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Technical Paper

(Paint) Film Finishing in Practice

1992-02-01
920732
(Paint) film as an alternative to spray applied paint has received growing attention in recent years. The potential for economic and environmental advantage and quality enhancement with this technology has been reported in several technical papers (Ref. 1, 3 and 4). The actual practice of film finishing, however, has received only limited notice. Film finishes have been applied to aluminum, stainless steel, PVC, and ABS. Starting in 1982, part applications include: wheel covers, door edge guards, window surrounds, roof drip moldings, lower windshield moldings, rocker panels, body side moldings, B pillars, and A pillars. Industry awareness and acceptance of film finishing as a viable alternative to spray applied paint is increasing. The two technologies are similar in many ways, yet distinctly different in other ways. They share a common goal: To yield a durable finish, economically and with superior visual impact. This paper reviews the unique aspects of film finishing.
Technical Paper

(Test Developed For) Classifying Valve Bridge Cracking Solutions in Cylinder Heads

1995-02-01
950029
The testing system developed will decrease the time and the costs involved in evaluating cylinder head valve bridge designs. The test uses actual data generated from engine testing to recreate the valve bridge cracks that occur during dynamometer and vehicle testing. This paper focuses on the system description, the test development, design modifications, and the test results obtained. Testing shows that this method correctly separates valve bridge designs by test cycle life using statistical methods. It is a cost effective and timely alternative to dynamometer testing.
Technical Paper

01 CAE analysis of a CVT toothed belt

2002-10-29
2002-32-1770
This work deals with the CAE simulation of the behaviour of a belt employed in a CVT transmission of a large displacement scooter engine. Both FEM and MBS simulations were performed, in order to estimate the dynamic loads acting on the component and the stress state the belt is subject to. The MBS simulations were backed up by simple FEM tests performed in order to estimate the elastic properties of elementary portions of the belt. The MBS system comprised the belt and the two pulleys. As a result, the force components the pulleys exert on the belt were calculated. FEM non-linear analyses were performed in order to estimate the stress state the belt experiences. The belt's both manufacturing and working conditions were simulated.
Technical Paper

1.2GPa Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

2014-04-01
2014-01-0991
To reduce the Body in White (BIW) mass, it is necessary to expand the application of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) to complex shaped parts. In order to apply AHSS to complex shaped parts with thinner gauge, high formability steel is required. However, higher strength steels tend to display lower elongations, compared with low/medium strength steels. Current AHSS are applied to limited parts for this reason. The new 1.2GPa material, with high formability, was developed to solve this issue. The mechanical property targets for the high elongation 1.2GPa material were achieved by precise metallurgical optimization. Many material aspects were studied, such as formability, weldabilty, impact strength, and delayed fracture. As the result of this development, 1.2GPa AHSS has been applied to a new vehicle launched in 2013.The application of this material was the 1st in the world, and achieved a 11kg mass reduction.
Technical Paper

100 Hour Endurance Testing of a High Output Adiabatic Diesel Engine

1994-03-01
940951
An advanced low heat rejection engine concept has successfully completed a 100 hour endurance test. The combustion chamber components were insulated with thermal barrier coatings. The engine components included a titanium piston, titanium headface plate, titanium cylinder liner insert, M2 steel valve guides and monolithic zirconia valve seat inserts. The tribological system was composed of a ceramic chrome oxide coated cylinder liner, chrome carbide coated piston rings and an advanced polyolester class lubricant. The top piston compression ring Included a novel design feature to provide self-cleaning of ring groove lubricant deposits to prevent ring face scuffing. The prototype test engine demonstrated 52 percent reduction in radiator heat rejection with reduced intake air aftercooling and strategic forced oil cooling.
Technical Paper

