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Technical Paper

"Quattro"-Drive for Every Day Driving

1984-01-01
845070
An essential feature of the Audi Quattro permanent four-wheel drive system is in the inter-axle differential located on the hollow output shaft in the gearbox: the drive is taken from this differential forward to the front differential through the inside of the hollow shaft, and rearward to a propellor shaft driving the rear differential. The major advantages in everyday driving include improved traction and a reduced tendency toward throttle induced changes of attitude. The greater traction allows not only better progress in difficult road conditions; it also gives better acceleration in difficult traffic situations, such as when joining a busy main road. The more easily predictable handling response to throttle changes means that Quattro vehicles have better tracking stability. Altogether, the active safety and "roadability" are considerably improved.
Standard

2-D CAD Template for SAE J826 H-point Machine

2016-10-13
CURRENT
J826/2_201610
This document describes the 2-D computer-aided design (CAD) template for the HPM-1 H-point machine or HPD available from SAE. The elements of the HPD include the curve shapes, datum points and lines, and calibration references. The intended purpose for this information is to provide a master CAD reference for design and benchmarking. The content and format of the data files that are available are also described.
Technical Paper

2-D Springback Analysis for Stretch-Bending Processes Based on Total Strain Theory

1995-02-01
950691
A theoretical model is presented for predicting springback of wide sheet metal subjected to 2D-stretch-bending operation. The material is assumed to be normal anisotropic with n-th power hardening law, σ = Fεn. Two types of stretch-bending experiment, bending with simultaneous stretching and stretch-bending followed by consecutive re-stretching, is conducted using AK sheet steel and sheet aluminum alloy A5182-O. The measured values of springback are in good agreement with analytical ones for a wide range of bending radii, stretching forces, and loading conditions. Furthermore, a calculation method for predicting springback configurations of 2D sheet metal parts with arbitrary cross-sections which include both stretch-bending and stretch-bending-unbending deformation is proposed.
Technical Paper

2-Stage Torque Converter and Double Clutch

1952-01-01
520220
THE development of the two-stage torque converter with automatic double clutch is presented here. The author covers particularly the substitution of casting for fabrication for several of the units in the transmission.
Technical Paper

2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Aluminum Spaceframe

2005-04-11
2005-01-0465
This paper describes the engineering, manufacturing and integration necessary to produce the Corvette's first ever all-aluminum spaceframe (see Figure 1). The engineering and manufacturing of the spaceframe was a joint venture between General Motors and suppliers ALCOA (Aluminum Company of America) and Dana Corporation. ALCOA led the initial design of the spaceframe; Dana Corp led the manufacturing; General Motors' Engineering and Manufacturing groups led the integration of the assembly. The aluminum spaceframe design is modeled after the baseline steel structure of the Corvette coupe. The aluminum spaceframe reduces 140 lbs from the steel baseline and enters the plant at 285 lbs. This frame allows the 2006 Corvette Z06 to enter the market at a 3100 lbs curb weight. Aluminum casting, extruding, stamping, hydroforming, laser welding, Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding, Self Pierce Riveting (SPR), and full spaceframe machining make up the main technologies used to produce this spaceframe.
Technical Paper

2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Aluminum Spaceframe Design and Engineering Technology

2005-04-11
2005-01-0466
The General Motors (GM) Corvette design team was challenged with providing a C6 Z06 vehicle spaceframe that maintained the structural performance of its C5 predecessor while reducing mass by at least 56 kg. An additional requirement inherent to the project was that the design must be integrated into the C6 assembly processes with minimal disruption, i.e. seamless integration. In response to this challenge, a collaborative team was formed, consisting of design engineers from General Motors, Alcoa and Dana Corporation. The result of this collaborative effort is an aluminum Z06 spaceframe that satisfies the high performance expectations of the vehicle while reducing the mass by approximately 62 kg. The frame consists of aluminum extrusions, castings and sheets joined by MIG welding, laser welding and self-piercing rivets. The extrusions are 6XXX series alloys, the castings are permanent mold A356 while the sheet panels are formed from the 5XXX series of alloys.
Technical Paper

2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Aluminum Spaceframe Manufacturing Technology

