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Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Soot Formation Process in a Transient Spray Flame by Laser-induced Fluorescence and Incandescence Techniques

In order to investigate the soot formation process in a diesel spray flame, simultaneous imaging of soot precursor and soot particles in a transient spray flame achieved in a rapid compression machine was conducted by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and by laser-induced incandescence (LII) techniques. The 3rd harmonic (355nm) and the fundamental (1064nm) laser pulses from an Nd:YAG laser, between which a delay of 44ns was imposed by 13.3m of optical path difference, were used to excite LIF from soot precursor and LII from soot particles in the spray flame. The LIF and the LII were separately imaged by two image-intensified CCD cameras with identical detection wavelength of 400nm and bandwidth of 80nm. The LIF from soot precursor was mainly located in the central region of the spray flame between 40 and 55mm (270 to 370 times nozzle orifice diameter d0) from the nozzle orifice. The LII from soot particles was observed to surround the soot precursor LIF region and to extend downstream.
Technical Paper

2-D Soot Visualization in Unsteady Spray Flame by means of Laser Sheet Scattering Technique

The two-dimensional distribution of a soot cloud in an unsteady spray flame in a rapid compression machine(RCM) was visualized using the laser sheet scattering technique. A 40 mm x 50 mm cross section on the flame axis was illuminated by a thin laser sheet from a single pulsed Nd:YAG laser(wavelength 532 nm). Scattered light from soot particles was taken by a CCD camera via a high speed gated image intensifier. The temporal variation of the scattered light images were presented with the injection pressure as a parameter. The results showed that scattered light was intense near the periphery of the flame tip and that the scattered light becomes weaker significantly and disappears fast after the end of injection as injection pressure is increased. This technique was also applied to the visualization of the two-dimensional distribution of liquid droplets in the non-evaporating spray to correlate it with the soot concentration distribution.
Technical Paper

2-D Visualization of Liquid Fuel injection in an Internal Combustion Engine

A sheet of laser light from a frequency-doubled Nd-YAG laser (λ = 532 nm) approximately 150 μm thick is shone through the cylinder of a single cylinder internal combustion engine. The light scattered by the fuel spray is collected through a quartz window in the cylinder and is imaged on a 100 × 100 diode array camera. The signal from the diode array is then sent to a microcomputer for background subtraction and image enhancement. The laser pulse is synchronized with the crank shaft of the engine so that a picture of the spray distribution within the engine at different times during injection and the penetration and development of the spray may be observed. The extent of the spray at different positions within the chamber is determined by varying the position and angle of the laser sheet with respect to the piston and the injector.
Technical Paper

2-D Visualization of a Hollow-Cone Spray in a Cup-in-Head, Ported, I.C. Engine

Two dimensional visualization of a pulsating, hollow-cone spray was performed in a motored, ported, high swirl, cup-in-head I.C. engine, using exciplex-forming dopants in the fuel, which produced spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phases. Illumination was by a laser sheet approximately 200 µm thick from a frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser, and image acquisition was by a 100 × 100 pixel diode array camera interfaced to a personal computer. Liquid and vapor phase fuel distributions are reported for engine speeds of 800 rpm and 1600 rpm, over a crankangle range spanning the injection event and subsequent evaporation and mixing. The beginning of injection was at 33° BTDC at 800 rpm and 47° BTDC at 1600 rpm. At 800 rpm, the spray angle is narrower than the 60° poppet angle, as expected from previous observations in a near-quiescent spray chamber.
Technical Paper

2-D Visualization of liquid and Vapor Fuel in an I.C. Engine

A sheet of laser light from a frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser approximately 200μm thick is shone through the combustion chamber of a single cylinder, direct injection internal combustion engine. The injected decane contains exciplex—forming dopants which produce spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phases. The fluorescence signal is collected through a quartz window in the cylinder head and is imaged onto a diode array camera. The camera is interfaced to a microcomputer for data acquisition and processing. The laser and camera are synchronized with the crankshaft of the engine so that 2—D images of the liquid and vapor phase fuel distributions can be obtained at different times during the engine cycle. Results are presented at 600, 1200 and 1800 rpm, and from the beginning to just after the end of injection. The liquid fuel traverses the cylinder in a straight line in the form of a narrow cone, but does not reach the far wall in the plane of the laser sheet.
Technical Paper

2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Aluminum Spaceframe Manufacturing Technology

In October 1999, General Motors contracted Dana Corporation to manufacture an all-aluminum spaceframe for the 2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06. Corvette introduced its first ever all-aluminum frame (see Figure 1) to the world at the 2005 North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) in Detroit, Michigan. The creation of this spaceframe resulted in a significant mass reduction and was a key enabler for the program to achieve the vehicle level performance results required for a Z06 in an ever-growing market. Dana Corporation leveraged ALCOA's (Aluminum Company of America) proven design capabilities while incorporating new MIG welding, laser welding, Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR), and full spaceframe machining to join General Motors (GM) Metal Fabrication Division's (MFD) hydroformed rails to produce the Corvette Z06's yearly requirement of 7000 units. This paper describes the technologies utilized throughout the assembly line and their effect on the end product.
Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
Technical Paper

