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Technical Paper

100,000 Miles of Fueling 5.9L Cummins Engines with 100% Biodiesel

1996-10-01
962233
Two Cummins B5.9L engines were fueled with 100% biodiesel in excess of 48 months by the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The engines used to power Dodge pickups. The engine lubricating oil was sampled at 1000 mile intervals for analysis. Statistical analysis of the engine lubricating oil indicated that the wear metal levels in the lubricating oil were normal. A reduction in power was noted when the engines were tested using a chassis dynamometer. The 1991 pickup has been driven 110,451 km and the 1992 pickup has been driven approximately 177,022 km. The pickups averaged 6.9 km/L. Engine fuel efficiency and material compatibility issues are addressed in the paper.
Technical Paper

1500 Hp Diesel Electric Tractor

1976-02-01
760647
The experience accumulated with a prototype 1000 HP diesel electric tractor since 1969 is described. The new 1500 HP V220 diesel electric tractors are described along with some of the initial operation of these two units. Experience with the initial 1000 HP unit and the two 1500 HP tractors confirm the necessity of additional testing and experimentation to refine the design to get greater productivity with reduced operator fatigue. The unpredictability of the load and operating surface are major problems that present a real challenge to the engineer.
Technical Paper

2,000,000 Miles of Fluid Evaluation in City Bus Automatic Transmissions

1967-02-01
670185
In certain types of city bus service some automatic transmission fluids can fail in less than 10,000 miles. In order to provide satisfactory transmission performance for longer mileage, improved fluids are required. An investigation was undertaken to obtain improved fluids. Fifteen different fluid formulations were evaluated in 30 city buses operated in normal service for more than 2,000,000 miles. It was determined that fluids fail because of frictional deterioration and oxidation. Based on these evaluations, only two fluids were found to be satisfactory for more than 40,000 miles; one additional fluid was satisfactory for more than 30,000 miles. The remaining 12 fluids failed in less than 20,000 miles.
Technical Paper

2004 Nissan 3.5L Cam Cover Material Study: Aluminum, Magnesium and Composite

2005-04-11
2005-01-0727
The present study compares the NVH performance of three different materials used on cam covers in automobiles, Aluminum (Al), Magnesium (Mg) and Thermoplastic (TP). The cam cover design used for this comparison was the 2004 Nissan Maxima 3.5L production cam cover which is made of a thermoplastic (TP). The Al and Mg covers for this study were created by sandcast, due to time constraints, via laser scanning techniques using the 2004 Nissan Maxima 3.5L production thermoplastic cover design. Note that sand-cast covers generally provide a less quiet sound field than the standard casting method. The Nissan production cover comes with a production baffle made of a similar material as the cover. Testing was conducted with and without the production baffle for all covers. The study was conducted for the production boundary condition of a non-isolated cover and a Freudenberg-NOK (FNGP) partially isolated cover. Isolated bolt assemblies using elastomeric grommets were used to isolate the cover.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Magnesium I/P Structure

2004-03-08
2004-01-1261
This paper describes a new concept for a Ford GT instrument panel (IP) based on structural magnesium components, which resulted in what may be the industry's first structural IP (primary load path). Two US-patent applications are ongoing. Design criteria included cost, corrosion protection, crashworthiness assessments, noise vibration harshness (NVH) performance, and durability. Die casting requirements included feasibility for production, coating strategy and assembly constraints. The magnesium die-cast crosscar beam, radio box and console top help meet the vehicle weight target. The casting components use an AM60 alloy that has the necessary elongation properties required for crashworthiness. The resulting IP design has many unique features and the flexibility present in die-casting that would not be possible using conventional steel stampings and assembly techniques.
Technical Paper

2005 Fuel Cell Vehicle and its Magnesium Power Distribution Unit

2005-04-11
2005-01-0339
The High Voltage Power Distribution Unit (PDU) is constructed of magnesium in support of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) weight reduction efforts. The PDU distributes and controls a nominal 75 kilowatts of power generated by the Fuel Cell, the primary source of High Voltage power, to all the vehicle loads and accessories. The constraints imposed on the design of the PDU resulted in a component highly susceptible to general and galvanic corrosion. Corrosion abatement was the focus of the PDU redesign. This paper describes the redesign efforts undertaken by Ford personnel to improve the part robustness and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

