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Technical Paper

Calibrating BEV and HEV Powertrains for Dynamic Performance Targets

2021-09-05
2021-24-0100
Calibrating a vehicle’s powertrain for dynamic operation needs to focus on efforts to mitigate the risks of thermal overload which may arise in the stator or rotor components of an e-motor. Risks also may arise for expected NVH or durability targets, with torque and torque “oscillations” acting as primary sources for the vehicles’ NVH behavior. Both topics, temperature measurement of stator and rotor as well as dynamic torque measurements of the powertrain’s drive shaft are addressed with examples demonstrating the sensors applications in normal test bed and vehicle configurations.
Journal Article

Comparison between Internal and External EGR Performance on a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine by Means of a Refined 1D Fluid-Dynamic Engine Model

2015-09-06
2015-24-2389
The potential of internal EGR (iEGR) and external EGR (eEGR) in reducing the engine-out NOx emissions in a heavy-duty diesel engine has been investigated by means of a refined 1D fluid-dynamic engine model developed in the GT-Power environment. The engine is equipped with Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) and Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) systems. The activity was carried out in the frame of the CORE Collaborative Project of the European Community, VII FP. The engine model integrates an innovative 0D predictive combustion algorithm for the simulation of the HRR (heat release rate) based on the accumulated fuel mass approach and a multi-zone thermodynamic model for the simulation of the in-cylinder temperatures. NOx emissions are calculated by means of the Zeldovich thermal and prompt mechanisms.
Journal Article

Development of a High Performance Natural Gas Engine with Direct Gas Injection and Variable Valve Actuation

2017-09-04
2017-24-0152
Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine application due to its low carbon content and high knock resistance. Performance of natural gas engines is further improved if direct injection, high turbocharger boost level, and variable valve actuation (VVA) are adopted. Also, relevant efficiency benefits can be obtained through downsizing. However, mixture quality resulting from direct gas injection has proven to be problematic. This work aims at developing a mono-fuel small-displacement turbocharged compressed natural gas engine with side-mounted direct injector and advanced VVA system. An injector configuration was designed in order to enhance the overall engine tumble and thus overcome low penetration.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Diluted Combustion in a Direct Injection CNG Engine Featuring Post- Euro-VI Fuel Consumption Targets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1142
The present paper is concerned with part of the work performed by Renault, IFPEN and Politecnico di Torino within a research project founded by the European Commission. The project has been focused on the development of a dedicated CNG engine featuring a 25% decrease in fuel consumption with respect to an equivalent Diesel engine with the same performance targets. To that end, different technologies were implemented and optimized in the engine, namely, direct injection, variable valve timing, LP EGR with advanced turbocharging, and diluted combustion. With specific reference to diluted combustion, it is rather well established for gasoline engines whereas it still poses several critical issues for CNG ones, mainly due to the lower exhaust temperatures. Moreover, dilution is accompanied by a decrease in the laminar burning speed of the unburned mixture and this generally leads to a detriment in combustion efficiency and stability.
Technical Paper

Fluid-Dynamic Modeling and Advanced Control Strategies for a Gaseous-Fuel Injection System

2014-04-01
2014-01-1096
Sustainable mobility has become a major issue for internal combustion engines and has led to increasing research efforts in the field of alternative fuels, such as bio-fuel, CNG and hydrogen addition, as well as into engine design and control optimization. To that end, a thorough control of the air-to-fuel ratio appears to be mandatory in SI engine in order to meet the even more stringent thresholds set by the current regulations. The accuracy of the air/fuel mixture highly depends on the injection system dynamic behavior and to its coupling to the engine fluid-dynamic. Thus, a sound investigation into the mixing process can only be achieved provided that a proper analysis of the injection rail and of the injectors is carried out. The present paper carries out a numerical investigation into the fluid dynamic behavior of a commercial CNG injection system by means of a 0D-1D code.
Technical Paper

Gas Exchange and Injection Modeling of an Advanced Natural Gas Engine for Heavy Duty Applications

2017-09-04
2017-24-0026
The scope of the work presented in this paper was to apply the latest open source CFD achievements to design a state of the art, direct-injection (DI), heavy-duty, natural gas-fueled engine. Within this context, an initial steady-state analysis of the in-cylinder flow was performed by simulating three different intake ducts geometries, each one with seven different valve lift values, chosen according to an estabilished methodology proposed by AVL. The discharge coefficient (Cd) and the Tumble Ratio (TR) were calculated in each case, and an optimal intake ports geometry configuration was assessed in terms of a compromise between the desired intensity of tumble in the chamber and the satisfaction of an adequate value of Cd. Subsequently, full-cycle, cold-flow simulations were performed for three different engine operating points, in order to evaluate the in-cylinder development of TR and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) under transient conditions.
Journal Article

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Direct Natural-Gas Injection and Mixture Formation in a Stratified-Charge SI Engine with Centrally Mounted Injector

2008-04-14
2008-01-0975
Direct injection (DI) of natural gas (NG) at high pressure conditions has emerged as a high-potential strategy for improving SI engine performance. Besides, DI allows an increase in the fuel economy, due to the possibility of a significant engine dethrottling at partial load. The high-pressure gas injection can also increase the turbulence level of mixture and thus the overall fuel-air mixing. Since direct NG injection is an emerging technology, there is a lack of experience on the optimum configuration of the injection system and the associated combustion chamber design. In the last few years, some numerical investigations of gas injection have been made, mainly oriented at the development of reliable numerical investigation tools. The present paper is concerned with the development and application of a numerical Star-CD based model for the investigation of the direct NG injection process from a poppet-valve injector into a bowl-piston engine combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Mixture Formation and Performance in a Direct Injection CNG Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0401
This paper presents the results of part of the research activity carried out by the Politecnico di Torino and AVL List GmbH as part of the European Community InGAS Collaborative Project. The work was aimed at developing a combustion system for a mono-fuel turbocharged CNG engine, with specific focus on performance, fuel economy and emissions. A numerical and experimental analysis of the jet development and mixture formation in an optically accessible, single cylinder engine is presented in the paper. The experimental investigations were performed at the AVL laboratories by means of the planar laser-induced fluorescence technique, and revealed a cycle-to-cycle jet shape variability that depended, amongst others, on the injector characteristics and in-cylinder backpressure. Moreover, the mixing mechanism had to be optimized over a wide range of operating conditions, under both stratified lean and homogeneous stoichiometric modes.
Journal Article

Use of an Innovative Predictive Heat Release Model Combined to a 1D Fluid-Dynamic Model for the Simulation of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0012
An innovative 0D predictive combustion model for the simulation of the HRR (heat release rate) in DI diesel engines was assessed and implemented in a 1D fluid-dynamic commercial code for the simulation of a Fiat heavy duty diesel engine equipped with a Variable Geometry Turbocharger system, in the frame of the CORE (CO2 reduction for long distance transport) Collaborative Project of the European Community, VII FP. The 0D combustion approach starts from the calculation of the injection rate profile on the basis of the injected fuel quantities and on the injection parameters, such as the start of injection and the energizing time, taking the injector opening and closure delays into account. The injection rate profile in turn allows the released chemical energy to be estimated. The approach assumes that HRR is proportional to the energy associated with the accumulated fuel mass in the combustion chamber.
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