Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

11 Rules of Design for Manufacturing when Producing Pre-Impregnated Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Components - an Application at SAAB Aerostructures

2016-09-27
2016-01-2124
Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is one of the most commonly used materials in the aerospace industry today. CFRP in pre-impregnated form is an anisotropic material whose properties can be controlled to a high level by the designer. Sometimes, these properties make the material hard to predict with regards to how the geometry affects manufacturing aspects. This paper describes eleven design rules originating from different guidelines that describe geometrical design choices and deals with manufacturability problems that are connected to them, why they are connected and how they can be minimized or avoided. Examples of design choices dealt with in the rules include double curvature shapes, assembly of uncured CFRP components and access for non-destructive testing (NDT). To verify the technical content and ensure practicability, the rules were developed by, inter alia, studying literature and performing case studies at SAAB Aerostructures.
Technical Paper

175°C-Capable Thermoplastic Elastomers for Automotive Air Management and Sealing Applications

2007-11-28
2007-01-2576
Flexibility, oil resistance, and the need for heat resistance to 150°C-plus temperatures have traditionally limited automotive design engineers to two options - thermoset rubber or heat-shielding conventional thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). Both of these options present limitations in part design, the ability to consolidate the number of components in a part of assembly, and on total cost. This paper presents a class of high-performance, flexible thermoplastic elastomers based on dynamically vulcanized polyacrylate (ACM) elastomer dispersed in a continuous matrix of polyamide (PA) thermoplastic. These materials are capable of sustained heat resistance to 150°C and short-term heat resistance to 175°C, without requiring heat shielding. Recent advancements in blow molding and functional testing of the PA//ACM TPEs for automotive air management (ducts) and underhood sealing applications will be shown.
Technical Paper

2.5 D LED: A Cost Efficient Solution for 3 D Signaling Lamps

2007-04-16
2007-01-1231
After the first appearance of LED rear lamps, which employed mainly two-dimensional arrays of LEDs, the request of stylists and OEMs to have three-dimensional LED alignment has increased strongly. Development of more powerful LEDs and new packaging and assembly technologies now allows for a three-dimensional assembly of the LEDs, giving an impression of depth and enabling the LEDs to follow even extreme curvatures. This gives great customer satisfaction in terms of styling, but the disadvantage is that the cost for the three-dimensional LED alignment increases significantly. To counteract this development, we have developed a light guide technology approach (so-called 2.5 D) to combine a cost efficient LED assembly process with the flexibility of a 3 D arrangement of the light sources. Thus, we can use standard planar FR4 (Flame Resistant 4) LED printed circuit boards with arbitrary LEDs and do not depend on a certain assembly technology.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Melding the Past and the Future

2004-03-08
2004-01-1251
The 2005 Ford GT high performance sports car was designed and built in keeping with the heritage of the 1960's LeMans winning GT40 while maintaining the image of the 2002 GT40 concept vehicle. This paper reviews the technical challenges in designing and building a super car in 12 months while meeting customer expectations in performance, styling, quality and regulatory requirements. A team of dedicated and performance inspired engineers and technical specialists from Ford Motor Company Special Vehicle Teams, Research and Advanced Engineering, Mayflower Vehicle Systems, Roush Industries, Lear, and Saleen Special Vehicles was assembled and tasked with designing the production 2005 vehicle in record time.
Technical Paper

2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Aluminum Spaceframe

2005-04-11
2005-01-0465
This paper describes the engineering, manufacturing and integration necessary to produce the Corvette's first ever all-aluminum spaceframe (see Figure 1). The engineering and manufacturing of the spaceframe was a joint venture between General Motors and suppliers ALCOA (Aluminum Company of America) and Dana Corporation. ALCOA led the initial design of the spaceframe; Dana Corp led the manufacturing; General Motors' Engineering and Manufacturing groups led the integration of the assembly. The aluminum spaceframe design is modeled after the baseline steel structure of the Corvette coupe. The aluminum spaceframe reduces 140 lbs from the steel baseline and enters the plant at 285 lbs. This frame allows the 2006 Corvette Z06 to enter the market at a 3100 lbs curb weight. Aluminum casting, extruding, stamping, hydroforming, laser welding, Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding, Self Pierce Riveting (SPR), and full spaceframe machining make up the main technologies used to produce this spaceframe.
Technical Paper

2006 Corvette Z06 Carbon Fiber Structural Composite Panels- Design, Manufacturing and Material Development Considerations