100,000 Miles of Fueling 5.9L Cummins Engines with 100% Biodiesel

1996-10-01
962233
Two Cummins B5.9L engines were fueled with 100% biodiesel in excess of 48 months by the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The engines used to power Dodge pickups. The engine lubricating oil was sampled at 1000 mile intervals for analysis. Statistical analysis of the engine lubricating oil indicated that the wear metal levels in the lubricating oil were normal. A reduction in power was noted when the engines were tested using a chassis dynamometer. The 1991 pickup has been driven 110,451 km and the 1992 pickup has been driven approximately 177,022 km. The pickups averaged 6.9 km/L. Engine fuel efficiency and material compatibility issues are addressed in the paper.
Technical Paper

1941 CFR ROAD DETONATION TESTS - Further Experience with New Methods (Compiled from Report of the Cooperative Fuel Research Committee)

1942-01-01
420122
The cooperative road tests carried out during 1941 have added considerable information and experience to that already existing on the subject of road detonation testing. Extensive data were obtained on the fuel requirements of the 1940 and 1941 models of the three most popular cars. Corresponding data were obtained on the knocking characteristics of current gasolines representing the bulk of the sales volume in various parts of the United States. On account of large variations in octane-number requirement among different cars of the same make - due to differences in ignition timing, combustion-chamber deposit, and other causes - and on account of variations in commercial gasolines, it has been necessary to use statistical methods of analysis in the appraisal of fuel and engine relationships. These methods of analysis have been applied in a number of ways, and have proved very useful.
Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

1982-02-01
820019
The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
Technical Paper

1984 Continental Mark VII/Lincoln Continental Electronically-Controlled Air Suspension (EAS) System

1984-02-01
840342
This paper describes the Electronic Air Suspension (EAS) System developed by Ford Motor Company. Design trade-offs between load-carrying capacity necessary with conventional steel spring suspension systems and riding comfort are avoided when today's microcomputer technology is combined with a leveling air spring suspension. An electric air compressor with regenerative air dryer, three electronic “Hall Effect” height sensors, four air springs with integral solenoids, and a control module with a single chip microcomputer are the key EAS System components discussed.
Technical Paper

2-D Springback Analysis for Stretch-Bending Processes Based on Total Strain Theory

1995-02-01
950691
A theoretical model is presented for predicting springback of wide sheet metal subjected to 2D-stretch-bending operation. The material is assumed to be normal anisotropic with n-th power hardening law, σ = Fεn. Two types of stretch-bending experiment, bending with simultaneous stretching and stretch-bending followed by consecutive re-stretching, is conducted using AK sheet steel and sheet aluminum alloy A5182-O. The measured values of springback are in good agreement with analytical ones for a wide range of bending radii, stretching forces, and loading conditions. Furthermore, a calculation method for predicting springback configurations of 2D sheet metal parts with arbitrary cross-sections which include both stretch-bending and stretch-bending-unbending deformation is proposed.
Technical Paper

2002 Pontiac Montana Frequency Improvements Employing Structural Foam

2001-04-30
2001-01-1609
This paper documents a joint development process between General Motors and Dow Automotive to improve primary body structure frequencies on the GM family of midsize vans by utilizing cavity-filling structural foam. Optimum foam locations, foam quantity, and foam density within the body structure were determined by employing both math-based modeling and vehicle hardware testing techniques. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the Body-In-White (BIW) and “trimmed body” were used to predict the global body structure modes and associated resonant frequencies with and without structural foam. The objective of the FEA activity was to quantify frequency improvements to the primary body structure modes of matchboxing, bending, and torsion when using structural foam. Comprehensive hardware testing on the vehicle was also executed to validate the frequency improvements observed in the FEA results.
Technical Paper

2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Aluminum Spaceframe

2005-04-11
2005-01-0465
This paper describes the engineering, manufacturing and integration necessary to produce the Corvette's first ever all-aluminum spaceframe (see Figure 1). The engineering and manufacturing of the spaceframe was a joint venture between General Motors and suppliers ALCOA (Aluminum Company of America) and Dana Corporation. ALCOA led the initial design of the spaceframe; Dana Corp led the manufacturing; General Motors' Engineering and Manufacturing groups led the integration of the assembly. The aluminum spaceframe design is modeled after the baseline steel structure of the Corvette coupe. The aluminum spaceframe reduces 140 lbs from the steel baseline and enters the plant at 285 lbs. This frame allows the 2006 Corvette Z06 to enter the market at a 3100 lbs curb weight. Aluminum casting, extruding, stamping, hydroforming, laser welding, Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding, Self Pierce Riveting (SPR), and full spaceframe machining make up the main technologies used to produce this spaceframe.
Technical Paper

