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Technical Paper

(Particle) Emissions of Small 2-& 4-Stroke Scooters with (Hydrous) Ethanol Blends

2010-04-12
2010-01-0794
The objectives of the present work are to investigate the regulated and unregulated (particle) emissions of a classical and modern 2-stroke and a typical 4-stroke scooter with different ethanol blend fuels. There is also comparison of two different ethanol fuels: pure ethanol (E) *) and hydrous ethanol (EH) which contains 3.9% water and is denatured with 1.5% gasoline. Special attention is paid in this research to the hydrous ethanol, since the production costs of hydrous ethanol are much less than those for (dry) ethanol. The vehicles are with carburettor and without catalyst, which represents the most frequent technology in Eastern Asia and offers the information of engine-out emissions. Exhaust emissions measurements have been performed with fuels containing ethanol (E), or hydrous ethanol (EH) in the portion of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume. During the test systematical analysis of particle mass (PM) and nano-particles counts (NP) were carried out.
Journal Article

0W-16 Fuel Economy Gasoline Engine Oil Compatible with Low Speed Pre-Ignition Performance

2017-10-08
2017-01-2346
It has been long established fact that fuel economy is a key driving force of low viscosity gasoline engine oil research and development considered by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and lubricant companies. The development of low viscosity gasoline engine oils should not only focus on fuel economy improvement, but also on the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) prevention property. In previous LSPI prevention literatures, the necessity of applying Ca/Mg-based detergents system in the engine oil formulations was proposed. In this paper, we adopted a specific Group III base oil containing Ca-salicylate detergent, borated dispersant, Mo-DTC in the formulation and investigated the various effects of Mg-salicylate and Mg-sulfonate on the performance of engine oil. It was found that Mg-sulfonate showed a significant detrimental impact on silicone rubber compatibility while the influence from Mg-salicylate remains acceptable.
Technical Paper

1.8L Sierra-Mondeo Turbo-Diesel Valvetrain Friction Reduction Using a Solid Film Lubricant

1994-10-01
941986
A 1.8L turbocharged diesel engine valvetrain friction was investigated, and the effectiveness of using a solid film lubricant (SFL) coating in reducing friction was determined throughout the operable speed range. This valvetrain design features direct acting mechanical bucket valve lifters. Camshaft journal bearing surfaces and all camshaft rubbing surfaces except lobe tips were coated. The direct acting bucket shims were etched with a cross hatch pattern to a depth sufficient to sustain a SFL film coating on the shim rubbing surfaces subjected to high surface loads. The SFL coated valvetrain torque was evaluated and compared with uncoated baseline torque. Coating the cam bearing journal surfaces alone with II-25D SFL reduced valvetrain friction losses 8 to 17% for 250 to 2000 rpm cam speed range (i.e. 500 - 4000 rpm engine speed). When bucket tappet and shims were also coated with the SFL, further significant reductions in coated valvetrain friction were observed.
Technical Paper

100,000 Miles of Fueling 5.9L Cummins Engines with 100% Biodiesel

1996-10-01
962233
Two Cummins B5.9L engines were fueled with 100% biodiesel in excess of 48 months by the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The engines used to power Dodge pickups. The engine lubricating oil was sampled at 1000 mile intervals for analysis. Statistical analysis of the engine lubricating oil indicated that the wear metal levels in the lubricating oil were normal. A reduction in power was noted when the engines were tested using a chassis dynamometer. The 1991 pickup has been driven 110,451 km and the 1992 pickup has been driven approximately 177,022 km. The pickups averaged 6.9 km/L. Engine fuel efficiency and material compatibility issues are addressed in the paper.
Technical Paper

100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20)

2006-10-16
2006-01-3253
Nine identical 40-ft. transit buses were operated on B20 and diesel for a period of two years - five of the buses operated exclusively on B20 (20% biodiesel blend) and the other four on petroleum diesel. The buses were model year 2000 Orion V equipped with Cummins ISM engines, and all operated on the same bus route. Each bus accumulated about 100,000 miles over the course of the study. B20 buses were compared to the petroleum diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, vehicle maintenance cost, road calls, and emissions. There was no difference between the on-road average fuel economy of the two groups (4.41 mpg) based on the in-use data, however laboratory testing revealed a nearly 2% reduction in fuel economy for the B20 vehicles. Engine and fuel system related maintenance costs were nearly identical for the two groups until the final month of the study.
Technical Paper