2D Residual Gas Visualization in an Optical Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine with IR Laser Absorption

The spatial distribution of internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is evaluated in an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine using near infrared laser absorption to visualize the distribution of the H2O molecule. The obtained overall internal exhaust gas recirculation compares well to gas-exchange cycle calculations and the spatial distributions are consistent with those measured with inverse LIF. The experimental procedures described in this report are designed to be simple and rapidly implemented without the need to resort to unusual optical components. The necessary spectral data of the selected absorption line is obtained from the HITEMP database and is validated with prior experiments carried out in a reference cell. Laser speckle in the images is effectively reduced using a ballistic diffuser.
Technical Paper

3-D PIV Analysis of Structural Behavior of D.I. Gasoline Spray

Three-dimensional behaviors of direct injection (D.I.) gasoline sprays were investigated using 2-D and 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. The fuel was injected with a swirl type injector for D.I. gasoline engines into a constant volume chamber in which ambient pressure was varied from 0.1 to 0.4 MPa at room temperature. The spray was illuminated by a laser light sheet generated by a double-pulsed Nd:YAG laser (wave length: 532 nm) and the succeeding two tomograms of the spray were taken by a high-resolution CCD camera. The 2-D and 3-D velocity distributions of the droplet cloud in the spray were calculated from these tomograms by using the PIV technique. The effects of the swirl groove flows in the injector and the ambient pressure on the structural behavior of the droplet cloud in the spray were also examined.
Technical Paper

38 Development of Compound-Laser Welding Method for Aluminum-Alloy Structure of Motorcycles

A compound-laser welding method has been developed for the rapid three-dimensional welding of motorcycle aluminum-alloy structural parts. The term “compound-laser welding” means a high-speed welding method in which a number of lasers with different characteristics are arranged on the same axis. This paper reports the results of welding by a compound laser consisting of a YAG laser and a CO2 laser. It was found that compound-laser welding with two or more types of gases mixed as shielding gas gives a better welding performance than single-laser welding due to the advantages of the different lasers used in compound-laser welding.
Technical Paper

3D analysis of vapor and liquid phase of GDI injectors using laser induced exciplex fluorescence tomography in a high pressure/high temperature spray chamber

The quality of mixture formation in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines has a significant influence on combustion, emissions and mileage. A new measurement technique was set up at an optically accessible high pressure / high temperature spray chamber to investigate the spatial mass distribution of vapor and liquid phase in order to optimize the stratified engine operation mode. Therefore a laser light sheet is traversed through the spray, the exciplex fluorescence is detected and the tomography results are quantified by the global information of the injected mass, which allows detailed spray investigations with λ-charts. For spray homogeneity analysis a new method based on histogram calculation is presented allowing grid independent comparison of different injector types.
Technical Paper

6DOF Metrology-integrated Robot Control

This paper describes ongoing research into Metrology-integrated robot control. The research is a part of an ongoing EU funded aircraft industry project – ADFAST*. The ADFAST project tries to implement the use of industrial robots in low-volume production, high-demand-on-accuracy operations and for dynamic force compensation. To detect and compensate deflection in industrial robots during a process, the robot uses a metrology system. The metrology system supervises the tool center point of the robot as it executes its processes. Leica has recently released a new metrology system; the LTD800, which measures distances with laser interferometry and can simultaneously measure orientation of targets, through photogrammetry, using an additional camera on top of the measuring unit. This paper will describe theory and results from tests performed on integrating the LTD800 with the robot.
Technical Paper

A Basic Experimental Study of Gasoline Direct Injection at Significantly High Injection Pressures

In gasoline direct injection engines with stratified-combustion strategies only a short time is available for mixture preparation. Therefore, investigations are carried out to evaluate the influence of high injection pressure up to 50 MPa in order to optimize the mixture preparation. Two types of multi-hole injectors are analyzed in a pressure vessel under various pressure and temperature conditions. Laser light sheet visualization technique is applied in order to determine spray characteristics like shape, angle, penetration depth and spray width. To determine the velocity of the air surrounding the spray, a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) measurement technique is used. Droplet sizes and velocities are measured with a Phase Doppler Anemometer (PDA) in different positions in the spray center and at the spray edge. Spray visualization experiments show the influence of evaporation on spray propagation at higher temperatures.
Technical Paper

A Benchmark Case for Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics of a Low Pressure Axial Fan

