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Technical Paper

1996 GM 7.4 Liter Engine Upgrade

General Motors Powertrain Division has developed the next generation big block V8 engine for introduction in the 1996 model year. In addition to meeting tighter emission and on-board diagnostic legislation, this engine evolved to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges. Starting with the proven dependability of the time tested big block V8, goals were set to substantially increase the power, torque, fuel economy and overall pleaseability of GM's large load capacity gasoline engine. The need for this new engine to meet packaging requirements in many vehicle platforms, both truck and OEM, as well as a requirement for minimal additional heat rejection over the engine being replaced, placed additional constraints on the design.
Technical Paper

3 Things Engineers Need to Know about Patents

Engineers need to have a basic understanding of intellectual property: patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets. This article is designed to serve as an introduction to patents as well as a guide for the technical professional who may or may not have the assistance of corporate legal counsel. Practical approaches to the three common issues that engineers are likely to get involved in: patent searching a product; avoiding patent infringement and protecting a new product idea are covered. Many facts about patents and intellectual property are introduced and a few myths are exposed.
Technical Paper

48 V Diesel Hybrid - Advanced Powertrain Solution for Meeting Future Indian BS 6 Emission and CO2 Legislations

The legislations on emission reduction is getting stringent everywhere in the world. India is following the same trend, with Government of India (GOI) declaring the nationwide implementation of BS 6 legislation by April 2020 and Real Driving Emission (RDE) Cycle relevant legislation by 2023. Additionally GOI is focusing on reduction of CO2 emissions by introduction of stringent fleet CO2 targets through CAFE regulation, making it mandatory for vehicle manufacturers to simultaneously work on gaseous emissions and CO2 emissions. Simultaneous NOx emission reduction and CO2 reduction measures are divergent in nature, but with a 48 V Diesel hybrid, this goal can be achieved. The study presented here involves arriving at the right future hybrid-powertrain layout for a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) in the Indian scenario to meet the future BS 6 and CAFÉ legislations. Diesel engines dominate the current LCV and SUV segments in India and the same trend can be expected to continue in future.
Technical Paper

A Coast Guard Role in Civil Submersible Safety

The Coast Guard has a primary duty to administer laws and promulgate and enforce regulations for the promotion of safety of life and property on the high seas and on waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. The rapid expansion of undersea activity indicates a need for government regulation without waiting for a disaster to provide the impetus. The expected Coast Guard relationship to civil submersible safety is discussed from the standpoint of legislation; preparation, promulgation and enformcement of regulations; duplication of efforts by other organizations; and avoidance of unnecessary interference with use of new developments and technical advancement.
Technical Paper

A Combined Computational-Experimental Approach for Modelling of Coupled Vibro-Acoustic Problems

Over the past 30 years, the computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools have been applied extensively in the automotive industry. In order to accelerate time-to-market while coping with legal limits that have become increasingly restrictive over the last decades, CAE has become an indispensable tool covering all major fields in a modern automotive product design process. However, when tackling complex real-life engineering problems, the computational models might become rather involved and thus less efficient. Therefore, the overall trend in the automotive industry is currently heading towards combined approaches, which allow the best of the both worlds, namely the experimental measurement and numerical simulation, to be merged into one integrated scheme. In this paper, the so-called patch transfer function (PTF) approach is adopted to solve coupled vibro-acoustic problems. In the PTF scheme, the interfaces between fluid and structure are discretised in terms of patches.
Technical Paper

A Critical Road Test Evaluation of Two High-Performance Gasoline Additive Packages in a Fleet of Modern European and Japanese Vehicles

A road test has been conducted to quantify the benefits provided by two additive packages in a fleet of modern cars from the European market. One of the packages contains a high-performance detergent, the other contains the same detergent at lower concentration and a spark-aiding constituent. The test was designed to enable a critical three-way comparison to be made between the base fuel and the same fuel treated with the additives. Dynamometer measurements were made according to both the existing ECE Regulation 15 and the proposed Extended ECE test procedures. Through careful test design and execution, it has been possible to assess the performance of the additives at a high statistical confidence level. Both provide a consistently high level of inlet system cleanliness which leads to substantial reductions in fuel consumption and exhaust HC and CO emissions. NOx increases slightly, but the sum of HC+NOx (controlled in ECE legislation) does not.
Technical Paper

A Demonstration of the Emission Behaviour of 50 cm3 Mopeds in Europe Including Unregulated Components and Particulate Matter

