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Technical Paper

Characterization of Catalyzed Soot Oxidation with NO2, NO and O2 using a Lab-Scale Flow Reactor System

Today's diesel PM reduction systems are mainly based on catalyzed particulate filter(CPF) systems. However, most of their reaction kinetics remain unresolved. Among others, the soot oxidation rate over catalyst is particularly important in the evaluation of the performance of the catalysts and the efficient control of CPF regeneration. This study, therefore, investigated the oxidation rate of carbon black (Printex-U) over various Pt supported catalysts using a flow reactor setup simulating diesel exhaust conditions. Compared to non-catalyzed soot oxidation, the oxidation rate of carbon black over Pt catalysts was to an extent shifted towards low temperatures. This activity enhancement of soot oxidation over a catalyst can be attributed principally to NO to NO2 conversion because NO2 oxidizes soot with much lower activation energy (Ea=60kJ/mol) than O2 (Ea=177kJ/mol).
Technical Paper

Comparison of Soot Oxidation by NO2 Only and Plasma-Treated Gas Containing NO2, O2, and Hydrocarbons

NO2 is an effective soot oxidizer operating at lower temperatures than O2. The effect of pure NO2 on soot oxidation was evaluated and compared with the gas treated by plasma, which initially consisted of NO, O2, and hydrocarbons. The cutout of a commercial DPF was used and the pressure difference across the DPF was monitored for an hour. The concentration of NO/NO2, CO, CO2 at the outlet of the DPF was measured as a function of time. CO and CO2 concentration was measured periodically by gas chromatography. The experiment was performed at 230, 250, 300, 350°C. When NO2 only was used as an oxidizing agent, there was a close relationship between the decrease of the pressure difference across the DPF, the CO and CO2 concentration at the outlet of the DPF, and the back conversion of NO2 to NO.
Journal Article

Effects of Secondary Air Injection During Cold Start of SI Engines

An experimental study was performed to develop a more fundamental understanding of the effects of secondary air injection (SAI) on exhaust gas emissions and catalyst light-off characteristics during cold start of a modern SI engine. The effects of engine operating parameters and various secondary air injection strategies such as spark retardation, fuel enrichment, secondary air injection location and air flow rate were investigated to understand the mixing, heat loss, and thermal and catalytic oxidation processes associated with SAI. Time-resolved HC, CO and CO₂ concentrations were tracked from the cylinder exit to the catalytic converter outlet and converted to time-resolved mass emissions by applying an instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate model. A phenomenological model of exhaust heat transfer combined with the gas composition analysis was also developed to define the thermal and chemical energy state of the exhaust gas with SAI.
Technical Paper

Effects of Substantial Spark Retard on SI Engine Combustion and Hydrocarbon Emissions

Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of substantial spark retard on combustion, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, and exhaust temperature, under cold engine conditions. A single-cylinder research engine was operated at 20° C fluid temperatures for various spark timings and relative air/fuel ratios. Combustion stability was observed to decrease as the phasing of the 50% mass fraction burned (MFB) occurred later in the expansion stroke. A thermodynamic burn rate analysis indicated combustion was complete at exhaust valve opening with -20° before top dead center (BTDC) spark timings. Chemical and thermal energy of the exhaust gas was tracked from cylinder-exit to the exhaust runner. Time-resolved HC concentrations measured in the port and runner were mass weighted to obtain an exhaust HC mass flow rate. Results were compared to time averaged well downstream HC levels.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Soot Oxidation Characteristic with NO2 and O2 using a Flow Reactor Simulating DPF

Characteristics of soot oxidation were investigated with a carbon black (Printex-U). A flow reactor system which can simulate the condition of diesel particulate filter and diesel exhaust gas (1 bar, O2 0 ∼ 10%, NO2 200 ∼ 900ppm) was designed and used with the temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and constant temperature oxidation (CTO) techniques. The temperature increase rate was 5°C/min for TPO experiments. From the experiments, the apparent activation energy for carbon oxidation with nitrogen dioxide was determined as 60 ± 3 kJ/mol with the first order of carbon in the range of 10∼90% oxidation and the temperature range of 250∼500°C. This value was exceedingly lower than the activation energy of oxygen oxidation which was 177 ± 1 kJ/mol. When oxygen exists with nitrogen dioxide, the reaction rate increased with the concentration of oxygen. Its rate of increase was faster for low oxygen concentration and slower for high concentration.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Soot Oxidation Characterization of Pt/CeO2 Catalyst with NO and O2 Using a Flow Reactor System

The oxidation of soot (carbon black) which is assisted by Pt/CeO2 catalyst is studied using a flow reactor system simulating the condition of diesel exhaust. In this study, the temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) scheme is mainly used for different NO and O2 concentrations and soot oxidation rate is evaluated by monitoring both CO and CO2 concentrations. Pt/CeO2 catalyst lowers the temperature of the peak CO/CO2 concentrations significantly when there is either NO or O2. Oxidation starts at 200°C and the peak CO2 concentration is observed at 360°C, which depends on the amount of catalyst and NO concentration. The effect of catalyst on NO2 recycling is also investigated. For this purpose, two different types of sample have been prepared. For the mixed case, 10mg of carbon black is mixed with 50mg of Pt/CeO2 catalyst under conditions of loose contact. For the unmixed case, the catalyst layer is placed on top of soot layer without mixing.
Technical Paper

Models for Heat Transfer, Mixing and Hydrocarbon Oxidation in a Exhaust Port of a Spark-Ignited Engine

The fate of hydrocarbon species in the exhaust systems of spark-ignition engines is an important part of the overall hydrocarbon emissions problem. In this investigation models were developed for the instantaneous heat transfer, fluid mixing, and hydrocarbon oxidation in an engine exhaust port. Experimental measurements were obtained for the instantaneous cylinder pressure and instantaneous gas temperature at the exhaust port exit for a range of engine operating conditions. These measurements were used to validate the heat transfer model and to provide data on the instantaneous cylinder gas state for a series of illustrative exhaust port hydrocarbon oxidation computations as a function of engine operating and design variables. During much of the exhaust process, the exhaust port heat transfer was dominated by large-scale fluid motion generated by the jet-like flow at the exhaust valve.
Technical Paper

Plasma/Catalyst System for Reduction of NOx in Diesel Engine Exhaust

NOx reduction by a plasma/catalyst system was tested with modeled gas and real exhaust gas. Ag/Al2O3 was used as the catalyst. The oxidation of NO to NO2 by the plasma was increased as HC concentration and input energy density increase. The presence of H2O in the reactant gas led to the production of acid by plasma. The catalytic activity for NOx reduction was enhanced by the assistance of plasma especially in the lower temperature region. This activity was a little suppressed in the presence of H2O, but the acid was not detected in the effluent gas treated by the plasma/catalyst system. The NOx conversion to N2 was evaluated by a gas chromatography in the model gas with helium as the balance gas. The result in helium balance gas showed the selectivity to N2 depended on the catalyst temperature and was also enhanced by the assistance of plasma. The 50% of NOx removal from the diesel exhaust gas was achieved by the plasma /catalyst system.