2005-04-11
2005-01-0470
In October 1999, General Motors contracted Dana Corporation to manufacture an all-aluminum spaceframe for the 2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06. Corvette introduced its first ever all-aluminum frame (see Figure 1) to the world at the 2005 North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) in Detroit, Michigan. The creation of this spaceframe resulted in a significant mass reduction and was a key enabler for the program to achieve the vehicle level performance results required for a Z06 in an ever-growing market. Dana Corporation leveraged ALCOA's (Aluminum Company of America) proven design capabilities while incorporating new MIG welding, laser welding, Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR), and full spaceframe machining to join General Motors (GM) Metal Fabrication Division's (MFD) hydroformed rails to produce the Corvette Z06's yearly requirement of 7000 units. This paper describes the technologies utilized throughout the assembly line and their effect on the end product.
Book

2016 Mobility Engineering Professionals Salary Survey

2016-07-14
EXCLUSIVE MEMBER BENEFIT: 2016 MOBILITY ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL SALARY SURVEY AND CALCULATOR Gain better insight into compensation practices: this salary survey is the only study its kind to explore levels and changes in compensation and employment for engineers and technical employees in the automotive, aerospace, and commercial vehicle industries. It benchmarks compensation levels based by geography, education, industry sector, experience, and managerial and budgetary responsibility. The full report is available to SAE International members by signing into your My SAE account and downloading it into your My Library area. Members also have full access to the updated online interactive salary calculator by visiting SAE’s website. Become a member of SAE International to access this exclusive benefit for free, or purchase it today. YOU BELONG HERE. Membership helps you succeed both personally and professionally. Join us today.
Technical Paper

25 Development of Rapid Composite Plating System for Motorcycle Engine Cylinders

2002-10-29
2002-32-1794
Weight reduction of automobiles is key technology in order to improve fuel economy and driving performance. Concerning of the motorcycle engine, weight reduction is also the fundamental and important technologies. Cylinder is one of the main parts of engine and the wear characteristics of the cylinder liner are largely related to the engine performance. Gray iron liners squeezed in aluminum cylinder block have been widely used. This is due to the excellent resistance to abrasion of gray iron. In order to realize light all aluminum cylinder, the good abrasion resistant method is necessary to develop to be applied with inner surface of liners. We have developed the new Rapid Composite Plating System for the motorcycle engine cylinders. This system made it possible to adopt all aluminum cylinders without cast iron liners to new type of engine.
Technical Paper

3D Computational Methodology for Bleed Air Ice Protection System Parametric Analysis

2015-06-15
2015-01-2109
A 3D computer model named AIPAC (Aircraft Ice Protection Analysis Code) suitable for thermal ice protection system parametric studies has been developed. It was derived from HASPAC, which is a 2D anti-icing model developed at Wichita State University in 2010. AIPAC is based on the finite volumes method and, similarly to HASPAC, combines a commercial Navier-Stokes flow solver with a Messinger model based thermodynamic analysis that applies internal and external flow heat transfer coefficients, pressure distribution, wall shear stress and water catch to compute wing leading edge skin temperatures, thin water flow distribution, and the location, extent and rate of icing. In addition, AIPAC was built using a transient formulation for the airfoil wall and with the capability of extruding a 3D surface grid into a volumetric grid so that a layer of ice can be added to the computational domain.
Technical Paper

42 Volt Architecture on Powder Metallurgy - Opportunities

2003-03-03
2003-01-0443
The 42-Volt electrical system is being introduced in automobiles to provide the extra power needed for various electromagnetic devices. These paper discuses the opportunity offered by the 42Volt for powder metal parts and the challenges. Major opportunities are in motors. A brief discussion of motors and the performance requirements for the magnetic core material used is included. Brushless motor design can benefit the most from insulated iron powder compacts because of the design simplicity of powder metal parts and three dimensional flux capability which is most beneficial in rotating devices.(P/M stands for powder metallurgy and not permanent magnets)
Technical Paper

4300 F Thermocouples for Re-Entry Vehicle Applications Part II

1963-01-01
630360
This paper presents a discussion of the component evaluation and design development work performed in developing a 4300 F reentry vehicle nose cap temperature sensor. Material compatabilities, insulation resistance, and atmospheric pressure effects on bare wire calibration data are discussed in some detail. The final design is outlined and the application problems discussed. The probe utilizes: a sintered iridium high temperature sheath (4300 F) and platinum 20% rhodium as the low temperature sheath (3000 F); beryllia as insulation -- hard fired at 4300 F and compacted powder at 3000 F; tungsten versus tungsten 26% rhenium as the thermocouple pair.
Technical Paper

