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Technical Paper

2-D Springback Analysis for Stretch-Bending Processes Based on Total Strain Theory

1995-02-01
950691
A theoretical model is presented for predicting springback of wide sheet metal subjected to 2D-stretch-bending operation. The material is assumed to be normal anisotropic with n-th power hardening law, σ = Fεn. Two types of stretch-bending experiment, bending with simultaneous stretching and stretch-bending followed by consecutive re-stretching, is conducted using AK sheet steel and sheet aluminum alloy A5182-O. The measured values of springback are in good agreement with analytical ones for a wide range of bending radii, stretching forces, and loading conditions. Furthermore, a calculation method for predicting springback configurations of 2D sheet metal parts with arbitrary cross-sections which include both stretch-bending and stretch-bending-unbending deformation is proposed.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Magnesium Instrument Panel Cross Car Beam

2005-04-11
2005-01-0341
Ford GT 2005 vehicle was designed for performance, timing, cost, and styling to preserve Ford GT40 vintage look. In this vehicle program, many advanced manufacturing processes and light materials were deployed including aluminum and magnesium. This paper briefly explains one unique design concept for a Ford GT instrument panel comprised of a structural magnesium cross-car beam and other components, i.e. radio box and console top, which is believed to be the industry's first structural I/P from vehicle crash load and path perspectives. The magnesium I/P design criteria include magnesium casting properties, cost, corrosion protection, crashworthiness assessments, noise vibration harshness performance, and durability. Magnesium die casting requirements include high pressure die cast process with low casting porosity and sound quality, casting dimensional stability, corrosion protection and coating strategy, joining and assembly constraints.
Technical Paper

4000 F Oxidation Resistant Thermal Protection Materials

1966-02-01
660659
Coated refractory metals, coated and alloyed graphites, hafnium-tantalum alloys, refractory borides, and stabilized zirconias are considered for the 3600–4000 F high-velocity air environment. Only refractory borides and stabilized zirconias are indicated as offering long duration and reuse capabilities for such high-temperature utilization. Iridium, as coatings on substrates of either graphites or refractory metals, appears attractive for shorter times (less than 1 hr). Environmental evaluation and the need for a theoretical framework to enable the prediction of performance data for such materials are indicated to be major problems facing users and suppliers.
Technical Paper

47 Development of a Titanium Material by Utilizing Off-Grade Titanium Sponge

2002-10-29
2002-32-1816
Titanium alloy for forging and pure titanium material for exhaust systems have been developed. The forging alloy will be applied to production of lightweight motorcycle frames and the pure titanium will be applied to improve engine performance. The materials have been made inexpensive by the use of off-grade sponge that includes many impurities for production of titanium ingot. Stable characteristics have been obtained by controlling oxygen equivalent after setting the volume of tolerable impurities by considering mechanical properties and production engineering. In spite of low-cost, the material provides the same design strength compared to conventional material, and enables parts production with existing equipment. A review of manufacturing and surface treatment processes indicated a reduction in the price of titanium parts produced with this new material.
Technical Paper

56 Development of two-cylinder liquid-cooled utility gasoline engine models with twin balancer shafts

2002-10-29
2002-32-1825
The new small and lightweight 2-cylinder liquid-cooled OHC gasoline engines were developed. These new engines are featuring high output, low vibration and noise radiation and so able to improve the comfortableness and amenity of applied utility machines. In this paper, the features of the new engines and the process to realize development targets are introduced. The basic structure adopted on the new engines is a liquid-cooled, inline 2-cyilinder layout with 360-degree firing intervals, twin balancer shafts, and an overhead camshaft that is driven by a cogged belt. Also various parts made of aluminum alloy and plastics could make the engine lighter. By these measures, the new engines could satisfy their hardest development targets, and realize their easy installation, higher versatility, and have the excellent features such as compact size, lightweight, high output, low exhaust gas emission and low vibration and noise radiation.
Standard

8000 psi Hydraulic Systems: Experience and Test Results

1994-09-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4002
Shortly after World War II, as aircraft became more sophisticated and power-assist, flight-control functions became a requirement, hydraulic system operating pressures rose from the 1000 psi level to the 3000 psi level found on most aircraft today. Since then, 4000 psi systems have been developed for the U.S. Air Force XB-70 and B-1 bombers and a number of European aircraft including the tornado multirole combat aircraft and the Concorde supersonic transport. The V-22 Osprey incorporates a 5000 psi hydraulic system. The power levels of military aircraft hydraulic systems have continued to rise. This is primarily due to higher aerodynamic loading, combined with the increased hydraulic functions and operations of each new aircraft. At the same time, aircraft structures and wings have been getting smaller and thinner as mission requirements expand. Thus, internal physical space available for plumbing and components continues to decrease.
Standard

