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Technical Paper

(Paint) Film Finishing in Practice

(Paint) film as an alternative to spray applied paint has received growing attention in recent years. The potential for economic and environmental advantage and quality enhancement with this technology has been reported in several technical papers (Ref. 1, 3 and 4). The actual practice of film finishing, however, has received only limited notice. Film finishes have been applied to aluminum, stainless steel, PVC, and ABS. Starting in 1982, part applications include: wheel covers, door edge guards, window surrounds, roof drip moldings, lower windshield moldings, rocker panels, body side moldings, B pillars, and A pillars. Industry awareness and acceptance of film finishing as a viable alternative to spray applied paint is increasing. The two technologies are similar in many ways, yet distinctly different in other ways. They share a common goal: To yield a durable finish, economically and with superior visual impact. This paper reviews the unique aspects of film finishing.
Technical Paper

1.2GPa Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

To reduce the Body in White (BIW) mass, it is necessary to expand the application of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) to complex shaped parts. In order to apply AHSS to complex shaped parts with thinner gauge, high formability steel is required. However, higher strength steels tend to display lower elongations, compared with low/medium strength steels. Current AHSS are applied to limited parts for this reason. The new 1.2GPa material, with high formability, was developed to solve this issue. The mechanical property targets for the high elongation 1.2GPa material were achieved by precise metallurgical optimization. Many material aspects were studied, such as formability, weldabilty, impact strength, and delayed fracture. As the result of this development, 1.2GPa AHSS has been applied to a new vehicle launched in 2013.The application of this material was the 1st in the world, and achieved a 11kg mass reduction.
Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
Technical Paper

1984 Continental Mark VII/Lincoln Continental Electronically-Controlled Air Suspension (EAS) System

This paper describes the Electronic Air Suspension (EAS) System developed by Ford Motor Company. Design trade-offs between load-carrying capacity necessary with conventional steel spring suspension systems and riding comfort are avoided when today's microcomputer technology is combined with a leveling air spring suspension. An electric air compressor with regenerative air dryer, three electronic “Hall Effect” height sensors, four air springs with integral solenoids, and a control module with a single chip microcomputer are the key EAS System components discussed.
Technical Paper

1985 Body Corrosion Field Survey - 5 and 6 Year Old Vehicles

The Body Division of the Automotive Corrosion and Prevention Committee of SAE (ACAP) concluded that an automotive body corrosion survey for public consumption was needed. The committee proceeded to develop a survey methodology and conducted an initial survey in the Detroit area. Similar surveys can be conducted at regular biyearly intervals for comparison to track the results of industry wide improvements in corrosion protection. Over two hundred 1980 and 1981 model year vehicles were surveyed covering a wide range of domestic models and some foreign models. Twenty six panel or partial panel categories were developed and evaluated for a closed car parking lot survey. Each panel was checked for perforation, blistering and surface rust.
Technical Paper

1D Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Unsteady Reacting Flows in the Exhaust System with Catalytic Converter for S.I. Engines

This paper deals with some recent advances in the field of 1D fluid dynamic modeling of unsteady reacting flows in complex s.i. engine pipe-systems, involving a catalytic converter. In particular, a numerical simulation code has been developed to allow the simulation of chemical reactions occurring in the catalyst, in order to predict the chemical specie concentration in the exhaust gas from the cylinder to the tailpipe outlet, passing through the catalytic converter. The composition of the exhaust gas, discharged by the cylinder and then flowing towards the converter, is calculated by means of a thermodynamic two-zone combustion model, including emission sub-models. The catalytic converter can be simulated by means of a 1D fluid dynamic and chemical approach, considering the laminar flow in each tiny channel of the substrate.
Technical Paper

1D Model of a Copper Exchanged Small Pore Zeolite Catalyst Based on Transient SCR Protocol

Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are the leading aftertreatment technology for diesel engines, but there are major challenges associated with meeting future NOx emission standards, especially under transient drive cycle conditions that include large swings in exhaust temperatures. Here we present a simplified, transient, one-dimensional integral model of NOx reduction by NH₃ on a commercial small-pore Cu-zeolite urea-SCR catalyst for which detailed kinetic parameters have not been published. The model was developed and validated using data acquired from bench reactor experiments on a monolith core, following a transient SCR reactor protocol. The protocol incorporates NH₃ storage, NH₃ oxidation, NO oxidation and three global SCR reactions under isothermal conditions, at three space velocities and at three NH₃/NOx ratios.
Technical Paper