21 Cubic Yard 580 PAY® Loader

1975-02-01
750817
To effectively utilize larger trucks (85 ton and up), open-pit mines and quarries need a larger front-end loader with high reliability and performance. This paper describes the design approach and tests carried out to design 21 cubic yard 580 PAY® loader to meet these requirements. Long fatigue life of structures was obtained by use of full penetration welds. New concept for power control was designed to effectively distribute power between hydraulics and drive train. Spring applied - pressure released brakes were designed into the axle. Tests were carried out in our laboratory and proving grounds to determine performance and reliability.
Technical Paper

3D Engine Analysis and MLS Cylinder Head Gaskets Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0663
Multi-layer steel (MLS) cylinder head gaskets are becoming more widely used to seal an engine. Therefore, it is important to understand the interaction between the engine head, block and head gasket. While experimental methods for determining necessary gasket tightening loads and experimental data relating some gasket design parameters to failure are available, it is very costly and time consuming. A numerical method, such as the finite element (FE) method, has proven to be very useful and efficient in aiding gasket design. A 3D engine FE analysis can predict a number of parameters. Of particular interest are the motion as well as the contact profile of the head, block and gasket. This information, usually difficult or impossible to obtain from a 2D FE analysis, can be used to predict the two most common failure modes of a gasket, fatigue crack and leakage.
Standard

400 Hz CONNECTION AIRCRAFT ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES

1994-12-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4365
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes field-level procedures to determine if 400 Hz electrical connections for external power may have been subjected to excessive wear, which may result in inadequate disengagement forces.
Standard

400 Hz Connection Aircraft Electrical Maintenance Procedures

2008-03-28
HISTORICAL
AIR4365A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes field-level procedures to determine if 400 Hz electrical connections for external power may have been subjected to excessive wear, which may result in inadequate disengagement forces.
Technical Paper

44 Theoretical Predictions and Experimental Verification of Pass-by Noise Reduction for Small Four-Stroke Motorcycle

2002-10-29
2002-32-1813
To meet stringent noise regulations by governing body and customer expectations for quieter machines, design of low noise-emitting vehicle is becoming increasingly critical. Noise from small capacity four-stroke motorcycle is ranked for its noise intensity emitted, by sound intensity technique. Generally, noise form exhaust ranks first among the sources. Theoretical predictions were made to determine the frequency band being attenuated by the exhaust system. Design of Experiments (L25 Fractional factorial -6 factors and 5 levels), a statistical technique, is used for determining critical parameters, which increase the transmission loss of the exhaust system for four-stroke engine. Best combination of design parameters for maximum transmission loss is selected using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Experimental exhaust systems were built based on the theoretical predictions, pass-by noise spectrum were captured and compared.
Technical Paper

48 Development of Exhaust Valve Seat Insert Material for High Performance Engines

2002-10-29
2002-32-1817
Engines are assigned big subjects such as low emission and low fuel consumption as well as higher output (higher efficiency) in the latest trend of environmental protection. In order to meet these requirements, Air/Fuel ratio of recent high performance engines is being arranged leaner than that of conventional engines. As a result exhaust valve seat inserts used in these engines have problems of their wear resistance because of high exhaust gas temperature. By analyzing wear mechanism under the lean burn conditions, authors developed material for exhaust valve seat inserts which show superior wear resistance under high operating temperature. For the purpose to enhance heat resistance, authors added alloy steel powder for matrix powder and used hard particles which have good diffusion with matrix. The developed material does not include Ni and Co powders for cost saving and has superior machinability.
Video

5000 Hours Aging of THERBAN® (HNBR) Elastomers in an Aggressive Biodiesel Blend

2012-05-23
TERBAN® hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) is a specialty elastomer used in demanding engineering applications such as the automotive, heavy duty, and industrial markets. It has excellent combination of heat, oil and abrasion resistance in addition to its high mechanical strength, very good dynamic and sealing properties. This paper will present data on aging HNBR for five thousand hours in an aggressive and un-stabilized B30A biodiesel fuel blend (70% ULSD, 30% SME, and an aggressive additive package) and explore the effect of HNBR polymer properties and vulcanizate composition on the performance in such fuel blends. Presenter Victor Nasreddine
Technical Paper