2005-04-11
2005-01-0469
The General Motors Corvette Product Engineering Team is in a continual search for mass-reduction technologies which provide performance improvements that are affordable and add value for their customers. The structural composite panels of the C6 Z06 provided a unique opportunity to extend the use of carbon fiber reinforced materials to reduce mass and enhance performance. The entire vehicle set of composite panels was reviewed as candidates for material substitution, with the selection criteria based on the cost per kg of mass saved, tooling cost required, and the location of the mass to be saved. Priority was extended to mass savings at the front of the vehicle. After a carefully balanced selection process, two components, both requiring redesign because of the Z06’s wider stance, met the criteria: the Front Wheelhouse Outer Panel and Floor Panels. The current Floor Panels, first used on the C5, are large and are a balsawood-cored glass fiber reinforced composite design.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs

2015-12-02
CURRENT
AMS3961
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of this base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs

2019-03-12
WIP
AMS3961A
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of this base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Technical Paper

3D Image Metrology for Lean Manufacturing

1999-06-05
1999-01-2290
The need to improve quality while reducing cost in aerospace manufacturing is requiring new manufacturing methods and processes. Advanced technologies, such as 3D Image Metrology, offer great potential to lean manufacturing, if properly integrated into the production process. Over the last years 3D Image Metrology has developed a level of performance, which make it ideally suited for this purpose. These capabilities include the automatic in-process inspection of tools and parts before machining, machine control for highly accurate positioning during the machining operation, and in-process inspection during machining. This offers jig-less assembly, lower inventory, faster part throughput, and many more advantages.
Technical Paper

3D Printing Technique, An Effective Solution for Robust and Reliable Engineering of Trims

2017-07-10
2017-28-1966
3D Printing is a revolutionizing technology extensively used in automotive and aerospace industries. It is an additive layer manufacturing process by which a scale model is quickly fabricated from CAD data in just a matter of hours. In Automotive trims, 3D Printing technology is a boon. It is used: To simulate the ‘tooled up/production part’ in terms of assembly, defined function, limited CMF and fit & finish. To evaluate and capture early feedback from top management with respect to aesthetic, design, etc. For early prediction and plan of action towards improvement for craftsmanship. To reduce design iterations, interface concerns, product lifecycle time and cost. In this paper, we will discuss on the technical aspects of how the trims 3D printed models have been effectively put to use. We have covered case studies under door trims, floor console, tail gate trim, glove box latch, molded spare wheel cover, Instrumental panel duct and bumper mask-painting template.
Technical Paper

3D Re-Engineering: A Comprehensive Process for Solving Production Assembly Fit Problems

1998-06-02
981835
Dimensional Management (DM) is a methodology to predict and control the impact of variation on assembly from, fit, and function. Application of Dimensional Management tools and other modeling and simulation techniques are combined in a process called 3D Re-Engineering for application to existing production designs. Analytical techniques for predicting the impact of variation on assembly fit, and corresponding methods for controlling variation are presented, as used in a production environment for root cause corrective action on existing assembly fit problems. Assembly variation analysis is typically performed early in the product development phases, by coordinating datums, assembly sequences, assembly methods, and detail part tolerances across the product development team.
Technical Paper

3D Vortex Simulation of Intake Flow in a Port-Cylinder with a Valve Seat and a Moving Piston

1996-05-01
961195
A Lagrangian random vortex-boundary element method has been developed for the simulation of unsteady incompressible flow inside three-dimensional domains with time-dependent boundaries, similar to IC engines. The solution method is entirely grid-free in the fluid domain and eliminates the difficult task of volumetric meshing of the complex engine geometry. Furthermore, due to the Lagrangian evaluation of the convective processes, numerical viscosity is virtually removed; thus permitting the direct simulation of flow at high Reynolds numbers. In this paper, a brief description of the numerical methodology is given, followed by an example of induction flow in an off-centered port-cylinder assembly with a harmonically driven piston and a valve seat situated directly below the port. The predicted flow is shown to resemble the flow visualization results of a laboratory experiment, despite the crude approximation used to represent the geometry.
Standard

400 Hz CONNECTION AIRCRAFT ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES

1994-12-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4365
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes field-level procedures to determine if 400 Hz electrical connections for external power may have been subjected to excessive wear, which may result in inadequate disengagement forces.
Standard

