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Technical Paper

14 Design and Analysis of Two Wheeler Engine Gearbox through Simulation to Reduce the Development Time and Cost

2002-10-29
2002-32-1783
An efficient design of the gearbox is crucial for the expected performance of the vehicle both in terms of life and NVH. This involves design and analysis of gears, shafts, bearings, gear layout and speed ratios. Conventionally gears, shafts and bearings are designed and analysed independently. When the design of these parts change, their effect on related parts is estimated separately, leading to loss of time. Alternately, an integrated approach through simulation is adopted for the new two wheeler's gearbox by modeling on Romax designer software, consisting of shafts, bearings and gears. For the target load cycle, gear and bearing lives, shaft deflections and stresses are estimated. While the targets for stresses, deflections and lives are set logically and with experience, these are also compared with those of reference vehicle by creating and analysing reference gearbox model.
Technical Paper

1500 Hp Diesel Electric Tractor

1976-02-01
760647
The experience accumulated with a prototype 1000 HP diesel electric tractor since 1969 is described. The new 1500 HP V220 diesel electric tractors are described along with some of the initial operation of these two units. Experience with the initial 1000 HP unit and the two 1500 HP tractors confirm the necessity of additional testing and experimentation to refine the design to get greater productivity with reduced operator fatigue. The unpredictability of the load and operating surface are major problems that present a real challenge to the engineer.
Technical Paper

18000 Series Power Shift Transmission Development

1974-02-01
740673
This paper describes the concept, design, and options of a new power shift transmission family for industrial equipment in the 50-100 hp range. The converter, clutch, and gearing arrangements provide the basis for various transmission configurations with both a drop and straight through output. The designs allow multiple usage of components within a transmission and between different sizes of transmissions. The various gearing, bearing, and clutch designs are based on proved experience factors, and as such will provide a new reliable family of transmissions.
Technical Paper

2004 Nissan 3.5L Cam Cover Material Study: Aluminum, Magnesium and Composite

2005-04-11
2005-01-0727
The present study compares the NVH performance of three different materials used on cam covers in automobiles, Aluminum (Al), Magnesium (Mg) and Thermoplastic (TP). The cam cover design used for this comparison was the 2004 Nissan Maxima 3.5L production cam cover which is made of a thermoplastic (TP). The Al and Mg covers for this study were created by sandcast, due to time constraints, via laser scanning techniques using the 2004 Nissan Maxima 3.5L production thermoplastic cover design. Note that sand-cast covers generally provide a less quiet sound field than the standard casting method. The Nissan production cover comes with a production baffle made of a similar material as the cover. Testing was conducted with and without the production baffle for all covers. The study was conducted for the production boundary condition of a non-isolated cover and a Freudenberg-NOK (FNGP) partially isolated cover. Isolated bolt assemblies using elastomeric grommets were used to isolate the cover.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Magnesium I/P Structure

2004-03-08
2004-01-1261
This paper describes a new concept for a Ford GT instrument panel (IP) based on structural magnesium components, which resulted in what may be the industry's first structural IP (primary load path). Two US-patent applications are ongoing. Design criteria included cost, corrosion protection, crashworthiness assessments, noise vibration harshness (NVH) performance, and durability. Die casting requirements included feasibility for production, coating strategy and assembly constraints. The magnesium die-cast crosscar beam, radio box and console top help meet the vehicle weight target. The casting components use an AM60 alloy that has the necessary elongation properties required for crashworthiness. The resulting IP design has many unique features and the flexibility present in die-casting that would not be possible using conventional steel stampings and assembly techniques.
Technical Paper

2005 Fuel Cell Vehicle and its Magnesium Power Distribution Unit

2005-04-11
2005-01-0339
The High Voltage Power Distribution Unit (PDU) is constructed of magnesium in support of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) weight reduction efforts. The PDU distributes and controls a nominal 75 kilowatts of power generated by the Fuel Cell, the primary source of High Voltage power, to all the vehicle loads and accessories. The constraints imposed on the design of the PDU resulted in a component highly susceptible to general and galvanic corrosion. Corrosion abatement was the focus of the PDU redesign. This paper describes the redesign efforts undertaken by Ford personnel to improve the part robustness and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

21 Cubic Yard 580 PAY® Loader

1975-02-01
750817
To effectively utilize larger trucks (85 ton and up), open-pit mines and quarries need a larger front-end loader with high reliability and performance. This paper describes the design approach and tests carried out to design 21 cubic yard 580 PAY® loader to meet these requirements. Long fatigue life of structures was obtained by use of full penetration welds. New concept for power control was designed to effectively distribute power between hydraulics and drive train. Spring applied - pressure released brakes were designed into the axle. Tests were carried out in our laboratory and proving grounds to determine performance and reliability.
Technical Paper

