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Technical Paper

"Nickel electroformed" tools development through stereolithography (SLA) for sheet metal forming~An evaluation study

Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. While rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP and RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured by combining Stereolithography (SL), RP technique, with nickel electroforming process. The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called Accurate Clear Epoxy Solid (ACES).
Technical Paper

1500 Hp Diesel Electric Tractor

The experience accumulated with a prototype 1000 HP diesel electric tractor since 1969 is described. The new 1500 HP V220 diesel electric tractors are described along with some of the initial operation of these two units. Experience with the initial 1000 HP unit and the two 1500 HP tractors confirm the necessity of additional testing and experimentation to refine the design to get greater productivity with reduced operator fatigue. The unpredictability of the load and operating surface are major problems that present a real challenge to the engineer.
Technical Paper

2004 Nissan 3.5L Cam Cover Material Study: Aluminum, Magnesium and Composite

The present study compares the NVH performance of three different materials used on cam covers in automobiles, Aluminum (Al), Magnesium (Mg) and Thermoplastic (TP). The cam cover design used for this comparison was the 2004 Nissan Maxima 3.5L production cam cover which is made of a thermoplastic (TP). The Al and Mg covers for this study were created by sandcast, due to time constraints, via laser scanning techniques using the 2004 Nissan Maxima 3.5L production thermoplastic cover design. Note that sand-cast covers generally provide a less quiet sound field than the standard casting method. The Nissan production cover comes with a production baffle made of a similar material as the cover. Testing was conducted with and without the production baffle for all covers. The study was conducted for the production boundary condition of a non-isolated cover and a Freudenberg-NOK (FNGP) partially isolated cover. Isolated bolt assemblies using elastomeric grommets were used to isolate the cover.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Magnesium I/P Structure

This paper describes a new concept for a Ford GT instrument panel (IP) based on structural magnesium components, which resulted in what may be the industry's first structural IP (primary load path). Two US-patent applications are ongoing. Design criteria included cost, corrosion protection, crashworthiness assessments, noise vibration harshness (NVH) performance, and durability. Die casting requirements included feasibility for production, coating strategy and assembly constraints. The magnesium die-cast crosscar beam, radio box and console top help meet the vehicle weight target. The casting components use an AM60 alloy that has the necessary elongation properties required for crashworthiness. The resulting IP design has many unique features and the flexibility present in die-casting that would not be possible using conventional steel stampings and assembly techniques.
Technical Paper

2005 Fuel Cell Vehicle and its Magnesium Power Distribution Unit

The High Voltage Power Distribution Unit (PDU) is constructed of magnesium in support of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) weight reduction efforts. The PDU distributes and controls a nominal 75 kilowatts of power generated by the Fuel Cell, the primary source of High Voltage power, to all the vehicle loads and accessories. The constraints imposed on the design of the PDU resulted in a component highly susceptible to general and galvanic corrosion. Corrosion abatement was the focus of the PDU redesign. This paper describes the redesign efforts undertaken by Ford personnel to improve the part robustness and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

21 Cubic Yard 580 PAY® Loader

To effectively utilize larger trucks (85 ton and up), open-pit mines and quarries need a larger front-end loader with high reliability and performance. This paper describes the design approach and tests carried out to design 21 cubic yard 580 PAY® loader to meet these requirements. Long fatigue life of structures was obtained by use of full penetration welds. New concept for power control was designed to effectively distribute power between hydraulics and drive train. Spring applied - pressure released brakes were designed into the axle. Tests were carried out in our laboratory and proving grounds to determine performance and reliability.
Technical Paper

3D Engine Analysis and MLS Cylinder Head Gaskets Design

Multi-layer steel (MLS) cylinder head gaskets are becoming more widely used to seal an engine. Therefore, it is important to understand the interaction between the engine head, block and head gasket. While experimental methods for determining necessary gasket tightening loads and experimental data relating some gasket design parameters to failure are available, it is very costly and time consuming. A numerical method, such as the finite element (FE) method, has proven to be very useful and efficient in aiding gasket design. A 3D engine FE analysis can predict a number of parameters. Of particular interest are the motion as well as the contact profile of the head, block and gasket. This information, usually difficult or impossible to obtain from a 2D FE analysis, can be used to predict the two most common failure modes of a gasket, fatigue crack and leakage.
Technical Paper