175°C-Capable Thermoplastic Elastomers for Automotive Air Management and Sealing Applications

2007-11-28
2007-01-2576
Flexibility, oil resistance, and the need for heat resistance to 150°C-plus temperatures have traditionally limited automotive design engineers to two options - thermoset rubber or heat-shielding conventional thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). Both of these options present limitations in part design, the ability to consolidate the number of components in a part of assembly, and on total cost. This paper presents a class of high-performance, flexible thermoplastic elastomers based on dynamically vulcanized polyacrylate (ACM) elastomer dispersed in a continuous matrix of polyamide (PA) thermoplastic. These materials are capable of sustained heat resistance to 150°C and short-term heat resistance to 175°C, without requiring heat shielding. Recent advancements in blow molding and functional testing of the PA//ACM TPEs for automotive air management (ducts) and underhood sealing applications will be shown.
Technical Paper

1962 passenger-car engineering trends

1962-01-01
620066
The phenomenal success of the small car is leading to many engineering changes in the automobile industry. It has brought increased emphasis on weight reduction on both small and full-size cars. Improving reliability and designing to eliminate grease fittings have also become important objectives.
Technical Paper

1997 UTEP LPP-FI Propane Challenge Vehicle

1998-02-23
980490
As part of the 1997 Propane Vehicle Challenge, a team of twelve UTEP students converted a 1996 Dodge Grand Caravan with a 3.3 L V6 engine to dedicated Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) operation according to the 1997 Propane Vehicle Challenge (PVC) competition rules (16). The 1997 UTEP team developed an LPG liquid phase port fuel injection (LPP-FI) system for the minivan. The UTEP design strategy combines simplicity and sound engineering practices with the effective use of heat resistant materials to maintain the LPG in the liquid phase at temperatures encountered in the fuel delivery system. The team identified two options for fuel storage with in-tank fuel pumps. The competition vehicle incorporates a five-manifold eight inch diameter Sleegers Engineering LPG tank fitted with a Walbro LPTS in-tank pump system, providing a calculated range of 310 city miles and 438 highway miles.
Technical Paper

26 Development of “BF-Coat” for Snowmobile Piston

2002-10-29
2002-32-1795
The pistons in a snowmobile engine are subjected to severe temperature conditions not only because snowmobiles are operated in extremely cold temperatures but also because the engine has a high output per unit volume of approximately 150kW/liter. The temperature of the piston top may go from -40°C (when a cold engine is started) to 400°C or higher (when the engine is running at full load). When the piston and cylinder inner wall are cold, the performance of the lubricating oil drops; when they are hot, scuffing may be produced by problems such as tearing of the oil film between the piston and cylinder. When the engine is run at full load for a long time, moreover, the piston is subjected to prolonged high-temperature use, which is conducive to the production of piston boss hole abrasion and ring groove adhesive wear.
Technical Paper

48 Development of Exhaust Valve Seat Insert Material for High Performance Engines

2002-10-29
2002-32-1817
Engines are assigned big subjects such as low emission and low fuel consumption as well as higher output (higher efficiency) in the latest trend of environmental protection. In order to meet these requirements, Air/Fuel ratio of recent high performance engines is being arranged leaner than that of conventional engines. As a result exhaust valve seat inserts used in these engines have problems of their wear resistance because of high exhaust gas temperature. By analyzing wear mechanism under the lean burn conditions, authors developed material for exhaust valve seat inserts which show superior wear resistance under high operating temperature. For the purpose to enhance heat resistance, authors added alloy steel powder for matrix powder and used hard particles which have good diffusion with matrix. The developed material does not include Ni and Co powders for cost saving and has superior machinability.
Technical Paper

50,000km On-Road Durability Test of Common-Rail Vehicle with 10% Blend of High Quality Biodiesel (H-FAME) from Jatropha

2015-03-30
2015-01-0115
The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand popular brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Spacecab, equipped with 4JK1-STD engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro III emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Jatropha-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 10% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
Technical Paper

50,000km On-Road Durability Test of Common-Rail Vehicle with 20% Blend of High Quality Palm Biodiesel (H-FAME)

