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Technical Paper

120VAC Power Inverters

1983-02-01
830131
Inverters are solid state devices which change DC to 120VAC electricity. They are sufficiently rugged and reliable to make them practical for use on utility vehicles for operating thumpers, tools, lights and induction motor loads. The SCR type rather than the transistor type inverter is generally required for inductive and reactive loads. Static inverters operate from battery input. They provide power without running an engine, but are limited by battery capacity so work best in intermittent load applications. Dynamic inverters operate from alternator input and will handle continuous loads to 7200 watts with truck engine running.
Technical Paper

1500 Hp Diesel Electric Tractor

1976-02-01
760647
The experience accumulated with a prototype 1000 HP diesel electric tractor since 1969 is described. The new 1500 HP V220 diesel electric tractors are described along with some of the initial operation of these two units. Experience with the initial 1000 HP unit and the two 1500 HP tractors confirm the necessity of additional testing and experimentation to refine the design to get greater productivity with reduced operator fatigue. The unpredictability of the load and operating surface are major problems that present a real challenge to the engineer.
Technical Paper

2004 Nissan 3.5L Cam Cover Material Study: Aluminum, Magnesium and Composite

2005-04-11
2005-01-0727
The present study compares the NVH performance of three different materials used on cam covers in automobiles, Aluminum (Al), Magnesium (Mg) and Thermoplastic (TP). The cam cover design used for this comparison was the 2004 Nissan Maxima 3.5L production cam cover which is made of a thermoplastic (TP). The Al and Mg covers for this study were created by sandcast, due to time constraints, via laser scanning techniques using the 2004 Nissan Maxima 3.5L production thermoplastic cover design. Note that sand-cast covers generally provide a less quiet sound field than the standard casting method. The Nissan production cover comes with a production baffle made of a similar material as the cover. Testing was conducted with and without the production baffle for all covers. The study was conducted for the production boundary condition of a non-isolated cover and a Freudenberg-NOK (FNGP) partially isolated cover. Isolated bolt assemblies using elastomeric grommets were used to isolate the cover.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Magnesium I/P Structure

2004-03-08
2004-01-1261
This paper describes a new concept for a Ford GT instrument panel (IP) based on structural magnesium components, which resulted in what may be the industry's first structural IP (primary load path). Two US-patent applications are ongoing. Design criteria included cost, corrosion protection, crashworthiness assessments, noise vibration harshness (NVH) performance, and durability. Die casting requirements included feasibility for production, coating strategy and assembly constraints. The magnesium die-cast crosscar beam, radio box and console top help meet the vehicle weight target. The casting components use an AM60 alloy that has the necessary elongation properties required for crashworthiness. The resulting IP design has many unique features and the flexibility present in die-casting that would not be possible using conventional steel stampings and assembly techniques.
Technical Paper

2005 Fuel Cell Vehicle and its Magnesium Power Distribution Unit

2005-04-11
2005-01-0339
The High Voltage Power Distribution Unit (PDU) is constructed of magnesium in support of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) weight reduction efforts. The PDU distributes and controls a nominal 75 kilowatts of power generated by the Fuel Cell, the primary source of High Voltage power, to all the vehicle loads and accessories. The constraints imposed on the design of the PDU resulted in a component highly susceptible to general and galvanic corrosion. Corrosion abatement was the focus of the PDU redesign. This paper describes the redesign efforts undertaken by Ford personnel to improve the part robustness and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

21 Cubic Yard 580 PAY® Loader

1975-02-01
750817
To effectively utilize larger trucks (85 ton and up), open-pit mines and quarries need a larger front-end loader with high reliability and performance. This paper describes the design approach and tests carried out to design 21 cubic yard 580 PAY® loader to meet these requirements. Long fatigue life of structures was obtained by use of full penetration welds. New concept for power control was designed to effectively distribute power between hydraulics and drive train. Spring applied - pressure released brakes were designed into the axle. Tests were carried out in our laboratory and proving grounds to determine performance and reliability.
Technical Paper

2D/3D Painted TPO Fascia Testing to Mimic Real World Friction Induced Damage by Cohesive and Delamination Failures

1998-02-23
980712
Durability tests have been initiated on olefinic and production painted fascias. Both 2D and 3D tests have provided insights into Friction Induced Damage (FID) failure mechanics. Full scale, 3D tests of automotive fascia mimic the parking lot rubbing contact between cars with friction forces exceeding 5000. N. 2D tests provide the cost effective approach to materials research by isolating the failure mechanics in the upper 250 μm of the decorated TPO where the cosmetic damage is initiated. Initial findings show some olefinic paint, TPO combinations to be more damage resistant for realistic frictional contact scenarios.
Technical Paper