A low pressure axial fan for benchmarking numerical methods in the field of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics is presented. The generic fan for this benchmark is a typical fan to be used in commercial applications. The design procedure was according to the blade element theory for low solidity fans. A wide range of experimental data is available, including aerodynamic performance of the fan (fan characteristic curve), fluid mechanical quantities on the pressure and suction side from laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) measurements, wall pressure fluctuations in the gap region and sound characteristics on the suction side from sound power and microphone array measurements. The experimental setups are described in detail, as to ease reproducibility of measurement positions. This offers the opportunity of validating aerodynamic and aeroacoustic quantities, obtained from different numerical tools and procedures.
Technical Paper

A Carbon Dioxide Sensor Based on cw- Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy

An optical sensor for the detection of carbon dioxide concentrations and stable isotope ratios is described. Either a continuous wave, fiber-coupled distributed feedback laser or an external cavity laser is used to pump an optical cavity absorption cell in cw-Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (cw-CRDS). This technique exploits the sensitivity enhancements provided by the long effective pathlength from the optical cavity created between two highly reflective mirrors (R>0.9999). The inherently high precision of the technique combined with its rapid data throughput allows for reliable measurements of both concentration and the isotopic composition of the sampled carbon dioxide. Data collected using a prototype of this sensor could be useful for monitoring module occupancy, crew health (through breath tests), and plant growth chambers.
Journal Article

A Case Study on Clean Side Duct Radiated Shell Noise Prediction

Engine air induction shell noise is a structure borne noise that radiates from the surface of the air induction system. The noise is driven by pulsating engine induction air and is perceived as annoying by vehicle passengers. The problem is aggravated by the vehicle design demands for low weight components packaged in an increasingly tight under hood environment. Shell noise problems are often not discovered until production intent parts are available and tested on the vehicle. Part changes are often necessary which threatens program timing. Shell noise should be analyzed in the air induction system design phase and a good shell noise analytical process and targets must be defined. Several air induction clean side ducts are selected for this study. The ducts shell noise is assessed in terms of material strength and structural stiffness. A measurement process is developed to evaluate shell noise of the air induction components. Noise levels are measured inside of the clean side ducts.
Technical Paper

A Collision-Avoidance Warning System Using Laser Radar

The serious highway accidents related to heavy-duty trucks were caused mainly by absent-minded conditions of drivers, according to an investigation of highway accidents in Japan. Thus, a collision avoidance warning system has been developed. A laser radar sensor detects the distance to a reflector of the target vehicle. Together with information of the own vehicle speed detected by a magnetic pick-up, a microcomputer assesses the risk of a rear-end collision and provides warning when a dangerous condition has developed. Warning suppresion is considered in unnecessary situations, such as driving in curves, driving at constant speed and distance, and driving at low speed. The system was installed on a heavy-duty truck, and a system evaluation test was carried out on proving grounds and highways. As the result, false alarms created by reflectable objects located adjacent to the road and unnecessary warning could be sufficiently suppressed, and the system was found to be useful.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Flow Fields Generated for Spark and Controlled Auto-ignition

Valve timing strategies aimed at producing internal exhaust gas re-circulation in a conventional spark ignition, SI, engine have recently demonstrated the ability to initiate controlled auto-ignition, CAI. Essentially the exhaust valves close early, to trap a quantity of hot exhaust gases in-cylinder, and the fresh air-fuel charge is induced late into the cylinder and then mixing takes place. As a logical first step to understanding the fluid mechanics, the effects of the standard and modified valve timings on the in-cylinder flow fields under motored conditions were investigated. Laser Doppler anemometry has been applied to an optical engine that replicates the engine geometry and different valve cam timings. The cycle averaged time history mean and RMS velocity profiles for the axial and radial velocity components in three axial planes were measured throughout the inlet and compression stroke.
Technical Paper

A Competitive Advantage Through Innovation

The vast majority of products contain joints, therefore, joining technology is key to the strategic implementation of new materials. This paper considers three innovative solutions to industrial problems ClearWeld™ A recently developed technique for laser welding materials, creating a joint almost invisible to the human eye. AdhFAST™ This novel, three-in-one fastener, allows adhesive to be injected through the middle of the device whilst retaining the joint and controlling bondline thickness Vitresyn™ Transparent plastics such as polycarbonate and acrylic have the potential to replace glass in a number of applications, car headlamps and spectacle lenses for example. However, these plastics are relatively soft materials and need protection against abrasion and scuff damage. This recently developed system gives good protection at acceptable cost
Technical Paper

A Critical Comparison of Hot-Wire Anemometry and Laser Doppler Velocimetry for I. C. Engine Applications

Hot-wire anemometer and laser Doppler velocimeter measurements have been taken in a motored reciprocating engine and compared to assess the validity of hot-wire measurements. The procedure used to account for the sensitivity of the hot wire to changes in the gas temperature is extensively investigated. The results presented show that for the optimum conditions of known flow direction, low turbulence level, and low compression ratio, the hot-wire anemometer can provide useful mean velocity results. Accurate hot-wire turbulence intensity measurements appear to be possible only for the intake and exhaust strokes.