The European emission legislation for two-wheeler vehicles driven by engines of ≤ 50 cm₃ is continuously developing. One of the most important issues in the near future will be the finalization of the European Commission's proposals for future steps in the emissions regulations as well as the verification of the impacts of current standards on the market. To have a basis for the discussion about these topics, the Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst (AECC) with the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics of Graz University of Technology (IVT) carried out an extensive test program to show the actual emission situation of state-of-the-art mopeds including mass and number of particulate matter as well as unregulated gaseous components. One of the main goals of these tests was to measure exhaust emissions without any modifications to the engines of standard production vehicles available on the European market.
Technical Paper

A Diesel Engine for Light Duty Applications

As a result of logical future market analysis, a light duty engine design study has been carried out, for automobile and light commercial vehicle applications. It sets a practical compromise between light weight and low cost, and embodies features not normally found in engines of this type. A newly developed combustion system complies with all likely legislation, as well as improving consumer acceptance of the diesel concept.
Technical Paper

A Digital Memory Fuel Controller for Gasoline Engines

A digital memory fuel control unit has been developed for otto cycle engines which enables low pollution exhaust emissions to be achieved, coupled with good drivability and mechanical performance. The unit has been tested on a Triumph 2.5 PI vehicle, and the practical results achieved fall just short of the requirements of the 1975 federal and California legislation. The electronic controller receives signals relating to the engine's instantaneous operating conditions and, by reference to its digital memory, computes the optimum fuel required. The capacity of the controller's memory is effectively increased by an interpolation technique. The controller operates as an on-line process control computer, of cigar box dimensions, which is able to exist in the arduous automotive environment.
Technical Paper

A Discussion of Alternative Sports Car Concepts

This paper is a discussion of the relative merits of the front, mid and rear engined car concepts. After discussing some basic packaging considerations, and implications in respect of legislation, the authors make comparisons of performance potential in respect of traction and aerodynamics. Limiting power weight ratios are derived. Primary and secondary ride implications are reviewed and effects on braking are mentioned. Steering and cornering characteristics are assessed by first establishing correlation between prediction and measurement using actual vehicles. Means of simplifying the prediction of steady state steering characteristics are described. Two “model” cars of front and mid engined configuration are then used to predict the steady state and dynamic steering consequences of various specification changes and some conclusions are drawn as to inherent differences.
Technical Paper

A Droplet Size Investigation and Comparison Using a Novel Biomimetic Flash-Boiling Injector for AdBlue Injections

Increased research is being driven by the automotive industry facing challenges, requiring to comply with both current and future emissions legislation, and to lower the fuel consumption. The reason for this legislation is to restrict the harmful pollution which every year causes 3.3 million premature deaths worldwide [1]. One factor that causes this pollution is NOx emissions. NOx emission legislation has been reduced from 8 g/kWh (Euro I) down to 0.4 g/kWh (Euro VI) and recently new legislation for ammonia slip which increase the challenge of exhaust aftertreatment with a SCR system. In order to achieve a good NOx conversion together with a low slip of ammonia, small droplets of Urea solution needs to be injected which can be rapidly evaporated and mixed into the flow of exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Assessing Travel Behavior Response to Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems

Identification of a framework for assessing the consequences of adopting IVHS applications is presented. IVHS applications modify vehicle-highway capacities by enhanced information processing. Mobility opportunities change and, if acted upon, change individual travel behavior. Changes in individual travel behavior affect aggregate travel behavior and transportation network loadings. Decisions to change the transportation system cycle through a three step social action process involving goals and aspirations, knowledge and technology, and financial and legal capacity to act. Action is then constrained by opportunities available in the environment. The transportation systems model presents a framework for designing research to estimate the requirements and consequences of adopting the new technology.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Developing Interior Trim Panels to Comply with the New FMVSS No. 201 Legislation

During driving, automobile and light truck occupants interface with almost all the components in the passenger compartment. These components are expected to provide not only ease of access to controls and comfort to the occupants, but also the necessary protection to decrease the likelihood of injuries during accidents. The passing of the revised Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No 201 is aimed at improving the overall safety of vehicle occupants during impact situations Amendments are specifically focused at improving the protection provided by the upper compartment components, i e, header, rail, pillar and roof trim panels, to the occupants' heads impacting at high velocities. The present paper reviews the requirements established by the revised federal legislation and the design and material options to meet the requirements, and describes a systematic approach for designing and engineering trim panels for head impact protection
Technical Paper