8000 psi Hydraulic Systems: Experience and Test Results

2012-11-15
CURRENT
AIR4002A
Shortly after World War II, as aircraft became more sophisticated and power-assist, flight-control functions became a requirement, hydraulic system operating pressures rose from the 1000 psi level to the 3000 psi level found on most aircraft today. Since then, 4000 psi systems have been developed for the U.S. Air Force XB-70 and B-1 bombers and a number of European aircraft including the tornado multirole combat aircraft and the Concorde supersonic transport. The V-22 Osprey incorporates a 5000 psi hydraulic system. The power levels of military aircraft hydraulic systems have continued to rise. This is primarily due to higher aerodynamic loading, combined with the increased hydraulic functions and operations of each new aircraft. At the same time, aircraft structures and wings have been getting smaller and thinner as mission requirements expand. Thus, internal physical space available for plumbing and components continues to decrease.
Technical Paper

A Benchmark Test for Springback: Experimental Procedures and Results of a Slit-Ring Test

2005-04-11
2005-01-0083
Experimental procedures and results of a benchmark test for springback are reported and a complete suite of obtained data is provided for the validation of forming and springback simulation software. The test is usually referred as the Slit-Ring test where a cylindrical cup is first formed by deep drawing and then a ring is cut from the mid-section of the cup. The opening of the ring upon slitting releases the residual stresses in the formed cup and provides a valuable set of easy-to-measure, easy-to-characterize springback data. The test represents a realistic deep draw stamping operation with stretching and bending deformation, and is highly repeatable in a laboratory environment. In this study, six different automotive materials are evaluated.
Technical Paper

A Case Study of a Die-Cast Magnesium Structure Supporting Transmission Shifter Mechanisms and Interfaced with other Structural Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-0130
During the last several years the use of magnesium die-castings for automotive applications has been on the rise. Magnesium's use in die-cast form has been expanding at an average growth rate of more than 15% a year. Reasons for the increase are both practical and economic. Magnesium die-castings offer components having the lowest mass when compared to almost any other structural material. Magnesium die-alloys exhibit properties that bridge the gap between engineered plastics and metals. The mechanical performance ratios (strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight) of magnesium also compete favorably with metals and plastics. Economically, magnesium alloys prices have fallen during the last several years making them extremely competitive with other materials.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Design Study for Aluminium and Magnesium Automatic Transmission Converter Housings

2001-10-01
2001-01-3173
The demand for vehicles with improved NVH characteristics, fuel economy and emissions control has increased dramatically in recent years. To meet these objectives stiffer and lighter housings are required so as to avoid troublesome driveline vibrations, while at the same time produce lighter structures to reduce the overall vehicle weight and improved fuel economy. A feasibility study was undertaken to examine the differences between the use of magnesium alloy and aluminium alloy for an automatic transmission converter housing. The design process, design constraints, design methodology, alloy selection and some unique magnesium design requirements are outlined. The differences between the two designs are investigated by simulating their static and dynamic performances using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). A sand cast prototype was produced for the first stage of the feasibility study, with the ultimate aim to produce die cast magnesium converter housings if feasible.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Investigation on the High Temperature Fatigue of Three Cast Aluminum Alloys

2004-03-08
2004-01-1029
The high temperature fatigue behaviors of three cast aluminum alloys used for cylinder head fabrication - 319, A356 and AS7GU - are compared under isothermal fatigue at room temperature and elevated temperatures. The thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior for both out-of-phase and in-phase loading conditions (100-300°C) has also been investigated. It has been observed that all three of these alloys present a very similar behavior under both isothermal and thermo-mechanical low-cycle fatigue. Under high-cycle fatigue, however, the alloys A356 and AS7GU exhibit superior performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study by Vehicle Testing of Copper Alloy and Gray Iron Brake Discs

1972-02-01
720930
Automotive friction materials are composites containing three kinds of components: an organic binder, fiber for reinforcement, and property modifiers. At low braking temperatures, the wear rate of the friction materials is controlled primarily by abrasive and adhesive mechanisms. At higher braking temperatures, the wear rate increases exponentially with increasing temperature due to thermal degradation of the binder and other components, and the exponential wear rate is frequently accompanied by brake fade. Thus, one method of reducing thermal wear and fade tendency is to lower the temperature at the rotor/friction material interface. Since the rate of heat transfer from the interface is mostly dependent upon the conductive and convective modes, a rotor of high thermal conductivity will have a significant advantage over a rotor of low conductivity, if the heat capacity remains the same.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Four Alloys for Automotive Brake Drums

1969-02-01
690443
A drag dynamometer was used to evaluate the performance of automotive brake drums made from four kinds of materials with different thermal conductivities. In the order of decreasing thermal conductivity they are chromium copper, aluminum/cast iron composite, cast iron, and nickel-aluminum bronze. All of the drums were of the standard configuration used in SAE J 661a, or closely approximated it. The drums were run in conjunction with three types of lining materials: nonabrasive, moderately abrasive, and highly abrasive. Temperatures near the lining/drum interface, coefficients of friction, and lining wear were measured and compared. For a given amount of work done, the temperature near the drum surface was found to be lowest for the chromium copper drums, with progressively higher temperatures in the aluminum/cast iron composite, nickel-aluminum bronze, and cast iron drums. Relative lining wear and coefficient of friction varied with the type of lining tested.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of New Magnesium Alloys Developed for Elevated Temperature Applications in Automotive Industry

