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Technical Paper

1990-The Engineer and TQM

This paper will identify the role of the engineer in the Total Quality Management movement. In the latter 1980's quality and reliability were identified as being a result of good business practices, rather than only being effected by manufacturing and design systems. In the past, engineers were given total design responsibility with little or no control once the design left their hands. Product cost analysis recently identified approximately 65% of product cost comes from areas which the engineer cannot control. This paper will show how the skills of the engineer are being integrated into the total business environment through a structured planning system, resulting in products and services with customer focus. Quality and reliability in the 1990's will be a result of this well defined and applied business system.
Technical Paper

3.5 hp in an 8 lb Package

A new lightweight gasoline, two-cycle engine for portable tools is described. The total weight of 8 lb with an output of 3.5 hp was achieved by means of compact design with the use of standardized parts wherever possible, rather than by creating all new parts.
Technical Paper

3D Design and Surface Mapping of Disc Brake Pad for High Speed Train Using FEA

Recurrently, the increase in production of high-speed trains worldwide has become a confirmed fact. Seeking to use the high-speed trains locally to link the capital of Egypt “Cairo” with the new industrial cities has become a national requirement. Modeling 3D surface maps using finite element analysis (FEA) is one of the most important mechanical design tools for frictional parts to facilitate the manufacture of brake systems for heavy duty vehicles, especially high-speed trains due to difficult working conditions. In this paper, we presented simulate 3D surface maps for proposed frictional material pad using FEA at certain design parameters and experimental result conductions. The typical surface characteristics of disc brake pad are compared with commonly used materials in railway and vehicle brakes in Egypt.


This specification defines general architectural philosophy and specific design guidance for the proper installation and interface of various cabin equipment within the seats. Consistency with this specification allows each component installed on the seat to operate in concert when integrated with other relevant cabin type equipment. Standard electrical and mechanical interfaces of the In- Flight Entertainment System (IFES) equipment for the 3rd Generation Cabin Network (3GCN) associated with the seat are defined. This equipment consists of the headphone jacks (HPJ), passenger control unit (PCU)/multi function handset (including the cord), seat video display (SVD), remote data outlet (RDO), integrated seat box (ISB) which includes the seat power box (SPB)/seat data box (SDB), remote power outlet (RPO), and in-seat cables. Appropriate definitions are also provided for other electrical devices associated with the seat control/position mechanism.

649 Handbook

This handbook is intended to assist the user to understand the ANSI/EIA-649B standard principles and functions for Configuration Management (CM) and how to plan and implement effective CM. It provides CM implementation guidance for all users (CM professionals and practitioners within the commercial and industry communities, DoD, military service commands, and government activities (e.g., National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)) with a variety of techniques and examples. Information about interfacing with other management systems and processes are included to ensure the principles and functions are applied in each phase of the life cycle for all product categories.
Journal Article

A Bibliographical Review of Electrical Vehicles (xEVs) Standards

Abstract This work puts presents an all-inclusive state of the art bibliographical review of all categories of electrified transportation (xEVs) standards, issued by the most important standardization organizations. Firstly, the current status for the standards by major organizations is presented followed by the graphical representation of the number of standards issued. The review then takes into consideration the interpretation of the xEVs standards developed by all the major standardization organizations across the globe. The standards are differentiated categorically to deliver a coherent view of the current status followed by the explanation of the core of these standards. The ISO, IEC, SAE, IEEE, UL, ESO, NTCAS, JARI, JIS and ARAI electrified transportation vehicles xEV Standards from USA, Europe, Japan, China and India were evaluated. A total approximated of 283 standards in the area have been issued.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in DOC OBD Limit Parts’ Performance and Detection

The reduction of automotive emissions is instrumental in the fight against air pollution and its impact on global warming. This realization has empowered governments around the world to mandate lower levels of vehicle emissions requiring the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to implement advanced aftertreatment technologies in their applications. Achieving emission levels as low as SULEV30 or SULEV20 would have been impossible only a couple of decades ago, however, these lower levels of emissions are now a possibility through advanced control strategies and aftertreatment systems. As a part of this mandate to lower emissions, OEMs are also continuously monitoring the health and performance of their aftertreatment and control components. The implementation of On Board Diagnostics (OBD) ensures that control systems are functioning robustly and the emission levels are achieved and maintained to high mileages for the life of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Combined Simulation-Artificial Intelligence Approach for Manufacturing System Design