5-Axis Flex Track Drilling Systems on Complex Contours: Solutions for Position Control

2013-09-17
2013-01-2224
Previous Flex Track drilling systems move along two parallel tracks that conform to the contour of a work piece surface. Until recently, applications have been limited to relatively simple surfaces such as the cylindrical mid-body fuselage join of a commercial aircraft. Recent developments in the state of the art have introduced the 5-axis variant which is capable of precision drilling on complex contours. This paper presents solutions to two positioning challenges associated with this added functionality: the ability to align the spindle axis normal to an angled drilling surface while maintaining accuracy in tool-point position, the ability to maintain synced motion between dual drives on complex track profiles.
Technical Paper

5-Axis Flex Track System

2012-09-10
2012-01-1859
Flex Track Systems are seeing increased usage in aerospace applications for joining large assemblies, such as fuselage sections. Previous systems were limited to work pieces that allowed the tracks to follow a gentle radius of curvature, limiting the locations where the system could be used. This paper describes a new 5-Axis Flex Track System developed to expand the usage of the systems, allowing them to process work pieces containing complex and irregular contours. Processing complex contours is accomplished through the addition of A and B axes providing normalization in multiple directions. These new systems are configured with the latest multi-function process capabilities allowing drilling, hole quality measurement, and temporary or permanent fastener installation.
Technical Paper

5500 Ton Press - Forming Rear Axle Spindles

1962-01-01
620134
A five-year development program by the American Metal Products Co. to process stamped axle housings has culminated in the application of cold extrusion to spindles. The new process involved the installation of a 5500 ton press capable of driving a punch through a 20 lb billet, as well as modification and rearrangement of existing equipment. The system has not only resulted in considerable production savings but has also contributed to an overall expansion program. The company, although fully preoccupied with the basic spindle for production of axle housings, has already investigated other applications of the new equipment toward product diversification.
Technical Paper

72 Curved Fins and Air Director Idea Increases Airflow through Brake Rotors

1999-03-01
1999-01-0140
Hayes Lemmerz has pursued fin configurations in straight and curved fin rotors to achieve high airflow velocity. The largest increase in airflow velocity of 37.2% is achieved by curving fins to a specific entry and exit angle and increasing surface area by increasing fin number. There is a need for funneling air into the narrow entry in the hub area. The new “Hayes Air Director” successfully channels air into the curved fins. Hayes Lemmerz is in the process of casting rotors with curved fins and the air director idea. Dynamometer and vehicle tests will follow. The current renwood model of the rotor design shows 34.8 to 37.2% increase in airflow velocity when tested on the Hayes Airflow machine.
Technical Paper

A Beginning Toward Understanding the Corrosion Resistance of Ferritic Stainless Steels

1993-03-01
930450
To date the market for P/M stainless steel has not developed appreciably, and has centered largely on the development of austenitic 300 series stainless steels. Although these stainless steels are noted for their resistance to corrosion in many media, it has been difficult for P/M parts fabricators to produce parts that will sustain 1,000 hours of protection in a 5% salt solution. The problem starts with the water atomized powders and continues with the sintering practice exercised to produce the parts. Reasons for lack of corrosion resistance, based upon these considerations, will be discussed. In addition, the ferritic stainless steels are being considered seriously for fuel injectors. These emerging applications derive from the corrosive environment that may become a problem if and when alternative fuels are introduced. P/M ferritic stainless steels may also assume a position as a corrosion resistant magnetic material required in ABS systems which are currently emerging.
Technical Paper

A Bigger Payload from Steel Foundries

1975-02-01
750575
The existing market conditions place heavy demands on the steel foundries to increase their capacity and output. Expansion hinges on the ability of the foundry to “earn the dollar” to permit the modernization of existing facilities and construction of new plants. It also requires that the foundry industry modernize its production methods and techniques; update its equipment; and that the consumer engineer assist in developing casting design features that will be more readily adaptable to the capabilities of the foundry operation. “A Bigger Payload from Steel Foundries” requires more than physical expansion-it demands cooperative and intelligent endeavor on the part of foundry management and consumer engineering.
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