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Technical Paper

"Nickel electroformed" tools development through stereolithography (SLA) for sheet metal forming~An evaluation study

2000-06-12
2000-05-0272
Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. While rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP and RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured by combining Stereolithography (SL), RP technique, with nickel electroforming process. The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called Accurate Clear Epoxy Solid (ACES).
Technical Paper

"Quick" tools development through stereolithography (SLA) for sheet metal forming~An evaluation study

2000-06-12
2000-05-0270
Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. Rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools. While, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP & RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured directly from Stereolithography (SL). The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called QuickCast infiltrated with Aluminum-Filled Epoxy, designated as Quick Tool.
Technical Paper

(Paint) Film Finishing in Practice

1992-02-01
920732
(Paint) film as an alternative to spray applied paint has received growing attention in recent years. The potential for economic and environmental advantage and quality enhancement with this technology has been reported in several technical papers (Ref. 1, 3 and 4). The actual practice of film finishing, however, has received only limited notice. Film finishes have been applied to aluminum, stainless steel, PVC, and ABS. Starting in 1982, part applications include: wheel covers, door edge guards, window surrounds, roof drip moldings, lower windshield moldings, rocker panels, body side moldings, B pillars, and A pillars. Industry awareness and acceptance of film finishing as a viable alternative to spray applied paint is increasing. The two technologies are similar in many ways, yet distinctly different in other ways. They share a common goal: To yield a durable finish, economically and with superior visual impact. This paper reviews the unique aspects of film finishing.
Technical Paper

1-D Model of Roots Type Supercharger

2013-04-08
2013-01-0927
This paper introduces research work on 1-D model of Roots type supercharger with helical gears using 1-D simulation tool. Today, passenger car engine design follows approach of downsizing and the reduction of number of engine cylinders. Superchargers alone or their combination with turbochargers can fulfill low-end demands on engine torque for such engines. Moreover, low temperature combustion of lean mixture at low engine loads becomes popular (HCCI, PCCI) requiring high boost pressure of EGR/fresh air mixture at low exhaust gas temperature, which poses too high demands on turbocharger efficiency. The main objective of this paper is to describe Roots charger features and to amend Roots charger design.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling of Transient Engine Operations Using Data Generated by a CFD Code

2008-04-14
2008-01-0357
Transient engine operations are modeled and simulated with a 1-D code (GT Power) using heat release and emission data computed by a 3-D CFD code (Kiva3). During each iteration step of a transient engine simulation, the 1-D code utilizes the 3-D data to interpolate the values for heat release and emissions. The 3-D CFD computations were performed for the compression and combustion stroke of strategically chosen engine operating points considering engine speed, torque and excess air. The 3-D inlet conditions were obtained from the 1-D code, which utilized 3-D heat release data from the previous 1-D unsteady computations. In most cases, only two different sets of 3-D input data are needed to interpolate the transient phase between two engine operating points. This keeps the computation time at a reasonable level. The results are demonstrated on the load response of a generator which is driven by a medium-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

1-D Thermal Simulation and Experimental Validation of Li-Ion Battery Pack Liquid Cooling System

2023-09-14
2023-28-0012
The battery cooling system is one of the most critical parts for the safe and efficient operation of the Li-ion battery pack in EVs. Battery liquid cooling system is most commonly used. This paper represents a comprehensive study of the electric vehicle battery liquid cooling system design and performance using the 1D tool and experimental validation. The 1D model includes the battery thermal load, cooling system components, and different ambient conditions. The cooling system components are calibrated using the experimental performance data of the components. The 1D model is used to evaluate the effect of fan speed, ambient temperature, compressor speed, and coolant flow rate on the battery cooling system and to optimize the component sizing. The results are then experimentally validated in a climate chamber, and the simulation results show good agreement with experimental results. The study's findings provide a good understanding of the Li-ion liquid cooling system.
Technical Paper

