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Technical Paper

A Study on In-Cycle Combustion Control for Gasoline Controlled Autoignition

Gasoline Controlled Auto Ignition offers a high CO2 emission reduction potential, which is comparable to state-of-the-art, lean stratified operated gasoline engines. Contrary to the latter, GCAI low temperature combustion avoids NOX emissions, thereby trying to avoid extensive exhaust aftertreatment. The challenges remain in a restricted operation range due to combustion instabilities and a high sensitivity towards changing boundary conditions like ambient temperature, intake pressure or fuel properties. Once combustion shows instability, cyclic fluctuations are observed. These appear to have near-chaotic behavior but are characterized by a superposition of clearly deterministic and stochastic effects. Previous works show that the fluctuations can be predicted precisely when taking cycle-tocycle correlations into account. This work extends current approaches by focusing on additional dependencies within one single combustion cycle.
Journal Article

Assessment of the Full Thermodynamic Potential of C8-Oxygenates for Clean Diesel Combustion

Within the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” (TMFB) at the RWTH Aachen University, two novel biogenic fuels, namely 1-octanol and its isomer dibutyl ether (DBE), were identified and extensively analyzed in respect of their suitability for combustion in a Diesel engine. Both biofuels feature very different properties, especially regarding their ignitability. In previous works of the research cluster, promising synthesis routes with excellent yields for both fuels were found, using lignocellulosic biomass as source material. Both fuels were investigated as pure components in optical and thermodynamic single cylinder engines (SCE). For 1-octanol at lower part load, almost no soot emission could be measured, while with DBE the soot emissions were only about a quarter of that with conventional Diesel fuel. At high part load (2400 min-1, 14.8 bar IMEP), the soot reduction of 1-octanol was more than 50% and for DBE more than 80 % respectively.
Technical Paper

C8-Oxygenates for Clean Diesel Combustion

Within this paper, the two possible alternative and biomass-based fuel candidates Di-n-butyl ether (DNBE) and 1-octanol are investigated with regard to their utilization in a diesel-type engine. In order to asses the fuels emission-reduction potential, both have been tested in a single cylinder engine (SCE) and a high pressure chamber (HPC) in comparison to conventional EN590 diesel at various load points. Due to its reduced reactivity 1-octanol features a longer ignition delay and thus higher degrees of homogenization at start of combustion, whereas DNBE ignites rather rapidly in both the HPC and the engine leading to a predominantly mixing controlled combustion. Thus, both fuels feature completely different combustion characteristics. However, compared to diesel, both fuels contribute to a significant reduction in Filter Smoke Number (FSN) up to a factor of 15.
Journal Article

Control of the Diesel Combustion Process via Advanced Closed Loop Combustion Control and a Flexible Injection Rate Shaping Tool

The presented paper deals with the set-up and performance of a newly developed control system as well as with achieved engine results. This control system is able to control the entire cylinder pressure trace by using a flexible rate shaping injector and iterative learning control (ILC). Standard thermodynamic cycles, like isobaric and Seiliger cycles, and a newly suggested class of cycles are generated and analyzed on a single cylinder engine. With this control system an extremely flexible tool for optimization of combustion processes is available to exploit the full potential of injection rate- shaping on diesel engines.
Journal Article

Future Specification of Automotive LPG Fuels for Modern Turbocharged DI SI Engines with Today’s High Pressure Fuel Pumps

Liquefied Petroleum Gas direct injection (LPG DI) is believed to be the key enabler for the adaption of modern downsized gasoline engines to the usage of LPG, since LPG DI avoids the significant low end torque drop, which goes along with the application of conventional LPG port fuel injection systems to downsized gasoline DI engines, and provides higher combustion efficiencies. However, especially the high vapor pressure of C3 hydrocarbons can result in hot fuel handling issues as evaporation or even in reaching the supercritical state of LPG upstream or inside the high pressure pump (HPP). This is particularly critical under hot soak conditions. As a result of a rapid fuel density drop close to the supercritical point, the HPP is not able to keep the rail pressure constant and the engine stalls.
Technical Paper

Injection Rate Shaping Investigations on a Small – Bore DI Diesel Engine

So far, the effect of injection rate shaping on the diesel combustion in small-bore DI diesel engines has not been extensively investigated, especially at high part load conditions with high EGR rates. The benefit of injection rate shaping is already verified for heavy duty engines at high load conditions with and without EGR. For this investigation, single cylinder engine investigations were conducted at the VKA / RWTH Aachen University. In order to meet the future NOx legislation limits like US-Tier2Bin5 it is crucial to reduce NOx especially at the high load points of the certification cycles, as FTP75 or US06. For the single cylinder investigations two part load points were chosen, which have relevance for the mentioned certification cycles. The experimental work focuses on different rate shapes as rectangular (Common-Rail type), ramp and boot shape at high EGR rates.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of Biofuel Effects on NO and PAH Formation in Diesel-Like Jets

In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels out of renewable sources. For this reason in this paper a blend out of 1-octanol and di-n-butylether and pure di-n-butylether are investigated in comparison to n-heptane as diesel-like fuel. The alternative fuels have a different combustion behavior particularly concerning important combustion parameters like ignition delay and mixture formation. Especially the formation of pollutants like nitrogen oxides in the combustion of alternative fuels is of global interest. The knowledge of the combustion behavior is important to design new engine geometries or implement a new calibration of the engine. In previous measurements in a single cylinder engine it was found out that both alternative fuels form nearly no soot emissions. For this reason now NOx is investigated optically to avoid the traditional soot NOx trade-off in diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Hydrocarbon Emissions from SI-Engines by Use of Carbon Pistons

The use of pistons made of fine grain carbon was investigated in a spark-ignition engine within a European Community funded research project (TPRO-CT92-0008). Pistons were designed and manufactured and then tested in a single cylinder engine. Due to the carbon material's lower coefficient of thermal expansion the top land clearance between piston and cylinder can be reduced by a factor of three in comparison to standard aluminium designs. Under steady-state part-load operating conditions the emission of unburned hydrocarbons can be reduced by more than 15% compared to aluminium pistons, without significant penalties in NOx-emissions. Simultaneously, a small improvement in fuel economy of about 2% is observed. At full-load blow-by leakage flow is reduced by more than 50%. The piston crown temperature is about 30°C higher with the carbon piston than with the standard aluminium piston, due to the lower thermal conductivity of the carbon material.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Different Biofuel Components in Diesel Blends on Engine Efficiency and Emission Performance

Within the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” at RWTH Aachen University, the Institute for Combustion Engines carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of future biofuel components in Diesel blends. In this paper, thermodynamic single cylinder engine results of today's and future biofuel components are presented with respect to their engine-out emissions and engine efficiency. The investigations were divided into two phases: In the first phase, investigations were performed with rapeseed oil methyl ester (B100) and an Ethanol-Gasoline blend (E85). In order to analyze the impact of different fuel blends, mixtures with 10 vol-% of B100 or E85 and 90 vol-% of standardized EN590 Diesel were investigated. Due to the low cetane number of E85, it cannot be used purely in a Diesel engine.