coated refractory metals, coated and alloyed graphites, hafnium-tantalum alloys, refractory borides, and stabilized zirconias are considered for the 3600–4000 F high-velocity air environment. Only refractory borides and stabilized zirconias are indicated as offering long duration and reuse capabilities for such high-temperature utilization. Iridium, as coatings on substrates of either graphites or refractory metals, appears attractive for shorter times (less than 1 hr). Environmental evaluation and the need for a theoretical framework to enable the prediction of performance data for such materials are indicated to be major problems facing users and suppliers.
Technical Paper

800 Series Bumpers for UK/European Markets

For the launch of the 800 series ARG set out to maintain the paint on line process for plastic bumpers developed for Maestro and Montego, to achieve this, new and exciting problems had to be overcome. A vehicle weight of 1420kg for the highest derivative, a maximum centreline deflection of 15mm front and rear, a profile collapse calculated to absorb energy within 65% of it's cross sectional area and show no damage within the terms of the ECE 42 regulation, ie 4kph centreline and mounting, 2.5kph corner and a perfect colour match combined with the highest quality.
Technical Paper

8000 psi Hydraulic System Seals and Materials Test Program-A Progress Report

Flight control technology for 8000 psi has emerged almost simultaneously with new fire-resistant hydraulic fluids, such as MIL-H-83282 and CTFE. A proliferation of industry recommendations has resulted in a wide variety of mechanisms for solving associated actuator design problems, including tighter clearances, special seals, finishes, materials, and many others. As there are few common agreements on the issues, an extensive three-phase test program was undertaken to attempt to corroborate some of these approaches or suggest others that may be better or more cost effective.
Technical Paper

A Coating for the Preservation of Fracture Surfaces

In order to perform a meaningful examination of a fracture surface in the scanning electron microscope it is necessary for the examined surface to be in a condition as close to the fractured condition as possible. Laboratory preservation techniques are not available to the engineer in the field so the fracture surfaces are best preserved by coating them with a material that can be easily removed later without damage to the fractures. In this paper, a preservative is described that is suitable for the protection of fracture surfaces both in the field and in the laboratory. The restrictions and limitations of the preservative are discussed and examples of fracture surfaces before coating and after coating and exposure to a humidity cabinet are shown.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study by Vehicle Testing of Copper Alloy and Gray Iron Brake Discs

Automotive friction materials are composites containing three kinds of components: an organic binder, fiber for reinforcement, and property modifiers. At low braking temperatures, the wear rate of the friction materials is controlled primarily by abrasive and adhesive mechanisms. At higher braking temperatures, the wear rate increases exponentially with increasing temperature due to thermal degradation of the binder and other components, and the exponential wear rate is frequently accompanied by brake fade. Thus, one method of reducing thermal wear and fade tendency is to lower the temperature at the rotor/friction material interface. Since the rate of heat transfer from the interface is mostly dependent upon the conductive and convective modes, a rotor of high thermal conductivity will have a significant advantage over a rotor of low conductivity, if the heat capacity remains the same.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Fatigue Behavior and Life Predictions of Forged Steel and PM Connecting Rods

This study investigates and compares fatigue behavior of forged steel and powder metal connecting rods. The experiments included strain-controlled specimen testing, with specimens obtained from the connecting rods, as well as load-controlled connecting rod bench testing. Monotonic and cyclic deformation behaviors, as well as strain-controlled fatigue properties of the two materials are evaluated and compared. Experimental S-N curves of the two connecting rods from the bench tests obtained under R = -1.25 constant amplitude loading conditions are also evaluated and compared. Fatigue properties obtained from specimen testing are then used in life predictions of the connecting rods, using the S-N approach. The predicted lives are compared with bench test results and include the effects of stress concentration, surface finish, and mean stress. The stress concentration factors were obtained from FEA, and the modified Goodman equation was used to account for the mean stress effect.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Corrosion Test Methods for Painted Galvanized Steel

Various galvanized steels, ZINCROMETAL and cold-rolled steel were painted with automotive-type paints and tested via accelerated, atmospheric and on-vehicle tests. Tests indicate that the ASTM B117 salt fog test and the Kesternich SO2 test do not yield results which are indicative of automotive, in-service corrosion performance. A modified Volvo scab corrosion test was found to offer an accelerated method to accurately predict automotive, in-service corrosion performance. Galvanized steels exhibited corrosion resistance which was far superior to ZINCROMETAL and cold-rolled steel. Thicker zinc coatings on steel were found to offer better corrosion protection to painted substrates.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) Techniques for Aerodynamic Testing at Slow Velocities

Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) has been used for several years by the aircraft industry in transonic wind tunnel testing where the oxygen concentrations are low and the luminescence of the paint is easily recorded. Extending PSP to slower speeds where the oxygen concentrations are closer to atmospheric conditions is much more challenging. For the past few years, work has been underway at both Wright Patterson Air Force Base and Ford Motor Company to advance PSP techniques for testing at slower speeds. The CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) provided a way for comparisons to be made of the different PSP systems that were being investigated. This paper will report on PSP tests conducted as part of the CRADA.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Resistance Spot Weldability of Bare, Hot-Dipped, Galvannealed, and Electrogalvanized DQSK Sheet Steels

The spot weldability of various zinc-coated sheet steels was examined using several procedures and criteria. Current range testing indicated that increasing coating weight and average dynamic resistance widens current range. Electrode life testing showed that electrode life is affected by coating composition. In this study, the choice of the material with the widest current range was test procedure dependent. Based on one procedure, the hot-dipped galvanized sheet had the widest current range. The alternate procedure indicated that both the hot-dipped and the galvannealed materials exhibited superior current range. In general, the longest electrode lives were associated with the electrogalvanized and the galvannealed sheet, with their relative performance dependent upon the nugget diameter chosen to signify end of life.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Resistance Spot Weldability of Hot-Dip and Electrogalvanized Sheet Steels

The majority of exposed and semi-exposed light gauge automotive components are being rapidly converted to metallic zinc coated steels. Since resistance spot welding is the dominant method of joining these parts, the weldability of a. variety of coated products was evaluated to facilitate direct comparison between hot-dip and electrogalvanized steels. The results indicate that the electrode life of electrogalvanized zinc and zinc-iron and hot-dip galvanized A40 materials are far superior to that of hot-dip galvanized zinc products. Some difference in current level for producing acceptable welds was observed between hot-dip and electro products. However, the substitution of electrogalvanized for hot-dip galvanized products of the same coating type will probably require only minor, if any, changes in current level in production situations. Further work is required to fully explain the differences in weldability noted between hot-dip and electrogalvanized materials.