400 Hz Connection Aircraft Electrical Maintenance Procedures

2008-03-28
HISTORICAL
AIR4365A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes field-level procedures to determine if 400 Hz electrical connections for external power may have been subjected to excessive wear, which may result in inadequate disengagement forces.
Technical Paper

4300°F Thermocouples for Re-entry Vehicle Applications – Part I

1963-01-01
630359
This paper discusses work performed in research, design, and development of sensors for measurement of local dynamic surface temperatures on re-entry vehicles. Included are discussions of the basic requirements and related system design factors, the transducer concepts and sensor assembly configurations considered, and the materials investigations and engineering tests conducted. Design requirements are presented for the twin-lead thermocouple probe temperature sensor chosen as the most feasible concept for early implementation. The most promising thermocouple materials and fabrication processes are defined and the additional precision testing and development requirements for final design are outlined. Information not previously reported in available literature includes preliminary data from tests up to4300°F showing (1) excellent oxidation resistance of Iridium, and (2) oxidation protection of thermocouple elements in “gas tight” sheaths of thoria and zirconia.
Technical Paper

777 Automated Spar Assembly Tool - Second Generation

1995-09-01
952172
The Automated Spar Assembly Tool (ASAT II) at the Everett, Washington, 777 Boeing manufacturing facility could be the largest automated fastening cell in the commercial aircraft industry. Based on the success of the ASAT I, Boeing's 767 spar assembly tool, the 285-foot long ASAT II cell was needed to accurately position and fasten the major spar components (chords and web), then locate and fasten over 100 components (ribposts and stiffeners) to assemble the 777 forward and rear wing spars. From its inception in 1990 to the first drilled hole in January 1993 and through two years of spar production, the more advanced ASAT II has proven to be a greater success than even its 767 ASAT I predecessor. This massive automated fastening system consistently provides accurate hole preparation, inspection, and installation of three fastener types ranging from 3/16 inches to 7/16 inches in diameter.
Technical Paper

777X Control Surface Assembly Using Advanced Robotic Automation

2017-09-19
2017-01-2092
Fabrication and assembly of the majority of control surfaces for Boeing’s 777X airplane is completed at the Boeing Defense, Space and Security (BDS) site in St. Louis, Missouri. The former 777 airplane has been revamped to compete with affordability goals and contentious markets requiring cost-effective production technologies with high maturity and reliability. With tens of thousands of fasteners per shipset, the tasks of drilling, countersinking, hole inspection, and temporary fastener installation are automated. Additionally and wherever possible, blueprint fasteners are automatically installed. Initial production is supported by four (4) Electroimpact robotic systems embedded into a pulse-line production system requiring strategic processing and safeguarding solutions to manage several key layout, build and product flow constraints.
Technical Paper

A 5 Phase Brake Insulator Engineering Selection Process

2006-10-08
2006-01-3220
Brake squeal signatures (2 kHz to 18 kHz) have tonal content highly dependent on the specific brake system structural architecture. The challenge in minimizing squeal involves correctly identifying the conditions (temperature, apply pressure, rotor speed as some basic parameters) of occurrence, defining the underlying structural dynamics of the system and applying appropriate suppression solutions. The quantitative metric of improvement is the cumulative event percentage of occurrence. Design variables of the brake system and performance attribute targets extend the challenge beyond the level of just reducing noise. Consideration of material costs, manufacturing/assembly factors, durability, thermal management as well as other factors narrow the solution space significantly. Compressed late stage development is not uncommon in reaching acceptable levels of performance and is a primary reason for following a well defined process flow with provision for alternative solutions.
Technical Paper

A 7 -Cylinder IVD Compressor for Automotive Air Conditioning

1989-02-01
890309
A 7-cylinder, wobble plate type, infinitely variable displacement, (IVD), compressor has been developed to meet the following requirements as set forth by the world automotive manufacturers: 1 Wide range of capacity control to eliminate clutch cycling which causes temperature and humidity fluctuations of louver outlet air and unexpected engine load variations 2 Near perfect protection of the evaporator against icing 3 Reliability under all field operating conditions 4 Quiet operation in a compact and lightweight package to suit the new trends in automotive design. A simpler mechanism has been applied to the variable angle cam drive and wobble plate rotation prevention method than with the conventional IVD compressor. The 7-cylinder design, with fewer parts for the piston drive mechanism, enables a quiet compressor of 161.3 cc displacement in a 118 mm diameter casing. An internal control valve is integrated in the center of the valve plate assembly.
X