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Technical Paper

A Study of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in SI Engines Using a Modified Quasi-Dimensional Model

1996-05-01
961187
This paper describes the use of a modified quasi-dimensional spark-ignition engine simulation code to predict the extent of cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion. The modifications primarily relate to the combustion model and include the following: 1. A flame kernel model was developed and implemented to avoid choosing the initial flame size and temperature arbitrarily. 2. Instead of the usual assumption of the flame being spherical, ellipsoidal flame shapes are permitted in the model when the gas velocity in the vicinity of the spark plug during kernel development is high. Changes in flame shape influence the flame front area and the interaction of the enflamed volume with the combustion chamber walls. 3. The flame center shifts due to convection by the gas flow in the cylinder. This influences the flame front area through the interaction between the enflamed volume and the combustion chamber walls. 4. Turbulence intensity is not uniform in cylinder, and varies cycle-to-cycle.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Soot Oxidation by NO2 Only and Plasma-Treated Gas Containing NO2, O2, and Hydrocarbons

2002-10-21
2002-01-2704
NO2 is an effective soot oxidizer operating at lower temperatures than O2. The effect of pure NO2 on soot oxidation was evaluated and compared with the gas treated by plasma, which initially consisted of NO, O2, and hydrocarbons. The cutout of a commercial DPF was used and the pressure difference across the DPF was monitored for an hour. The concentration of NO/NO2, CO, CO2 at the outlet of the DPF was measured as a function of time. CO and CO2 concentration was measured periodically by gas chromatography. The experiment was performed at 230, 250, 300, 350°C. When NO2 only was used as an oxidizing agent, there was a close relationship between the decrease of the pressure difference across the DPF, the CO and CO2 concentration at the outlet of the DPF, and the back conversion of NO2 to NO.
Technical Paper

Effects of Intake Port Design and Valve Lift on In-Cylinder Flow and Burnrate

1987-11-01
872153
LDA measurements of the flow in a motored engine near TDC of compression have been obtained, along with burnrate data in a firing engine having a near-central spark plug location. Results are reported for two different intake ports and four intake valve lifts varying from 25% to 100% of full lift. Opposite trends of swirl vs valve lift were found for the two ports, and the rms velocity fluctuation was found to be relatively insensitive to changes in valve lift. Regression analysis of the burn duration data was conducted, with swirl ratio and rms as independent variables. The analysis indicated that burn duration decreases with an increase in swirl ratio and/or rms velocity fluctuation. In light of the experimental findings, a new conceptual model is proposed regarding the effect of valve lift on the dissipation of turbulent velocity via changes in the length scale.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston-Ring Dynamics on Ring/Groove Wear and Oil Consumption in a Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970835
The wear patterns of the rings and grooves of a diesel engine were analyzed by using a ring dynamics/gas flow model and a ring-pack oil film thickness model. The analysis focused primarily on the contact pressure distribution on the ring sides and grooves as well as on the contact location on the ring running surfaces. Analysis was performed for both new and worn ring/groove profiles. Calculated results are consistent with the measured wear patterns. The effects of groove tilt and static twist on the development of wear patterns on the ring sides, grooves, and ring running surfaces were studied. Ring flutter was observed from the calculation and its effect on oil transport was discussed. Up-scraping of the top ring was studied by considering ring dynamic twist and piston tilt. This work shows that the models used have potential for providing practical guidance to optimizing the ring pack and ring grooves to control wear and reduce oil consumption.
Journal Article

Effects of Secondary Air Injection During Cold Start of SI Engines

2010-10-25
2010-01-2124
An experimental study was performed to develop a more fundamental understanding of the effects of secondary air injection (SAI) on exhaust gas emissions and catalyst light-off characteristics during cold start of a modern SI engine. The effects of engine operating parameters and various secondary air injection strategies such as spark retardation, fuel enrichment, secondary air injection location and air flow rate were investigated to understand the mixing, heat loss, and thermal and catalytic oxidation processes associated with SAI. Time-resolved HC, CO and CO₂ concentrations were tracked from the cylinder exit to the catalytic converter outlet and converted to time-resolved mass emissions by applying an instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate model. A phenomenological model of exhaust heat transfer combined with the gas composition analysis was also developed to define the thermal and chemical energy state of the exhaust gas with SAI.
Technical Paper

Effects of Substantial Spark Retard on SI Engine Combustion and Hydrocarbon Emissions

2003-10-27
2003-01-3237
Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of substantial spark retard on combustion, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, and exhaust temperature, under cold engine conditions. A single-cylinder research engine was operated at 20° C fluid temperatures for various spark timings and relative air/fuel ratios. Combustion stability was observed to decrease as the phasing of the 50% mass fraction burned (MFB) occurred later in the expansion stroke. A thermodynamic burn rate analysis indicated combustion was complete at exhaust valve opening with -20° before top dead center (BTDC) spark timings. Chemical and thermal energy of the exhaust gas was tracked from cylinder-exit to the exhaust runner. Time-resolved HC concentrations measured in the port and runner were mass weighted to obtain an exhaust HC mass flow rate. Results were compared to time averaged well downstream HC levels.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on DeNOx Performance by Plasma-Catalyst (Ag, Au/Al2O3) System

