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Technical Paper

"Nickel electroformed" tools development through stereolithography (SLA) for sheet metal forming~An evaluation study

2000-06-12
2000-05-0272
Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. While rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP and RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured by combining Stereolithography (SL), RP technique, with nickel electroforming process. The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called Accurate Clear Epoxy Solid (ACES).
Technical Paper

"Quattro"-Drive for Every Day Driving

1984-01-01
845070
An essential feature of the Audi Quattro permanent four-wheel drive system is in the inter-axle differential located on the hollow output shaft in the gearbox: the drive is taken from this differential forward to the front differential through the inside of the hollow shaft, and rearward to a propellor shaft driving the rear differential. The major advantages in everyday driving include improved traction and a reduced tendency toward throttle induced changes of attitude. The greater traction allows not only better progress in difficult road conditions; it also gives better acceleration in difficult traffic situations, such as when joining a busy main road. The more easily predictable handling response to throttle changes means that Quattro vehicles have better tracking stability. Altogether, the active safety and "roadability" are considerably improved.
Technical Paper

"Quick" tools development through stereolithography (SLA) for sheet metal forming~An evaluation study

2000-06-12
2000-05-0270
Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. Rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools. While, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP & RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured directly from Stereolithography (SL). The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called QuickCast infiltrated with Aluminum-Filled Epoxy, designated as Quick Tool.
Technical Paper

<PP/SEBS> Compounds: Sealing an Easier Future for Automotive Designers and Specifiers

2002-07-09
2002-01-1997
There is a definite trend toward the increasing use of “Glass Encapsulation Technology” in the automotive industry. In this technology a glass object such as a window is placed within a mould and an elastomer is injected around the window giving a tight sealing system. A wide variety of materials are currently used as the sealing materials in either static or semi-static encapsulated glazing systems, including a wide range of “elastomers”. New thermoplastic elastomer compounds are being developed that are characterized by their consistent properties; including high melt-fluidity, very good surface appearance, sealing properties, and resistance to weathering. Compound performance is highly dependent on formulation variables as well as the chemistries of the base materials. KRATON® SEBS polymers1 are block copolymers of styrene and ethylene/butylene.
Technical Paper

(Paint) Film Finishing in Practice

1992-02-01
920732
(Paint) film as an alternative to spray applied paint has received growing attention in recent years. The potential for economic and environmental advantage and quality enhancement with this technology has been reported in several technical papers (Ref. 1, 3 and 4). The actual practice of film finishing, however, has received only limited notice. Film finishes have been applied to aluminum, stainless steel, PVC, and ABS. Starting in 1982, part applications include: wheel covers, door edge guards, window surrounds, roof drip moldings, lower windshield moldings, rocker panels, body side moldings, B pillars, and A pillars. Industry awareness and acceptance of film finishing as a viable alternative to spray applied paint is increasing. The two technologies are similar in many ways, yet distinctly different in other ways. They share a common goal: To yield a durable finish, economically and with superior visual impact. This paper reviews the unique aspects of film finishing.
Standard

(R) Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Message Set Dictionary

2009-11-19
HISTORICAL
J2735_200911
This SAE Standard specifies a message set, and its data frames and data elements specifically for use by applications intended to utilize the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (DSRC/WAVE, referenced in this document simply as “DSRC”), communications systems. Although the scope of this Standard is focused on DSRC, this message set, and its data frames and data elements have been designed, to the extent possible, to also be of potential use for applications that may be deployed in conjunction with other wireless communications technologies. This Standard therefore specifies the definitive message structure and provides sufficient background information to allow readers to properly interpret the message definitions from the point of view of an application developer implementing the messages according to the DSRC Standards.
Journal Article

1-g Suit Port Concept Evaluator 2008 Test Results

2009-07-12
2009-01-2572
The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), which was formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the lunar surface architectures that are under consideration in the Constellation Program. One element of the LER is the suit port, which is the means by which crew members perform Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: a 1-g suit port concept evaluator for functional integrated testing with the LER 1-g concept vehicle and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the 1-g suit port concept evaluator test results from the Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. The 1-g suit port concept evaluator was integrated with the 1-g LER cabin and chassis concepts.
Technical Paper

1.2GPa Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

2014-04-01
2014-01-0991
To reduce the Body in White (BIW) mass, it is necessary to expand the application of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) to complex shaped parts. In order to apply AHSS to complex shaped parts with thinner gauge, high formability steel is required. However, higher strength steels tend to display lower elongations, compared with low/medium strength steels. Current AHSS are applied to limited parts for this reason. The new 1.2GPa material, with high formability, was developed to solve this issue. The mechanical property targets for the high elongation 1.2GPa material were achieved by precise metallurgical optimization. Many material aspects were studied, such as formability, weldabilty, impact strength, and delayed fracture. As the result of this development, 1.2GPa AHSS has been applied to a new vehicle launched in 2013.The application of this material was the 1st in the world, and achieved a 11kg mass reduction.
Technical Paper