5000 Hours Aging of THERBAN® (HNBR) Elastomers in an Aggressive Biodiesel Blend

2012-04-16
2012-01-0943
TERBAN® hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) is a specialty elastomer used in demanding engineering applications such as the automotive, heavy duty, and industrial markets. It has excellent combination of heat, oil and abrasion resistance in addition to its high mechanical strength, very good dynamic and sealing properties. This paper will present data on aging HNBR for five thousand hours in an aggressive and un-stabilized B30A biodiesel fuel blend (70% ULSD, 30% SME, and an aggressive additive package) and explore the effect of HNBR polymer properties and vulcanizate composition on the performance in such fuel blends.
Technical Paper

66 Nylon Resins

1970-02-01
700485
The first part of this paper describes air and gasoline heat-aging tests on various type 66 nylon resins. The results are pertinent for evaluating the suitability of these nylons for automotive applications such as the emission control canister and the gasoline vapor-liquid separator. In addition, data are presented to demonstrate that road salt caused no deterioration on test bars made from various 66, 610, and copolymer nylon resins which are in contact with galvanized zinc sheets in an acid environment. The second part of this paper discusses a survey which was made of a variety of automotive parts made of 66 nylon and acetal homopolymer to determine their quality after extended service. Parts, including body, chassis, engine, and transmission components, were removed from high mileage cars. Parts were evaluated for changes in dimension and strength. Their general condition was found to be excellent.
Technical Paper

737–800 Winglet Integration

2001-09-11
2001-01-2989
A joint venture called Aviation Partners Boeing successfully integrated winglets into the Next-Generation 737–800 by retaining performance improvements with minimal weight penalty on the existing 737 wing design. Program challenges included developing both retrofit and production configurations using a common winglet design, causing minimal impact on all customers, and causing minimal disruption to the 737 production process. Winglet benefits along with improved performance include reduced engine wear and enhanced visual appeal.
Technical Paper

A 2.3L Engine Deposit and Wear Test-An ASTM Task Force Progress Report

1978-02-01
780260
An ASTM Task Force was formed in December, 1976 to develop a Laboratory Engine Dynamometer Deposit and Wear Test. A 2.3 liter, four cylinder engine and an unleaded reference gasoline were selected. Reference oils for which field data were available were obtained from industry. The Task Force defined test support hardware for both engine and test stand. The effect of operating variables on engine deposits was studied. A test procedure, based on correlation with field service, is nearing completion. It is expected that this procedure will be capable of defining lubricant performance in terms of motor oil classifications.
Technical Paper

A Basic Overview on Brake Disc Wear

2002-07-09
2002-01-2184
Wear of brake disc is normally faced with sophisticated experimental methods, a basic overview on the phenomena related to disc wear is presented in this paper. DTV consists in a heterogeneous wear of the disc surface and it is caused by two factors: run-out and the mechanism of disc wear. The importance of DTV is due to the vehicle vibrations that high DTV values can cause during braking. A model, that considers iron oxide layer evolution on disc surface, can evidence some of the principal characteristics of disc wear. In this model the wear rates of disc gray cast iron and iron oxide layer are considered as some of the principal factors in DTV evolution, as well as the kinetics of the chemical reactions involved.
Technical Paper

A Basis for Estimating Mechanical Efficiency and Life of a Diesel Engine from its Size, Load Factor and Piston Speed

2011-09-13
2011-01-2211
Parameters like brake mean effective pressure, mean velocity of the piston, hardness of the wear surface, oil film thickness, and surface areas of critical wear parts are similar for all the diesel engines. The mean piston velocity at the rated speed is nearly the same for all the diesel engines. The mechanical efficiency normalized to an arbitrary brake mean effective pressure (bmep) is dependent on the size of the engine. The engine life seems to be proportional directly to the square of a characteristic dimension namely, cylinder bore of the engine and inversely to speed and load factor for engines varying widely in sizes and ratings.
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