2002-10-21
2002-01-2705
Plasma-catalyst (Ag, Au/Al2O3) systems were applied to NOx reduction in a model lean-burn engine exhaust gas. Also, DeNOx test of real diesel exhaust gas was performed by plasma-Ag/Al2O3 system. In the case of model exhaust gas, the catalytic activity for NOx reduction was enhanced by the assistance of plasma in the wide temperature range. The NOx conversion efficiency of plasma-Ag/Al2O3 was 40∼90% under the condition of C3 H6 3200ppm (C1/NOx = 5.96) and 10% O2 over the temperature range of 250∼400°C. The plasma-Au/Al2 O3 system showed remarkable low temperature NOx reduction activity at 100∼250°C. The real engine full flow test was performed for 70% of the full load and at engine speed of 1500rpm. NOx removal of 46% from the diesel exhaust gas was achieved by the plasma-Ag/Al2O3 catalyst system at 364°C(C1/NOx = 6). In the case of higher C1/NOx = 10, the NOx conversion increased up to 73% at 381°C. Also, DeNOx engine tests were performed for full load of 1500, 2000 and 2500rpm.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Wankel Engine Performance

1978-02-01
780416
A model for predicting the performance and emissions characteristics of Wankel engines has been developed and tested. Each chamber is treated as an open thermodynamic system and the effects of turbulent flame propagation, quench layer formation, gas motion, heat transfer and seal leakage are included. The experimental tests were carried out on a Toyo Kogyo 12B engine under both motoring and firing conditions and values for the effective seal leakage area and turbulent heat transfer coefficient were deduced. The agreement between the predicted and measured performances was reasonable. Parametric studies of the effects of reductions in seal leakage and heat transfer were carried out and the results are presented.
Technical Paper

Fast Gas Temperature Measurement by Velocity of Sound for IC Engine Applications

1997-10-01
972826
In the study of internal combustion engines, gas temperatures within the system are of significant importance. The adverse conditions under firing operation, however, make measurements by any means very difficult. This current study seems to have gone the farthest to date for velocity of sound gas temperature measurements in internal combustion engine applications. An ultrasound signal is sent by a transmitting transducer, through the gas medium, and into the receiving transducer. The received signal is recorded, and the gas temperature determined from the time of flight. In-cylinder and exhaust manifold gas temperatures under fired conditions are presented, and are all consistent. Impacts of operating parameters like mixture equivalence ratio and coolant temperature are investigated.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Air/Fuel Ratio Approximation Using Spark Gap Ionization Sensing

1998-02-23
980166
Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder engine to measure the ionization current across the spark plug electrodes as a function of key operating parameters including air/fuel ratio. A unique ignition circuit was adapted to measure the ion current as early as 300 microseconds after the initiation of spark discharge. A strong relationship between air/fuel ratio and features of the measured ion current was observed. This relationship can be exploited via relatively simple algorithms in a wide range of electronic engine control strategies. Measurements of spark plug ion current for approximating air/fuel ratio may be especially useful for use with low cost mixture control in small engine applications. Cylinder-to-cylinder mixture balancing in conjunction with a global exhaust gas oxygen sensor is another promising application of spark plug ion current measurement.
Technical Paper

Models for Heat Transfer, Mixing and Hydrocarbon Oxidation in a Exhaust Port of a Spark-Ignited Engine

1980-02-01
800290
The fate of hydrocarbon species in the exhaust systems of spark-ignition engines is an important part of the overall hydrocarbon emissions problem. In this investigation models were developed for the instantaneous heat transfer, fluid mixing, and hydrocarbon oxidation in an engine exhaust port. Experimental measurements were obtained for the instantaneous cylinder pressure and instantaneous gas temperature at the exhaust port exit for a range of engine operating conditions. These measurements were used to validate the heat transfer model and to provide data on the instantaneous cylinder gas state for a series of illustrative exhaust port hydrocarbon oxidation computations as a function of engine operating and design variables. During much of the exhaust process, the exhaust port heat transfer was dominated by large-scale fluid motion generated by the jet-like flow at the exhaust valve.
Technical Paper

Plasma/Catalyst System for Reduction of NOx in Diesel Engine Exhaust

2000-10-16
2000-01-2897
NOx reduction by a plasma/catalyst system was tested with modeled gas and real exhaust gas. Ag/Al2O3 was used as the catalyst. The oxidation of NO to NO2 by the plasma was increased as HC concentration and input energy density increase. The presence of H2O in the reactant gas led to the production of acid by plasma. The catalytic activity for NOx reduction was enhanced by the assistance of plasma especially in the lower temperature region. This activity was a little suppressed in the presence of H2O, but the acid was not detected in the effluent gas treated by the plasma/catalyst system. The NOx conversion to N2 was evaluated by a gas chromatography in the model gas with helium as the balance gas. The result in helium balance gas showed the selectivity to N2 depended on the catalyst temperature and was also enhanced by the assistance of plasma. The 50% of NOx removal from the diesel exhaust gas was achieved by the plasma /catalyst system.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Composition and Flow Rate in a Wankel Engine

1975-02-01
750024
Measurements were made of exhaust histories of the following species: unburned hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitric oxide (NO). The measurements show that the exhaust flow can be divided into two distinct phases: a leading gas low in HC and high in NO followed by a trailing gas high in HC and low in NO. Calculations of time resolved equivalence ratio throughout the exhaust process show no evidence of a stratified combustion. The exhaust mass flow rate is time resolved by forcing the flow to be locally quasi-steady at an orifice placed in the exhaust pipe. The results with the quasi-steady assumption are shown to be consistent with the measurements. Predictions are made of time resolved mass flow rate which compare favorably to the experimental data base. The composition and flow histories provide sufficient information to calculate the time resolved flow rates of the individual species measured.
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