90 Ah Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Nickel Hydrogen Battery Qualification Test Results

In 1995, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) began a program to investigate whether a 90 Ah dependent pressure vessel (DPV) NiH2 battery pack could be a lower volume replacement for a 90 Ah NiH2 IPV spacecraft battery. Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) dependent pressure vessel (DPV) battery cells are presumed to offer all the features of the NiH2 IPV battery cell with considerably less volume. To achieve this reduction in volume, the DPV cell utilizes a canteen shaped pressure vessel with reduced thickness wall, flat sides and curved ends. The cells can be packaged similar to prismatic nickel cadmium battery cells. Moreover, like NiCd cells, a fully charged DPV cell must rely upon an adjacent battery cell or structure for support and to maintain pressure vessel integrity. Seventeen 90 Ah NiH2 DPV cells were delivered to NR in 1998 for qualification tests. An eleven-cell half battery pack was manufactured and tested to validate the advantages of the DPV design.
Technical Paper

A Billion Engine Hours On Aluminum Bearings

HIGH load-carrying ability and fatigue strength, good embeddabiltty and conformability, and resistance to wear, seizure, and corrosion are factors that sold them on aluminum for bearings, the authors report. Bonded steel backing, they say, makes aluminum bearings even better. Retaining aluminum's good properties, it improves some of its bad points and gives such advantages as: Reduced bearing clearances, compared with those used with solid-aluminum bearings. No life limit in operation below 5000 psi fatigue stress value. Less sensitivity to high oil temperatures. Negligible wear (after 29,000 hr in one test). Simpler and less expensive bearing-locating designs. Special excellence for high-load, high-speed applications.
Technical Paper

A Case Study of a Die-Cast Magnesium Structure Supporting Transmission Shifter Mechanisms and Interfaced with other Structural Systems

During the last several years the use of magnesium die-castings for automotive applications has been on the rise. Magnesium's use in die-cast form has been expanding at an average growth rate of more than 15% a year. Reasons for the increase are both practical and economic. Magnesium die-castings offer components having the lowest mass when compared to almost any other structural material. Magnesium die-alloys exhibit properties that bridge the gap between engineered plastics and metals. The mechanical performance ratios (strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight) of magnesium also compete favorably with metals and plastics. Economically, magnesium alloys prices have fallen during the last several years making them extremely competitive with other materials.
Technical Paper

A Combined Mode Fatigue Model for Glass Reinforced Nylon as applied to Molded Engine Cooling Fans

The use of glass reinforced nylon in fatigue inducing environments calls for a new method of stress analysis. With an engine cooling fan, both mean and vibratory stresses need to be examined. Speed cycling can cause tensile fatigue, while vibration can cause flexural fatigue. Since tensile and flexural stresses exist in the fan simultaneously, a combined mode fatigue model is needed. The proposed model is based on high cycle flexural and tensile fatigue strengths, and tensile strength. It relates measurable strain to stress using temperature dependent flexural and tensile moduli, and treats underhood temperature and desired product life as variables.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of Air-inflated and Foam Seat Cushions for Truck Seats

A comprehensive comparison between an air-inflated seat cushion designed for truck seats and a commonly used foam cushion is provided, using a single-axis test rig designed for seat dynamic testing. Different types of tests were conducted in order to evaluate various aspects of each type of cushion; in terms of their response to narrowband (single frequency) dynamics, broadband input of the type that is commonly used in the trucking industry for testing seats, and a step input for assessing the damping characteristics of each cushion. The tests were conducted over a twelve-hour period—in four-hour intervals—measuring the changes that occur at the seat cushion over time and assessing how these changes can affect the metrics that are used for evaluating the cushions. The tests indicated a greater stiffening of the foam cushion over time, as compared with the air-inflated cushion that showed almost no change in stiffness when exposed to a static weight for twelve hours.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Design Study for Aluminium and Magnesium Automatic Transmission Converter Housings

The demand for vehicles with improved NVH characteristics, fuel economy and emissions control has increased dramatically in recent years. To meet these objectives stiffer and lighter housings are required so as to avoid troublesome driveline vibrations, while at the same time produce lighter structures to reduce the overall vehicle weight and improved fuel economy. A feasibility study was undertaken to examine the differences between the use of magnesium alloy and aluminium alloy for an automatic transmission converter housing. The design process, design constraints, design methodology, alloy selection and some unique magnesium design requirements are outlined. The differences between the two designs are investigated by simulating their static and dynamic performances using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). A sand cast prototype was produced for the first stage of the feasibility study, with the ultimate aim to produce die cast magnesium converter housings if feasible.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) and Microalloyed Steel

Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) samples were heat treated to produce materials with tensile strengths in the range of 100 ksi to 170 ksi. Microalloyed steels were also produced with equivalent tensile and yield strength levels. These steels were evaluated for mechanical properties in terms of tensile and yield strength, ductility, impact toughness, fracture toughness and fatigue strength. Machinability was extensively evaluated through tests of drilling, turning and plunge machining. This paper reports on this comprehensive comparative evaluation of these two important classes of materials for use in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Investigation on the High Temperature Fatigue of Three Cast Aluminum Alloys

The high temperature fatigue behaviors of three cast aluminum alloys used for cylinder head fabrication - 319, A356 and AS7GU - are compared under isothermal fatigue at room temperature and elevated temperatures. The thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior for both out-of-phase and in-phase loading conditions (100-300°C) has also been investigated. It has been observed that all three of these alloys present a very similar behavior under both isothermal and thermo-mechanical low-cycle fatigue. Under high-cycle fatigue, however, the alloys A356 and AS7GU exhibit superior performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Magnesium Front End Autoparts: A Revision to 2010-01-0275

The Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project under the sponsorship of Canada, China, and USA aims to develop key technologies and a knowledge base for increased use of magnesium in automobiles. The primary goal of this life cycle assessment (LCA) study is to compare the energy and potential environmental impacts of advanced magnesium based front end parts of a North American-built 2007 GM-Cadillac CTS using the current steel structure as a baseline. An aluminium front end is also considered as an alternate light structure scenario. A “cradle-to-grave” LCA is conducted by including primary material production, semi-fabrication production, autoparts manufacturing and assembly, transportation, use phase, and end-of-life processing of autoparts. This LCA study was done in compliance with international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2].
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Automotive System Fatigue Models Processed in the Time and Frequency Domain

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that frequency domain methods for calculating structural response and fatigue damage can be more widely applicable than previously thought. This will be demonstrated by comparing results of time domain vs. frequency domain approaches for a series of fatigue/durability problems with increasing complexity. These problems involve both static and dynamic behavior. Also, both single input and multiple correlated inputs are considered. And most important of all, a variety of non-stationary loading types have been used. All of the example problems investigated are typically found in the automotive industry, with measured loads from the field or from the proving ground.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Fatigue Behavior and Life Predictions of Forged Steel and PM Connecting Rods

This study investigates and compares fatigue behavior of forged steel and powder metal connecting rods. The experiments included strain-controlled specimen testing, with specimens obtained from the connecting rods, as well as load-controlled connecting rod bench testing. Monotonic and cyclic deformation behaviors, as well as strain-controlled fatigue properties of the two materials are evaluated and compared. Experimental S-N curves of the two connecting rods from the bench tests obtained under R = -1.25 constant amplitude loading conditions are also evaluated and compared. Fatigue properties obtained from specimen testing are then used in life predictions of the connecting rods, using the S-N approach. The predicted lives are compared with bench test results and include the effects of stress concentration, surface finish, and mean stress. The stress concentration factors were obtained from FEA, and the modified Goodman equation was used to account for the mean stress effect.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Rollover Crashes Involving Passenger Cars With and Without Electronic Stability Control (ESC)

The analysis presented here updates and expands previous research in which rollover critical events were classified based on a detailed review of about 500 police-reported single-vehicle rollover crashes of ESC-equipped vehicles. In order to compare the rollover performance of vehicles with and without ESC for the present study, an additional sample of 150 police reports on non-ESC passenger cars and 196 police reports on light vehicles with ESC in single-vehicle rollovers were obtained, and detailed coding of rollover scenarios was performed. The coding effort was undertaken by an engineering team and focused on critical events leading to rollovers (departure from road, loss of directional control, impact with an object, and departure from road with possible driver's input); driver factors (alcohol/drug involvement, speeding, inattention, distraction, fatigue, and overcorrection); and environmental factors.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Fatigue Behavior of Spot Welded and Mechanically Fastened Aluminum Joints

The cyclic behavior of single overlap aluminum joints joined through a number of different methods has been investigated using Alcan 5754-O, an alloy that potentially could be used in structural applications. Overlap shear tests of spot welded, clinched and riveted joints are compared on the basis of their fatigue performance. The fatigue response of the spot welded joint was the baseline to which the other fasteners were compared. Test results showed an improvement of approximately 25% for both the mechanical clinch joints and aluminum rivets in fatigue strength at 106 cycles. The most significant improvement in fatigue strength of 100% was found for the self piercing rivets at 106 cycles. The failure behavior of the various joining methods is discussed as well as the surface appearance.