1D Unsteady Flows with Chemical Reactions in the Exhaust Duct-System of S.I. Engines: Predictions and Experiments

This paper describes some recent advances of the research work concerning the 1D fluid dynamic modeling of unsteady reacting flows in s.i. engine pipe-systems, including pre-catalysts and main catalysts. The numerical model GASDYN developed in previous work has been further enhanced to enable the simulation of the catalyst. The main chemical reactions occurring in the wash-coat have been accounted in the model, considering the mass transfer between gas and solid phase. The oxidation of CO, C3H6, C3H8, H2 and reduction of NO, the steam-reforming reactions of C3H6, C3H8, the water-gas shift reaction of CO have been considered. Moreover, an oxygen-storage sub-model has been introduced, to account for the behavior of Cerium oxides. A detailed thermal model of the converter takes into account the heat released by the exothermic reactions as a source term in the heat transfer equations. The influence of the insulating mat is accounted.
Technical Paper

2-D Springback Analysis for Stretch-Bending Processes Based on Total Strain Theory

A theoretical model is presented for predicting springback of wide sheet metal subjected to 2D-stretch-bending operation. The material is assumed to be normal anisotropic with n-th power hardening law, σ = Fεn. Two types of stretch-bending experiment, bending with simultaneous stretching and stretch-bending followed by consecutive re-stretching, is conducted using AK sheet steel and sheet aluminum alloy A5182-O. The measured values of springback are in good agreement with analytical ones for a wide range of bending radii, stretching forces, and loading conditions. Furthermore, a calculation method for predicting springback configurations of 2D sheet metal parts with arbitrary cross-sections which include both stretch-bending and stretch-bending-unbending deformation is proposed.
Technical Paper

2005 Fuel Cell Vehicle and its Magnesium Power Distribution Unit

The High Voltage Power Distribution Unit (PDU) is constructed of magnesium in support of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) weight reduction efforts. The PDU distributes and controls a nominal 75 kilowatts of power generated by the Fuel Cell, the primary source of High Voltage power, to all the vehicle loads and accessories. The constraints imposed on the design of the PDU resulted in a component highly susceptible to general and galvanic corrosion. Corrosion abatement was the focus of the PDU redesign. This paper describes the redesign efforts undertaken by Ford personnel to improve the part robustness and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Aluminum Spaceframe

This paper describes the engineering, manufacturing and integration necessary to produce the Corvette's first ever all-aluminum spaceframe (see Figure 1). The engineering and manufacturing of the spaceframe was a joint venture between General Motors and suppliers ALCOA (Aluminum Company of America) and Dana Corporation. ALCOA led the initial design of the spaceframe; Dana Corp led the manufacturing; General Motors' Engineering and Manufacturing groups led the integration of the assembly. The aluminum spaceframe design is modeled after the baseline steel structure of the Corvette coupe. The aluminum spaceframe reduces 140 lbs from the steel baseline and enters the plant at 285 lbs. This frame allows the 2006 Corvette Z06 to enter the market at a 3100 lbs curb weight. Aluminum casting, extruding, stamping, hydroforming, laser welding, Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding, Self Pierce Riveting (SPR), and full spaceframe machining make up the main technologies used to produce this spaceframe.
Technical Paper

21st Century Aircraft Potable Water Systems

Aircraft potable (drinking) water systems haven’t changed significantly in the last half-century. These systems consist of cylindrical water tanks pressurized by bleed air from the jet engines, with insulated stainless steel distribution lines. What has changed recently is the increase in the possibility of aircraft picking up contaminated drinking water at foreign and domestic stops. Customer awareness of these problems has also changed - to the point where having reliable drinking water is now a competitive issue among airlines. Old style potable water systems that are used on modern aircraft are high maintenance and exacerbate the growth of microbes because the water is static much of the time. The integrity of some pressurized water tanks are also a concern after years of use. Cost-effective mechanical and biological solutions exist that can significantly reduce the amount of chemicals added and provide good potable water.
Technical Paper

4000 F Oxidation Resistant Thermal Protection Materials

Coated refractory metals, coated and alloyed graphites, hafnium-tantalum alloys, refractory borides, and stabilized zirconias are considered for the 3600–4000 F high-velocity air environment. Only refractory borides and stabilized zirconias are indicated as offering long duration and reuse capabilities for such high-temperature utilization. Iridium, as coatings on substrates of either graphites or refractory metals, appears attractive for shorter times (less than 1 hr). Environmental evaluation and the need for a theoretical framework to enable the prediction of performance data for such materials are indicated to be major problems facing users and suppliers.
Technical Paper