1.2GPa Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

2014-04-01
2014-01-0991
To reduce the Body in White (BIW) mass, it is necessary to expand the application of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) to complex shaped parts. In order to apply AHSS to complex shaped parts with thinner gauge, high formability steel is required. However, higher strength steels tend to display lower elongations, compared with low/medium strength steels. Current AHSS are applied to limited parts for this reason. The new 1.2GPa material, with high formability, was developed to solve this issue. The mechanical property targets for the high elongation 1.2GPa material were achieved by precise metallurgical optimization. Many material aspects were studied, such as formability, weldabilty, impact strength, and delayed fracture. As the result of this development, 1.2GPa AHSS has been applied to a new vehicle launched in 2013.The application of this material was the 1st in the world, and achieved a 11kg mass reduction.
Technical Paper

10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications

1992-08-03
929072
A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
Standard

10 Megabit/sec Network Configuration Digital Time Division Command/Response Multiplex Data Bus

2013-04-29
HISTORICAL
AS5652
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) contains requirements for a digital time division command/response multiplex data bus, for use in systems integration that is functionally similar to MIL-STD-1553B with Notice 2 but with a star topology and some deleted functionality. Even with the use of this document, differences may exist between multiplex data buses in different system applications due to particular application requirements and the options allowed in this document. The system designer must recognize this fact and design the multiplex bus controller (BC) hardware and software to accommodate such differences. These designer selected options must exist to allow the necessary flexibility in the design of specific multiplex systems in order to provide for the control mechanism, architectural redundancy, degradation concept, and traffic patterns peculiar to the specific application requirements.
Standard

10 Megabit/sec Network Configuration Digital Time Division Command/Response Multiplex Data Bus

2018-01-18
CURRENT
AS5652A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) contains requirements for a digital time division command/response multiplex data bus, for use in systems integration that is functionally similar to MIL-STD-1553B with Notice 2 but with a star topology and some deleted functionality. Even with the use of this document, differences may exist between multiplex data buses in different system applications due to particular application requirements and the options allowed in this document. The system designer must recognize this fact and design the multiplex bus controller (BC) hardware and software to accommodate such differences. These designer selected options must exist to allow the necessary flexibility in the design of specific multiplex systems in order to provide for the control mechanism, architectural redundancy, degradation concept, and traffic patterns peculiar to the specific application requirements.
Technical Paper

100 Hour Endurance Testing of a High Output Adiabatic Diesel Engine

1994-03-01
940951
An advanced low heat rejection engine concept has successfully completed a 100 hour endurance test. The combustion chamber components were insulated with thermal barrier coatings. The engine components included a titanium piston, titanium headface plate, titanium cylinder liner insert, M2 steel valve guides and monolithic zirconia valve seat inserts. The tribological system was composed of a ceramic chrome oxide coated cylinder liner, chrome carbide coated piston rings and an advanced polyolester class lubricant. The top piston compression ring Included a novel design feature to provide self-cleaning of ring groove lubricant deposits to prevent ring face scuffing. The prototype test engine demonstrated 52 percent reduction in radiator heat rejection with reduced intake air aftercooling and strategic forced oil cooling.
Journal Article

100 Years of Corrosion Testing—Is It Time to Move beyond the ASTM D130? The Wire Corrosion and Conductive Deposit Tests

2023-09-22
Abstract The ASTM D130 was first issued in 1922 as a tentative standard for the detection of corrosive sulfur in gasoline. A clean copper strip was immersed in a sample of gasoline for three hours at 50°C with any corrosion or discoloration taken to indicate the presence of corrosive sulfur. Since that time, the method has undergone many revisions and has been applied to many petroleum products. Today, the ASTM D130 standard is the leading method used to determine the corrosiveness of various fuels, lubricants, and other hydrocarbon-based solutions to copper. The end-of-test strips are ranked using the ASTM Copper Strip Corrosion Standard Adjunct, a colored reproduction of copper strips characteristic of various degrees of sulfur-induced tarnish and corrosion, first introduced in 1954. This pragmatic approach to assessing potential corrosion concerns with copper hardware has served various industries well for a century.
Technical Paper