2003-03-03
2003-01-0191
Recently several new magnesium alloys for high temperature applications have been developed with the aim to obtain an optimal combination of die castability, creep resistance, mechanical properties, corrosion performance and affordable cost. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to achieve an adequate combination of properties and in fact, most of the new alloys can only partially meet the required performance and cost. This paper aims at evaluating the current status of the newly developed alloys for powertrain applications. The paper also addresses the complexity of magnesium alloy development and illustrates the effect of alloying elements on properties and cost. In addition, the paper presents an attempt to set the position of each alloy in the integrated space of combined properties and cost
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Fatigue Behavior of Spot Welded and Mechanically Fastened Aluminum Joints

1995-02-01
950710
The cyclic behavior of single overlap aluminum joints joined through a number of different methods has been investigated using Alcan 5754-O, an alloy that potentially could be used in structural applications. Overlap shear tests of spot welded, clinched and riveted joints are compared on the basis of their fatigue performance. The fatigue response of the spot welded joint was the baseline to which the other fasteners were compared. Test results showed an improvement of approximately 25% for both the mechanical clinch joints and aluminum rivets in fatigue strength at 106 cycles. The most significant improvement in fatigue strength of 100% was found for the self piercing rivets at 106 cycles. The failure behavior of the various joining methods is discussed as well as the surface appearance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Machinability Characteristics in Dry Machining of Inconel X-750 Alloy Using Coated Carbide Inserts

2018-07-09
2018-28-0031
Nickel based superalloys have a wide range of applications due to high mechanical strength at high temperatures, fracture toughness and resistance to corrosion. However, because of their outstanding properties, it is considered as the difficult to machine materials. Inconel alloy X-750 is used extensively in rocket-engine thrust chambers. Airframe applications include thrust reversers and hot-air ducting systems along with large pressure vessels are formed from Inconel alloy X-750. Moreover, the comparative analysis of machinability aspect using coated carbide inserts is reported few. The current study explains the machinability investigation on Inconel alloy X-750 superalloys using coated carbides. To collect the experimental data, the L16 experimental design plan is used to experiment with a machining length of 40 mm.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on the Performance of Ventilated Brake Discs Manufactured in Different Advanced Materials

2001-10-01
2001-01-3325
Two different aluminium alloy materials have been used to produce ventilated brake discs, on one hand, AS17G0.6 hypereutectic alloy and on the other hand, AS7G0.6 reinforced with 20% in wt. of SiC particles. The casting production technique used has been Low Pressure Casting (LPC) and some of the brake discs have been heat treated using a T6 treatment. Once the ventilated brake discs were produced and machined, they were tested in a dynamometer in order to compare the performance under service conditions of the aluminum alloy and grey cast iron (GCI) discs currently used in the market.
Technical Paper

A Comparison and Identification Study of Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Al/B4CP and Mg/B4CP Composites for Automobile Disk Brakes

2014-04-01
2014-01-0944
The brake friction materials in an automotive brake system play an important role in the overall braking performance of a vehicle. Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have been widely investigated and applied due to their advantages of improved strength, stiffness and increased wear resistance over the monolithic alloys in automobile industries. In this paper, Al/B4CP and Mg/B4CP composites were compared to find a suitable candidate material for automotive disk brake application, in terms of wear behavior results of the materials. In addition, the experimental data was also used to model this behavior by identification. The measured tangential force was considered as the input parameter, whereas the weight loss as the output parameter. Preliminary results of this work showed that B4CP addition improved wear resistance of both aluminum and magnesium matrix composites. Additionally, the study pointed out that identified models provide a reliable and cost effective tool for wear prediction.
Technical Paper

A Comparison by Thermal Analysis of Rotor Alloys for Automobile Disc Brakes

1970-02-01
700137
The effect of rotor alloy composition on thermal conditions in a disc brake system was determined analytically. The three alloys selected were gray cast iron, 356 aluminum, and copper -1% chromium. This study includes calculations of the temperature and heat storage in the various portions of the brake system, as well as the variations of convective heat transfer throughout the system. These computations were made for the transient conditions existing during a series of 60 mph stops (15 ft/sec2 deceleration). The steady-state rotor surface temperature and the thermal gradients were found to decrease with increasing thermal conductivity of the alloys. The rotor surface temperatures for the first two stops were relatively independent of thermal conductivity, but were strongly dependent on heat capacity. Convection was found to occur almost entirely (greater than 90%) from the rotor surface and ventilating passages.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Impact Characteristics of Several Magnesium Die Casting Alloys

1993-03-01
930417
Interest in ductile, tough magnesium alloys has been stimulated by designers seeking lightweight, efficient steering control structures. The simultaneous need for deformable, energy-absorbing components redirected metallurgists to consider the impact behavior of “high-ductility”, AM-series, magnesium alloys. This paper provides a comparison between the “workhorse” AZ91D magnesium alloy and the less-common, AM60B alloy. Specific application to a steering column bracket illustrates the development processes involved in selecting the appropriate alloy.
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