2K Clearcoat for Automotive Plastics

1997-02-24
970990
2k clearcoat is the progressive step that is keeping coatings for elastomeric fascia in pace with the current automobile design, performance, and durability demands. Initially, rigid 2k coatings were applied over plastic for low temperature cure. Over metal, 2k rigid clearcoat produced a dramatic improvement in appearance and durability. Flexibility is the key attribute that a 2k clearcoat engineered for use over fascias must posses. Utilizing the same basecoat and primer, 2k flexible clearcoats are being successfully applied to flexible fascia, generating excellent appearance and outstanding durability.
Technical Paper

3D Engine Analysis and MLS Cylinder Head Gaskets Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0663
Multi-layer steel (MLS) cylinder head gaskets are becoming more widely used to seal an engine. Therefore, it is important to understand the interaction between the engine head, block and head gasket. While experimental methods for determining necessary gasket tightening loads and experimental data relating some gasket design parameters to failure are available, it is very costly and time consuming. A numerical method, such as the finite element (FE) method, has proven to be very useful and efficient in aiding gasket design. A 3D engine FE analysis can predict a number of parameters. Of particular interest are the motion as well as the contact profile of the head, block and gasket. This information, usually difficult or impossible to obtain from a 2D FE analysis, can be used to predict the two most common failure modes of a gasket, fatigue crack and leakage.
Technical Paper

52 Development of a Four-stroke Engine with Turbo Charger for Personal Watercraft

2002-10-29
2002-32-1821
There is a movement to apply emission control in a marine engine as well due to high public awareness of environmental concern in the United States. We started at the development of 3-seater Personal Watercraft (PWC) equipped with 4-stroke engines in taking environment conformity and potential into account. The PWC employed series 4-cylinder 1100cc displacement engine that has been used for mass production motorcycles. The engine was modified to satisfy requirements for PWC, as a marine engine, such as performance function and corrosion. In order to achieve greater or equal power/weight ratio as against two-stroke PWCs, a four-stroke engine for PWC with an exhaust turbo charger was developed. As a result, we succeeded in developing an engine that attained top-level running performance and durability superior to competitors' 2-stroke engines.
Technical Paper

A 360×226 Pixel CMOS Imager Chip Optimized for Automotive Vision Applications

2001-03-05
2001-01-0317
Multiple automotive systems are now being developed which require an imager or vision chip to provide information regarding vehicle surroundings, vehicle performance, and vehicle passenger compartment status. Applications include lane departure, lane tracking, collision avoidance, as well as occupant position, impaired driver, and occupant identification. These applications share many requirements, including robust design, tolerance for the automotive environment, built in self-test, wide dynamic range, and low cost. In addition, each application has unique requirements for resolution, sensitivity, imager aspect ratio, and output format. In many cases, output will go directly to vehicle systems for processing, without ever being displayed to the driver. Commercial imager chips do not address this wide spectrum of requirements. A CMOS imager chip has been designed to address these unique automotive requirements.
Technical Paper

A Billion Engine Hours On Aluminum Bearings

1956-01-01
560058
HIGH load-carrying ability and fatigue strength, good embeddabiltty and conformability, and resistance to wear, seizure, and corrosion are factors that sold them on aluminum for bearings, the authors report. Bonded steel backing, they say, makes aluminum bearings even better. Retaining aluminum's good properties, it improves some of its bad points and gives such advantages as: Reduced bearing clearances, compared with those used with solid-aluminum bearings. No life limit in operation below 5000 psi fatigue stress value. Less sensitivity to high oil temperatures. Negligible wear (after 29,000 hr in one test). Simpler and less expensive bearing-locating designs. Special excellence for high-load, high-speed applications.
Technical Paper

A CAR MANUFACTURER'S EXPERIENCES WITH BALLOON TIRES1

1925-01-01
250020
In the summer of 1922 the Buick Company began experimenting with balloon tires. The first tires tested, being four-ply and 32 x 6.20 in. in size, produced a galloping action that was sufficient to prejudice the company's engineers against them, and the tests were discontinued. In addition to the galloping effect, other difficulties encountered included those usually present in steering, the development of wheel shimmying to a serious degree, the lack of proper clearance for external brakes because of the small 20-in. wheels, the excessively rapid wear of the tire tread, and the greater susceptibility to puncture. Leaks because of the pinching of the inner tubes also occurred. When, later, a set of 5.25-in. tires was tried on a smaller car, the galloping was noticeably less; but punctures were more numerous than was the case with high-pressure tires.
Technical Paper