3 A Split Power Continuously Variable Transmissions (SPCVT) for Bicycle Use

2002-10-29
2002-32-1772
Fine packaging is important for the bicycle transmission design. We are proposing a split power continuously variable transmission (SPCVT) operated with one mode. The planetary gear unit (PGU) in the SPCVT consists of two epicyclic gear trains. Both epicyclic gear trains do not include any ring gears to minimize the overall diameter of the transmission. A variator is connected to the PGU as a type of variable bridge. The variator involves two rotor pairs contacting on concave-convex spherical surfaces. This new mechanism of the variator shows a strong possibility to get high power density in comparison with other existing traction drives. A four-bar linkage is used to locate the counter rotor assembly exactly in the contact points of the rotor pair and extend the range of variator speed ratio. The crank is pulled by the wire connected to the speed control lever on the handle of bicycle.
Technical Paper

3D Engine Analysis and MLS Cylinder Head Gaskets Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0663
Multi-layer steel (MLS) cylinder head gaskets are becoming more widely used to seal an engine. Therefore, it is important to understand the interaction between the engine head, block and head gasket. While experimental methods for determining necessary gasket tightening loads and experimental data relating some gasket design parameters to failure are available, it is very costly and time consuming. A numerical method, such as the finite element (FE) method, has proven to be very useful and efficient in aiding gasket design. A 3D engine FE analysis can predict a number of parameters. Of particular interest are the motion as well as the contact profile of the head, block and gasket. This information, usually difficult or impossible to obtain from a 2D FE analysis, can be used to predict the two most common failure modes of a gasket, fatigue crack and leakage.
Technical Paper

42LE Electronic Four-Speed Automatic Transaxle

1993-03-01
930671
A new electronically controlled transaxle has been put into production for Chrysler's family of LH cars. Among the attributes of this new transaxle are its ability to handle engines of high torque and high power coupled with high-speed shifts. Engine torque management is used in specific operating regimes. A feature of the transaxle is electronic modulation of the converter clutch. A number of logic features have been combined with hardware to provide good performance and shift quality over a wide operating range. An output transfer chain and a hypoid gear set are used to provide torque to the front wheels in a longitudinal power train orientation. Obtaining acceptable endurance life of the hypoid gears within an aluminum housing presented a significant challenge. New approaches were required to provide a chain-sprocket system with acceptable noise characteristics.
Technical Paper

50 YEARS OF MARINE GEAR EVOLUTION

1972-02-01
720280
A colorful series of 150 slides was presented tracing 5 HP to 1200 HP marine gear design evolution beginning in 1906, followed by pre-WWI developments, Liberty Aircraft engine usage and a 1924 to 1972 series of pleasure boat and work boat marine gear photographs. The entire slide presentation is available in 35 m.m. film strip and may be ordered (at cost) from the author, R. C. McRoberts, Twin Disc, Incorporated, Racine, Wisconsin, 53403, U.S.A. For short time usage, a loan film is available. This history of U. S. marine gear development includes information contributed by the Snow-Nabstedt Gear Corp., Capitol Gears, Inc., Paragon Gears, Inc., The Walter Machine Co., Inc., Detroit Diesel Allison Div. of General Motors Corp., Caterpillar Tractor Co., Warner Gear Div. Borg-Warner Corp. and Twin Disc, Incorporated.
Technical Paper

59 The Rotating Cylinder Valve 4-Stroke Engine A Practical Alternative

2002-10-29
2002-32-1828
The Rotating Cylinder Valve (RCV) Engine is a novel 4 cycle engine that is a practical alternative to conventional 2 and 4 stroke designs, in particular for small capacity single cylinder applications. It is primarily intended to address applications where emissions legislation is forcing manufacturers to abandon the traditional carburetted 2 stroke. It has particular benefits for the moped/light motorcycle market. The engine operates on a simple principle. The cylinder liner is rotated around the piston at half engine speed via a pair of bevel gears. A port in the side of this cylinder indexes with inlet and exhaust ports in the surrounding casing. This rotary valve serves the cylinder as the engine cycles through the conventional 4 stroke cycle. The main technical issue that has been addressed is the design of a practical rotary valve seal.
Technical Paper

6 Speed Automatic Transmission Vibration Magnitude Prediction and Whine Noise Improvement through Transmission System Modeling

2011-05-17
2011-01-1553
As automotive technology has been developed, gear whine has become a prominent contributor for cabin noise as the masking has been decreased. Whine is not the loudest source, but it is of high tonal noise which is often highly unpleasant. The gear noise originates at gear mesh. Transmission Error acts as an excitation source and these vibrations pass through gears, shafts and bearings to the housing which vibrates to produce noise on surrounding air. As microgeometry optimization target to reduce the fundamental excitation source of the noise, it has been favored method to tackle gear whine noise, especially for manual transmission. However, practicality of microgeometry optimization for the planetary gear system has been still in question, because of complex system structure and interaction among multi mesh gear sets make it hard to predict and even harder to improve. In this paper, successful case of whine noise improvement by microgeometry is presented.
Technical Paper