10 Years of STOL - The Twin Otter's First Decade

1975-02-01
750596
The Twin Otter was designed as a utility bushplane for operation in the Canadian north. While it has fulfilled that role, it has also been widely adopted for use in urban commuter services which do not demand its STOL and rough field capabilities. Now, after 10 years, these commuter services are widening in scope to the point where these virtues, hitherto unused, are becoming significant. The Twin Otter, by its continued presence over this decade, has helped mould the STOL services promised for the next.
Technical Paper

100% Post-Consumer Recycled Nylon 6: Repolymerized Resin Provides Full Mechanical, Physical, & Aesthetic Properties

2000-03-06
2000-01-1394
The increased use of recycled resins can create a dilemma for automotive designers. On the one hand, there is a growing initiative to increase recycled materials content on vehicles, globally. On the other hand, traditional methods of recycling polymeric materials -both thermoplastics and thermosets - can lead to degradation of engineering, mechanical, processing, and / or aesthetic properties of the resin. In an era where quality rules, this situation forces designers to accept a much lower percentage of recyclate than they might otherwise wish to use or risk unacceptable property loss in molded parts - something no automaker can “afford ” for long. Hence, a valuable feedstream of materials (polymers) often ends up destined for a landfill once many consumer products are broken down and more easily reusable or recyclable materials are salvaged. As a case in point, each passenger car built globally contains an average of 15 - 20 kg of nylon polymers.
Technical Paper

11 Rules of Design for Manufacturing when Producing Pre-Impregnated Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Components - an Application at SAAB Aerostructures

2016-09-27
2016-01-2124
Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is one of the most commonly used materials in the aerospace industry today. CFRP in pre-impregnated form is an anisotropic material whose properties can be controlled to a high level by the designer. Sometimes, these properties make the material hard to predict with regards to how the geometry affects manufacturing aspects. This paper describes eleven design rules originating from different guidelines that describe geometrical design choices and deals with manufacturability problems that are connected to them, why they are connected and how they can be minimized or avoided. Examples of design choices dealt with in the rules include double curvature shapes, assembly of uncured CFRP components and access for non-destructive testing (NDT). To verify the technical content and ensure practicability, the rules were developed by, inter alia, studying literature and performing case studies at SAAB Aerostructures.
Standard

15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers with 12 Volt Nominal Supply

2018-04-15
CURRENT
J2691_201804
This SAE standard establishes the minimum construction and performance requirements for a 15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers, for trucks, trailers, and dollies in conjunction with SAE J2742. The connector accommodates both power and ISO 11992-1 signal circuits along with dual ground wires to accommodate grounding requirements within the constraints of the SAE J2691 terminal capacity.
Standard

15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers with 12 Volt Nominal Supply

2013-04-09
HISTORICAL
J2691_201304
This SAE standard establishes the minimum construction and performance requirements for a 15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers, for trucks, trailers, and dollies in conjunction with SAE J2742 “Combination 11 Conductors and 4 Pairs ECBS Cable”. The connector accommodates both power and ISO 11992-1 signal circuits along with dual ground wires to accommodate grounding requirements within the constraints of the SAE J2691 terminal capacity.
Technical Paper

175°C-Capable Thermoplastic Elastomers for Automotive Air Management and Sealing Applications

2007-11-28
2007-01-2576
Flexibility, oil resistance, and the need for heat resistance to 150°C-plus temperatures have traditionally limited automotive design engineers to two options - thermoset rubber or heat-shielding conventional thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). Both of these options present limitations in part design, the ability to consolidate the number of components in a part of assembly, and on total cost. This paper presents a class of high-performance, flexible thermoplastic elastomers based on dynamically vulcanized polyacrylate (ACM) elastomer dispersed in a continuous matrix of polyamide (PA) thermoplastic. These materials are capable of sustained heat resistance to 150°C and short-term heat resistance to 175°C, without requiring heat shielding. Recent advancements in blow molding and functional testing of the PA//ACM TPEs for automotive air management (ducts) and underhood sealing applications will be shown.
Technical Paper

180 Cu Yd Stripping Shovel

1967-02-01
670745
Because of the size and weight of the various components going into the machine, new approaches were used to solve the practical limitations of manufacturing facilities, shipping clearances, and erection procedures. Although the general appearance of the machine is similar to previous units, there are a number of new design features incorporated in the unit. This paper will be limited to the major design considerations as follows: adaption to stripping two seams of coal simultaneously; dipper with two doors; computerized hydraulic steering maintaining Ackerman correction; double end drive crawlers and belt tensioning; and electrical innovations.
Technical Paper

1974 Vw Energy-Absorbing Bumper System

1973-02-01
730033
The energy-absorbing bumper system designed for the 1974 Volkswagen in described. Theoretical requirements in bumper design are explained, with emphasis on bumper height, energy tolerance needs, energy absorption, and systems for absorbing the energy involved. The six systems studied are assessed, and the final design chosen is explained. The paper also compares bumper requirements as specified in Europe and the United States.
Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

1982-02-01
820019
The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
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