4300°F Thermocouples for Re-entry Vehicle Applications – Part I

This paper discusses work performed in research, design, and development of sensors for measurement of local dynamic surface temperatures on re-entry vehicles. Included are discussions of the basic requirements and related system design factors, the transducer concepts and sensor assembly configurations considered, and the materials investigations and engineering tests conducted. Design requirements are presented for the twin-lead thermocouple probe temperature sensor chosen as the most feasible concept for early implementation. The most promising thermocouple materials and fabrication processes are defined and the additional precision testing and development requirements for final design are outlined. Information not previously reported in available literature includes preliminary data from tests up to4300°F showing (1) excellent oxidation resistance of Iridium, and (2) oxidation protection of thermocouple elements in “gas tight” sheaths of thoria and zirconia.
Technical Paper

49 Development of Pb-free Free-Cutting Steel Enabling Omission of Normalizing for Crankshafts

Crankshafts of motorcycles require high strength, high reliability and low manufacturing cost. Recently, a reduction of Pb content in the free-cutting steel, which is harmful substance, is required. In order to satisfy such requirements, we started the development of Pb-free free-cutting steel which simultaneously enabled the omission of the normalizing process. For the omission of normalizing process, we adjusted the content of Carbon, Manganese and Nitrogen of the steel. This developed steel can obtain adequate hardness and fine microstructure by air-cooling after forging. Pb-free free-cutting steel was developed based on Calcium-sulfur free-cutting steel. Pb free-cutting steel is excellent in cutting chips frangibility in lathe process. We thought that it was necessary that cutting chips frangibility of developed steel was equal to Pb free-cutting steel. It was found that cutting chips frangibility depend on a non-metallic inclusion's composition, shape and dispersion.
Technical Paper


Technical Paper

980 XK: A Critical Automotive Application for HSLA Steel

Previous applications of 980 XK steels in the automotive industry have been limited. However, to meet increased structural requirements of MVSS-301, AMC has incorporated 980 XK steel in the 1977 Gremlin and Hornet underbody rear sill subassemblies. This paper emphasizes how formability and spot weldability characteristics were optimized in order to meet the vehicular crashworthiness required in this structural application. Traditional mild steel design, forming, and spot welding procedures were successfully modified to utilize 980 XK. These modifications are practical and have been successfully incorporated in production operations.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Heat Transfer, Reaction Kinetics and Regeneration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

A 2-D CFD model was developed to describe the heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state as well as the transient behavior of the flow and heat transfer during the trap regeneration processes. The trap temperature profile was determined by numerically solving the 2-D unsteady energy equation including the convective, heat conduction and viscous dissipation terms. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations (Opris, 1997). The reaction kinetics were described using a discretized first order Arrhenius function. The 2-D term describing the reaction kinetics and particulate matter conservation of mass was added to the energy equation as a source term in order to represent the particulate matter oxidation. The filtration model describes the particulate matter accumulation in the trap.
Technical Paper

A BIW Structure Research of Light Weight Vehicle with High Stiffness by Steel

The focus of this paper is to develop an innovative vehicle layout and optimize vehicle body structure with the latest lightweight steel technologies, such as hydro-forming and hot stamping. Our BIW structure achieved a mass savings of 28 kg (−10%) compared to the mass of baseline BIW structure. (Base BIW : MD_Elantra)
Technical Paper

A Beginning Toward Understanding the Corrosion Resistance of Ferritic Stainless Steels

To date the market for P/M stainless steel has not developed appreciably, and has centered largely on the development of austenitic 300 series stainless steels. Although these stainless steels are noted for their resistance to corrosion in many media, it has been difficult for P/M parts fabricators to produce parts that will sustain 1,000 hours of protection in a 5% salt solution. The problem starts with the water atomized powders and continues with the sintering practice exercised to produce the parts. Reasons for lack of corrosion resistance, based upon these considerations, will be discussed. In addition, the ferritic stainless steels are being considered seriously for fuel injectors. These emerging applications derive from the corrosive environment that may become a problem if and when alternative fuels are introduced. P/M ferritic stainless steels may also assume a position as a corrosion resistant magnetic material required in ABS systems which are currently emerging.