2006 Corvette Z06 Carbon Fiber Fender- Engineering, Design, and Material Selection Considerations

2005-04-11
2005-01-0468
General Motor's Corvette product engineering was given the challenge to find mass reduction opportunities on the painted body panels of the C6 Z06 through the utilization of carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC). The successful implementation of a carbon fiber hood on the 2004 C5 Commemorative Edition Z06 Corvette was the springboard for Corvette Team's appetite for a more extensive application of CFRC on the C6 Z06 model. Fenders were identified as the best application for the technology given their location on the front of the vehicle and the amount of mass saved. The C6 Z06 CFRC fenders provide 6kg reduction of vehicle mass as compared to the smaller RRIM fenders used on the Coupe and Convertible models.
Technical Paper

21st Century Aircraft Potable Water Systems

1999-10-19
1999-01-5556
Aircraft potable (drinking) water systems haven’t changed significantly in the last half-century. These systems consist of cylindrical water tanks pressurized by bleed air from the jet engines, with insulated stainless steel distribution lines. What has changed recently is the increase in the possibility of aircraft picking up contaminated drinking water at foreign and domestic stops. Customer awareness of these problems has also changed - to the point where having reliable drinking water is now a competitive issue among airlines. Old style potable water systems that are used on modern aircraft are high maintenance and exacerbate the growth of microbes because the water is static much of the time. The integrity of some pressurized water tanks are also a concern after years of use. Cost-effective mechanical and biological solutions exist that can significantly reduce the amount of chemicals added and provide good potable water.
Technical Paper

3-D Modeling of Heat Transfer in Diesel Engine Piston Cooling Galleries

2005-04-11
2005-01-1644
Ever increasing specific power of diesel engines has put huge demand on effective thermal management of the pistons for the desired reliability and durability. The piston temperature control is commonly achieved by injecting cooling oil into piston galleries, but the design of the cooling system as well as the boundary conditions used in FEA simulations have so far relied mostly on empirical methods. A numerical procedure using 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has therefore been developed to simulate the cooling process and to estimate the cooling efficiency of gallery. The model is able to predict the detailed oil flow and heat transfer in gallery, of different designs and engine applications, under dynamic conditions. The resulted spatially resolved heat transfer coefficient from the CFD model, with better accuracy, enables improved prediction of piston temperature in finite element analysis (FEA).
Technical Paper

3-D Scanning Vibrometry Enables Efficient Experimental Modal Analysis of Large and Complex Structures for NVH-Optimised Vehicles

2007-01-17
2007-26-034
In the design and development of modern cars with respect to comfort, silence and safety, state of the art experimental modal analysis is one of the essential development tools. Due to the large amount of degrees of freedom of such a large and complex system like a car with all its components, a complete simulation by FEM can not be realised easily and requires an enormous expenditure of work and calculations. In addition the simulations are based on assumed system parameters and thus the vibration behaviour of the resulting prototypes often is not completely identical to the simulated model. In contrast to conventional measurements with accelerometers, the 3-D Scanning Vibrometer enables fast and efficient non-contact measurements of the in-plane and out-of-plane vibration behaviour at all optical accessible surfaces. The method easily allows to increase the number of measured points to obtain a high measurement point density.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 35, Class 1, Grade 190, Fiber 1

2019-03-12
WIP
AMS3961/3A
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 35, Class 1, Grade 190, Fiber 1

2015-12-02
CURRENT
AMS3961/3
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 35, Class 1, Grade 190, Fiber 2

2015-12-02
CURRENT
AMS3961/2
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 35, Class 1, Grade 190, Fiber 2

2019-03-12
WIP
AMS3961/2A
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
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