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Technical Paper

Adequacy of Reduced Order Models for Model-Based Control in a Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System

Model-based control strategies are important for meeting the dual objective of maximizing NOx reduction and minimizing NH3 slip in urea-SCR catalysts. To be implementable on the vehicle, the models should capture the essential behavior of the system, while not being computationally intensive. This paper discusses the adequacy of two different reduced order SCR catalyst models and compares their performance with a higher order model. The higher order model assumes that the catalyst has both diffusion and reaction kinetics, whereas the reduced order models contain only reaction kinetics. After describing each model, its parameter identification and model validation based on experiments on a Navistar I6 7.6L engine are presented. The adequacy of reduced order models is demonstrated by comparing the NO, NO2 and NH3 concentrations predicted by the models to their concentrations from the test data.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Evaluation of Techniques for Measuring Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide (Phase IV Tests)

This is the fourth in a series of tests conducted as a Coordinating Research Council cooperative program to evaluate the measurement methods used to analyze diesel exhaust gas constituents. A multi-cylinder engine was circulated to 15 participants who measured emissions at three engine conditions. All 15 participants measured nitric oxide and carbon monoxide with several laboratories measuring nitric oxide by both NDIR (Non-Dispersive Infrared) and CHEMI (Chemiluminescence). Some participants also measured carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, oxygen, and unknown span gases. The test results are compared with the Phase III cooperative tests which involved simultaneous measurement of emissions by participants. The precision of the results was poorer in Phase IV than Phase III.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Evaluation of Techniques for Measuring Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide - A Report of the Program Group on Diesel Exhaust Composition of the Air Pollution Advisory Committee of the Coordinating Research Council, Inc.

A Coordinating Research Council cooperative program was conducted to evaluate the measurement methods used to analyze nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in diesel exhaust. Initially, a single-cylinder test engine was circulated among participants with poor results. Tests were then conducted at one site using a multicylinder diesel engine. Six organizations participated in the program. Exhaust analyses were conducted at steady-state engine conditions and on a 3 min cycle test. Span gases of unknown concentration were also analyzed. The participants results varied but averaged less than ±5% standard deviation both within (repeatability) and among (reproducibility) the instruments. The short cycle test was in good agreement with the steady-state measurements. No significant difference in the use of Drierite, nonindicating Drierite, or Aquasorb desiccants was evident in sampling system tests.
Technical Paper

Extended Kalman Filter Estimator for NH3 Storage, NO, NO2 and NH3 Estimation in a SCR

This paper focuses on the development of an Extended Kalman Filter for estimating internal species concentration and storage states of an SCR using NOX and NH₃ sensors. The motivation for this work was twofold. First, knowledge of internal states may be useful for onboard diagnostic strategy development. In particular, significant errors between the outlet NOX or NH₃ sensors, reconstructed from estimated states, and the measured NOX or NH₃ concentrations may aid OBD strategies that attempt to identify particular system failure modes. Second, the EKF described estimates not only stored ammonia but also NO, NO₂ and NH₃ gas concentrations within and exiting the SCR. Exploiting knowledge of the individual species concentrations, instead of lumping them together as NOX, can yield improved closed loop urea controller performance in terms of reduced urea consumption and better NOX conversion.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Engine Aftertreatment System Simulation (VEASS) Model: Application to a Controls Design Strategy for Active Regeneration of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter

Heavy-duty diesel engine particulate matter (PM) emissions must be reduced from 0.1 to 0.01 grams per brake horsepower-hour by 2007 due to EPA regulations [1]. A catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) is used to capture PM in the exhaust stream, but as PM accumulates in the CPF, exhaust flow is restricted resulting in reduced horsepower and increased fuel consumption. PM must therefore be burned off, referred to as CPF regeneration. Unfortunately, nominal exhaust temperatures are not always high enough to cause stable self-regeneration when needed. One promising method for active CPF regeneration is to inject fuel into the exhaust stream upstream of an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC). The chemical energy released during the oxidation of the fuel in the OCC raises the exhaust temperature and allows regeneration.