100,000 HP Gas Turbine Load Test Facility

1976-02-01
760314
The problem of testing large gas turbines at full load in the factory has been solved with the construction of a load test facility utilizing a gas turbine compressor as the load absorption device. Design philosophy and features are reviewed, and a summary, of operating experience to date is presented.
Technical Paper

100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20)

2006-10-16
2006-01-3253
Nine identical 40-ft. transit buses were operated on B20 and diesel for a period of two years - five of the buses operated exclusively on B20 (20% biodiesel blend) and the other four on petroleum diesel. The buses were model year 2000 Orion V equipped with Cummins ISM engines, and all operated on the same bus route. Each bus accumulated about 100,000 miles over the course of the study. B20 buses were compared to the petroleum diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, vehicle maintenance cost, road calls, and emissions. There was no difference between the on-road average fuel economy of the two groups (4.41 mpg) based on the in-use data, however laboratory testing revealed a nearly 2% reduction in fuel economy for the B20 vehicles. Engine and fuel system related maintenance costs were nearly identical for the two groups until the final month of the study.
Technical Paper

100-kWe Lunar/Mars Surface Power Utilizing the SP-100 Reactor with Dynamic Conversion

1992-08-03
929446
An integration study was performed coupling an SP-100 reactor with either a Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystem. A power level of 100 kWe was selected for the study. The power system was to be compatible with both the lunar and Mars surface environment and require no site preparation. In addition, the reactor was to have integral shielding and be completely self-contained, including its own auxiliary power for start-up. Initial reliability studies were performed to determine power conversion redundancy and engine module size. Previous studies were used to select the power conversion optimum operating conditions (ratio of hot-side temperature to cold-side temperature). Results of the study indicated that either the Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystems could be integrated with the SP-100 reactor for either a lunar or Mars surface power application.
Standard

1000BASE-T1 Un-Shielded and Shielded Balanced Single Twisted Pair Ethernet Cable

2021-11-03
HISTORICAL
J3117/2_202111
This standard covers un-shielded (JUTP) and shielded (STP) balanced single twisted pair jacketed data cable intended for use in surface vehicle cables for 1 Gb/s ethernet applications. The tests in this standard are intended to qualify cables for normal operation in an automotive environment while maintaining the necessary electrical properties for reliable data transmission.
Standard

1000BASE-T1 Un-Shielded and Shielded Balanced Single Twisted Pair Ethernet Cable

2022-09-30
CURRENT
J3117/2_202209
This standard covers un-shielded (JUTP) and shielded (STP) balanced single twisted pair jacketed data cable intended for use in surface vehicle cables for 1000BASE-T1 ethernet PHY (1 Gb/s) applications. The tests in this standard are intended to qualify cables for normal operation in an automotive environment while maintaining the necessary electrical properties for reliable data transmission.
Standard

100BASE-T1 Un-Shielded Balanced Single Twisted Pair Ethernet Cable

2023-01-17
CURRENT
J3117/1_202301
This SAE Standard covers un-shielded balanced single twisted pair data cable intended for use in surface vehicle cables for ≤100 Mb/s Ethernet applications. The tests in this document are intended to qualify cables for normal operation in an automotive environment while maintaining the necessary electrical properties for reliable data transmission.
Technical Paper

11 Rules of Design for Manufacturing when Producing Pre-Impregnated Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Components - an Application at SAAB Aerostructures

2016-09-27
2016-01-2124
Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is one of the most commonly used materials in the aerospace industry today. CFRP in pre-impregnated form is an anisotropic material whose properties can be controlled to a high level by the designer. Sometimes, these properties make the material hard to predict with regards to how the geometry affects manufacturing aspects. This paper describes eleven design rules originating from different guidelines that describe geometrical design choices and deals with manufacturability problems that are connected to them, why they are connected and how they can be minimized or avoided. Examples of design choices dealt with in the rules include double curvature shapes, assembly of uncured CFRP components and access for non-destructive testing (NDT). To verify the technical content and ensure practicability, the rules were developed by, inter alia, studying literature and performing case studies at SAAB Aerostructures.
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