A Methodology for the Derivation of Movement-and Load Spectra for Energy-Efficiency Test Cycles of Heavy Equipment Vehicles

As a result of the Kyoto Protocol [1], the European Union's legislation demands higher saving rates for the total energy consumption of technical equipment. Heavy Equipment, such as construction- and agricultural machines, contributes over 80% of the total off-road diesel fuel consumption in Germany per annum. It is therefore necessary to provide helpful solutions in order to reach this ambitious aim. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research cooperates with machine manufacturers, component suppliers and research institutes in the area of heavy equipment. Under the project name TEAM [2] a three year project has been started, which is focused on the development and integration of new propulsion and steering systems for heavy equipment. One task within the project is finding an appropriate way of evaluating the energy efficiency of the enhanced machines, after the powertrain modifications have been applied to it.
Technical Paper

A Motor Carrier’s Self-Policing Program

A maximum temperature of zero F is recommended for the transportation, distribution, and display of frozen foods. The author suggests that the transportation industry adopt a policy of self-policing to avoid the passage of regulatory state legislation. He discusses the maximum protection of perishable food products from the point of view of maintenance of equipment and driver training.
Technical Paper

A Multinational Approach to European Environmental Concerns

European legislation covering noise, smoke emission and industrial pollution, all seeking to improve the environment are not addressed in this paper, which takes only exhaust emission and fuel complexity as its subjects. It describes how this complexity can inhibit the development capacity, thus restricting the model offering of a major european automobile manufacturer. The paper concludes that general benefit would be derived from genuine pan european emission legislation, particularly if that legislation was established at levels of control that allowed the development and use of modern engine technology.
Technical Paper

A New Family of Intercity Buses

Federal legislation was passed in 1983 deregulating the intercity bus industry opening up entry to new carriers and permitted existing carriers to experiment with innovative price and service options. This generated a new diversified market in a once thought to be a very stable industry. Greyhound's bus manufacturing companies, Motor Coach Industries (MCI) located in Winnipeg, Canada and Transportation Manufacturing Corporation (TMC) in Roswell, New Mexico quickly reacted to this challenge with the introduction of a family of four 40-foot intercity bus models.
Technical Paper

A New Generation of SMA Materials for Interior Components

Styrene Maleic Anhydride (SMA), typically glass reinforced, is widely used in automotive for interior trim and instrument panels. However presently available materials are not able to fill all of the increasing demands for both toughness and temperature resistance that are being required by automotive OEM's due to higher quality requirements, passive restraint legislation, and increased global competition. This paper will review a new family of SMA's that, due to differences in the manufacturing process and formulation, are available with a wider window of available temperature resistance and toughness properties. The properties of these materials will be reviewed along with comparisons to other materials such as existing SMA's, polycarbonates, modified poly phenylene oxides/ethers, ABS and other commonly used plastics for interior trim applications. Interior applications, along with their requirements, where these materials have found use will also be reviewed.
Journal Article

A Sampling and Conditioning Particle System for Solid Particle Measurements Down to 10 nm

The measurement of vehicle particle number emissions and, therefore, regulation, necessitates a rigorous sampling and conditioning technology able to deliver solid emitted particles with minimum particle losses. European legislation follows a solid particle number measurement method with cutoff size at 23 nm proposed by the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP). Accordingly, the raw exhaust is sampled with constant volume, subsequently passes through a volatile particle remover (VPR), and finally is measured with a particle counter. Lowering the 23 nm cutoff size with current VPR technologies introduces measurement uncertainties mainly due to the high particle losses and possible creation of artefacts. This study describes the development and evaluation of a sampling and conditioning particle system, the SCPS, specially designed for sub-23 nm solid particles measurement.
Technical Paper

A Solar Control Glass for Automobiles

AirCool™ automobile solar control coated glass was tested under desert driving conditions to determine its effect on the automobile's interior comfort and temperature. The glass was compared to standard tinted glass in side by side testing. AirCool is a stack of oxides and silver that reflects most infrared wavelengths and transmits the minimum amount of visible energy to satisfy the Federal legal requirement. Results show the AirCool glass can reduce the instrument panel temperature of a car parked in the sun by 30°F. This coated glass also reduces the time to reach comfort (as defined by a Predicted Mean Vote value of 0) by over 30%.