A CNG Specific Fuel Injector Using Latching Solenoid Technology

1995-08-01
951914
An advanced fuel injector designed specifically for low energy density gaseous fuels has been developed which demonstrates compelling performance advantages over fuel injectors utilizing conventional solenoid technology. The injector incorporates design features that are necessary to optimize the performance for fuels such as CNG, LNG, and propane. This paper provides a background of magnetic latching technology and addresses the application of the technology to an advanced, pressure balanced, gaseous fuel injector. Performance of the injector will be discussed in detail as will features of the injector specifically adapted for gaseous applications. The ability of the injector to solve fuel metering problems facing the industry, such as turn down ratio limitations, accuracy, durability, and compatibility with existing engine electronics, are addressed.
Technical Paper

A Capacity Oriented Quality Assurance Method by Using Modular Containerized Test Cells

2002-11-19
2002-01-3456
The requirements for diesel and gasoline engines are continuously increasing with respect to emissions, fuel consumption and durability. Besides the engine development process the quality of the production engine itself has to be ensured. This paper discusses alternative philosophies and approaches in terms of the quality management process. Based on a detailed analysis of the required equipment advanced solutions are presented. Modular containerized test cells are described being equipped exactly to the current testing task ready to use in low infrastructure. The testing capacity of the facility can be adjusted to the actual production volume by simply removing or adding modular test cells. Thus, at every facility the testing tasks can be executed successfully and the investment can be kept low.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Structural Optimization of an Automotive Body-In-White Design

2008-04-14
2008-01-0880
A process for simultaneously optimizing the mechanical performance and minimizing the weight of an automotive body-in-white will be developed herein. The process begins with appropriate load path definition though calculation of an optimized topology. Load paths are then converted to sheet metal, and initial critical cross sections are sized and shaped based on packaging, engineering judgment, and stress and stiffness approximations. As a general direction of design, section requirements are based on an overall vehicle “design for stiffness first” philosophy. Design for impact and durability requirements, which generally call for strength rather than stiffness, are then addressed by judicious application of the most recently developed automotive grade advanced high strength steels. Sheet metal gages, including tailored blanks design, are selected via experience and topometry optimization studies.
Technical Paper

A Case Study of a Die-Cast Magnesium Structure Supporting Transmission Shifter Mechanisms and Interfaced with other Structural Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-0130
During the last several years the use of magnesium die-castings for automotive applications has been on the rise. Magnesium's use in die-cast form has been expanding at an average growth rate of more than 15% a year. Reasons for the increase are both practical and economic. Magnesium die-castings offer components having the lowest mass when compared to almost any other structural material. Magnesium die-alloys exhibit properties that bridge the gap between engineered plastics and metals. The mechanical performance ratios (strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight) of magnesium also compete favorably with metals and plastics. Economically, magnesium alloys prices have fallen during the last several years making them extremely competitive with other materials.
Technical Paper

A Combined Mode Fatigue Model for Glass Reinforced Nylon as applied to Molded Engine Cooling Fans

1985-02-01
850522
The use of glass reinforced nylon in fatigue inducing environments calls for a new method of stress analysis. With an engine cooling fan, both mean and vibratory stresses need to be examined. Speed cycling can cause tensile fatigue, while vibration can cause flexural fatigue. Since tensile and flexural stresses exist in the fan simultaneously, a combined mode fatigue model is needed. The proposed model is based on high cycle flexural and tensile fatigue strengths, and tensile strength. It relates measurable strain to stress using temperature dependent flexural and tensile moduli, and treats underhood temperature and desired product life as variables.
Technical Paper

A Compact and Robust Corona Discharge Device (CDD™) for Generating Non-Thermal Plasma in Automotive Exhaust

2000-06-19
2000-01-1845
We describe the details of a particular compact and robust Corona Discharge Device (CDD™) that generates non-thermal plasma in the harsh environment of a stoichiometric exhaust. This particular CDD™ can generate plasma power of up to 15W at exhaust gas temperatures to 850C. Optimizations of geometry, material selection, and thermal design were performed by a combination of simulation and experiment. This particular design considered tradeoffs of several factors, including plasma power, EMI shielding, thermal durability, high voltage interconnection, packaging size, and exhaust emissions reduction. This particular CDD™ was designed to meet most of the same durability and survivability specifications as an O2 sensor, since both are exposed to similar exhaust environments.
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