2016-03-27
2016-01-1736
The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Extended cab, equipped with 4JK1-TCX engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro IV emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Palm-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 20% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
Technical Paper

A Bearing Life Prediction Method for Utilizing Progressive Functional Surface Damage Analysis from a Debris Contaminated Lubrication Environment

1999-09-13
1999-01-2793
Many lubrication environments in various equipment applications are inherently contaminated with debris and require mechanical components that are, as much as possible, resistant to the potential detrimental effects of debris particles. Many design engineers and lubricant specialists often overlook potential relationships between the various component failure modes, lubricant debris contamination levels, and engineering solutions that are created to overcome them. In addition, design engineers are in need of an analysis tool that can combine the various amounts of cumulative bearing damage occurring over time. As an example, bearing functional surfaces in many cases are progressively damaged over the life of the equipment. A new surface analysis tool is available which allows surface damage analysis to be completed at various stages of equipment life. This new surface analysis tool is appropriately called Debris Signature Analysis(sm).
Technical Paper

A Bench Technique for Evaluating High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion Tendencies of Automotive Crankcase Lubricants

1968-02-01
680538
A technique for evaluating high temperature oxidation and corrosion tendencies of automotive crankcase lubricants is described. The technique utilizes a versatile bench apparatus which, with a minimum of modification, can be used for either evaluating thermal oxidation stability of gear lubricants or oxidation-corrosion tendencies of automotive crankcase lubricants. The apparatus is relatively compact and requires a minimal lubricant sample. Design of the apparatus permits close control of all operating parameters and provides satisfactory test data repeatability. Retainable copper-lead test bearings are used as the indicator in predicting a pass or fail of fully formulated crankcase lubricants as in the case of the CRC L-38-559 (Federal Test Method 3405) technique. Engine and bench test data are compared to illustrate the capabilities of this new bench technique.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in the Use of Statistical Experimental Design and Data Analysis in Lubricant Formulation

2000-06-19
2000-01-1963
This case study illustrates the value of employing statistical experimental design and data analysis when formulating lubricants. A fractional factorial experimental design enabled all main effects of 6 formulation variables, plus 6 important 2-factor interactions, to be estimated from a total of only 16 runs. The design also allowed the engine to be serviced during the test programme without biasing the conclusions. The statistical analysis of the resulting data is also described. Data from a reference oil were used to augment the test data and clarify the conclusions.
Technical Paper

A Catalyzed Hydrocarbon Trap Using Metal-impregnated Zeolite for SULEV systems

2003-03-03
2003-01-0815
A catalyzed hydrocarbon (HC) trap aiming at the super-ultra low emission vehicle (SULEV) regulation was developed using a metal-impregnated zeolite. To enhance the adsorption and to raise the desorption temperature for a wide range of HC species, the modification of zeolite with certain metals was needed and Ag was found to be the most promising. Using a Ag impregnated zeolite, a three way catalyst was prepared, and its HC purification ability for a model gas simulating cold-start HCs was studied. Its heat resistance was also examined. A vehicle test for a fresh catalyzed HC trap showed that the cold-start HC after the newly developed trap almost reached the SULEV regulation level.
Technical Paper

A Cold Look at Lubricants

1971-02-01
710716
The increased industrial and commercial activities in the Arctic areas of the world have led to the development of special performance lubricants to meet these requirements. The technical requirements to meet the exigencies of commercial operation in the Arctic are discussed along with several lubricant approaches. The relative merits of the various types of lubricants including synthesized fluids, are presented together with the different areas of application.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Exhaust Pipe, Dilution Tunnel and Roadside Diesel Particulate SOF and Gaseous Hydrocarbon Emissions

1988-02-01
880351
The solvent organic fraction (SOF) of particulates from the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine, a dilution tunnel and a roadside sample are compared. Three different techniques of SOF analysis are also compared, vacuum oven, solvent extraction and pyroprobe/GC. Gaseous hydrocarbons and the methane contribution were measured in the exhaust pipe throughout the speed and load range of the engine at 185 C and 2 C. The unburnt hydrocarbons decreased with air/fuel ratio for all speeds and there was an overall decrease in emissions with increasing speed. The differential temperature technique showed the maximum mass of hydrocarbon which could condense from the gas phase onto the particulate as the SOF. The method compared well with the actual SOF of the tunnel particulate.
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