6 Speed Transverse Manual Gearbox for High Torque Application

2016-04-05
2016-01-1095
Weight reduction and high transmission efficiency demands are getting heavier to manual transmission (MT) for vehicle driving and fuel economy performance. Also comfortable shift feeling and low gear noise level are continuously required by customer because those sensitivity performances are directly recognized by driver which can determine the transmission's merchantability. Newly developed high torque capacity MT is based on serial transmission BG6 which is adopted into a lot of customer' vehicle. This new MT is weight reduced, shift feeling and gear noise performance are highly improved that keeps strong competitiveness in the future. Concerning shift feeling, its smoothness, force balance and cross shift performance are improved and optimized. Also for low gear noise performance, it was reduced to the level which can have advantage to competitor and highly comfortable for passenger vehicle. Those improvement technologies are reported as follows.
Technical Paper

69 Development of Gear Train Behavioral Analysis Technologies Considering Non-linear Elements

2002-10-29
2002-32-1838
A numerical calculation method, which enables the analysis of gear train behavior including non-linear elements in a motorcycle engine, was established. During the modeling process, it was confirmed that factors such as bearing distortion, radial bearing clearance and elastic deformation of a tooth flank could not be neglected because they effect the rotation behavior. To keep a high accuracy, those factors were included in the simulation model, after they were converted into the rigidity elements along the rotational direction of each gear model. In addition, the model was combined with a crankshaft behavior calculation model for a driving and excitation source. A time domain numerical integration method was used to perform the transient response simulation across a wide range of engine speeds. A jump phenomenon of response behavior of the driven gear was predicted that is a characteristic of non-linear response. The phenomenon was also observed in a physical test.
Technical Paper

6C Compact Skid Steer Loader With Worm Gear Wheel Drives

1978-02-01
780739
This paper discusses the features and systems of a new compact skid steer loader. Special features of the new loader are a single member lift arm and worm gear wheel drives. The general systems of the machine will be discussed along with the special PTO option.
Technical Paper

A Basic Approach to Gearbox Noise Prediction

1982-02-01
821065
This paper provides an overview of a strategy for the prediction of noise from industrial gearboxes. A review of the history of predictive noise control in gearboxes is given. The historical lead is followed in developing the strategy, but significant changes in the approach to predictive noise control have been made. The heart of the approach is the dynamic modeling of the gearbox from inside out. Thus one must start this process with the prediction of the internal dynamic response of the gear train system. This paper then details the computational strategy for the determination of the dynamic response of the internal gearbox components. The approaches presented here are significant departures from those carried out in the past.
Technical Paper

A Billion Engine Hours On Aluminum Bearings

1956-01-01
560058
HIGH load-carrying ability and fatigue strength, good embeddabiltty and conformability, and resistance to wear, seizure, and corrosion are factors that sold them on aluminum for bearings, the authors report. Bonded steel backing, they say, makes aluminum bearings even better. Retaining aluminum's good properties, it improves some of its bad points and gives such advantages as: Reduced bearing clearances, compared with those used with solid-aluminum bearings. No life limit in operation below 5000 psi fatigue stress value. Less sensitivity to high oil temperatures. Negligible wear (after 29,000 hr in one test). Simpler and less expensive bearing-locating designs. Special excellence for high-load, high-speed applications.
Technical Paper

A CAD System for the Optimization of Gear Ratios for Automotive Automatic Transmissions

1993-03-01
930675
An interactive design system has been developed for the design of automatic automotive transmission gear trains that can provide at least three forward and one reverse speed ratios. This user-friendly windowing system can access help files, display the functional representation of a mechanism, optimize the gear ratios and present the numerical results. The optimization procedure to find the optimum gear ratios and the corresponding number of gear teeth uses the Augmented Lagrangian Multiplier Method and can be applied to all epicyclic gear trains having two sets of three gears in which a ring gear is connected to a sun gear through a planetary gear. The Simpson and General Motors THM 440 gear trains are used to demonstrate the methodology. The gear teeth combinations are found such that they achieve the optimized gear ratios to within ±1% and satisfy the geometric constraints.
Journal Article

A CFD study of an Electronic Hydraulic Power Steering Helical External Gear Pump: Model Development, Validation and Application

2016-04-05
2016-01-1376
External gear pumps are positive displacement devices which perform with excellent efficiencies over a wide load and speed range. This wide range of performance is primarily due to micron-level leakage gaps in such machines which prevent large leakages at increasing loads. The present paper details a novel approach implemented in the commercial CFD tool PumpLinx that can capture the details of the micron level gaps, and model such machines accurately. The steps in creation of the model from original CAD geometry are described. In particular, the CFD mesh is created using a specialized template structured meshing method within PumpLinx especially created for external gear pumps and motors. This makes process of mesh creation and flow solution through complicated geometries of a gear pump efficient and streamlined.
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