Manufacturing system performance is dependent upon its design. Improvement in design can enhance system productivity. Effectiveness of design selection process can be greatly enhanced using a combined simulation-artificial intelligence approach. COMAND, a knowledge-based computer consultant for manufacturing system design, is described.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Cradle and Sub Frame Type Powertrain Mounting System on Electric Vehicle

The growing demand of fuel and cost saving on vehicle, today’s vehicle manufacturer are working on various weight reduction initiative in EV. Lighter weight vehicle have bigger challenges to meet NVH requirement. There are two types of EV called modified and adopted EV’s are commonly in use. The sub frame type of EV system comes under the category of modified EV. In this paper, a mounting system is studied and compared for a cradle type EV as well as sub frame or saddle type EV. MATLAB based optimization tools are used for parameter optimization. The focus is put on the optimization of mounting system location and stiffness for energy optimization, CoG and TRA-EA optimization. The best engine mounting system is compared and adopted based on simulation. 12 DOF studied to address high frequency resonance issues for a sub frame type EV. Finally robustness of the system is checked based on various simulation and optimization.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Automatic Transmission Fluid Effects on Friction Torque Capacity - A Study by the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

As part of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee's (ILSAC) goal of developing a global automatic transmission fluid (ATF) specification, members have been evaluating test methods that are currently used by various automotive manufacturers for qualifying ATF for use in their respective transmissions. This report deals with comparing test methods used for determining torque capacity in friction systems (shifting clutches). Three test methods were compared, the Plate Friction Test from the General Motors DEXRON®-III Specification, the Friction Durability Test from the Ford MERCON® Specification, and the Japanese Automotive Manufacturers Association Friction Test - JASO Method 348-95. Eight different fluids were evaluated. Friction parameters used in the comparison were breakaway friction, dynamic friction torque at midpoint and the end of engagement, and the ratio of end torque to midpoint torque.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Physical Layer Devices for Class B and Class C Multiplex Systems. (Using Recommended Practice SAE J1699 for Testing Physical Layer Devices.)

The objective of this paper is to suggest the advantages of using SAE J1699 tests and methods as a basis for characterization of physical layer devices. This paper will examine some of the commercially available physical layer IC's that could be used to drive Class B and C multiplex networks. Device characteristics such as propagation delays, current consumption, and common mode will be presented. These characteristics could be used to test device performance in Class B and Class C multiplex applications. Also presented will be an introduction to the new SAE J1699 Recommended Practice for multiplex device testing and how J1699 might be used for physical layer device testing.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study between the Full Scale Wind Tunnels of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors

A correlation of aerodynamic wind tunnels was initiated between Chrysler, Ford and General Motors under the umbrella of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). The wind tunnels used in this correlation were the open jet tunnel at Chrysler's Aero Acoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT), the open jet tunnel at the Jacobs Drivability Test Facility (DTF) that Ford uses, and the closed jet tunnel at General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL). Initially, existing non-competitive aerodynamic data was compared to determine the feasibility of facility correlation. Once feasibility was established, a series of standardized tests with six vehicles were conducted at the three wind tunnels. The size and body styles of the six vehicles were selected to cover the spectrum of production vehicles produced by the three companies. All vehicles were tested at EPA loading conditions. Despite the significant differences between the three facilities, the correlation results were very good.
Journal Article

A Data-Driven Diagnostic System Utilizing Manufacturing Data Mining and Analytics

The wide applications of automatic sensing devices and data acquisition systems in automotive manufacturing have resulted in a data-rich environment, which demands new data mining methodologies for effective data fusion and information integration to support decision making. This paper presents a new methodology for developing a diagnostic system using manufacturing system data for high-value assets in automotive manufacturing. The proposed method extends the basic attributes control charts with the following key elements: optimal feature subset selection considering multiple features and correlation structure, balancing the type I and type II errors in decision making, on-line process monitoring using adaptive modeling with control charts, and diagnostic performance assessment using shift and trend detection. The performance of the developed diagnostic system can be continuously improved as the knowledge of machine faults is automatically accumulated during production.
Technical Paper

A Design of Internet-Based Remote Manufacturing System

This paper discusses a design of Internet-based remote manufacturing system, which would help a global company to centralize its production, to control and to monitor the operation from the remote sites. In our design, we describe our system in two main categories, which are the design system and the manufacturing system. In the design system, we use the Internet-based client-server architecture to allow multiple clients to design products collaboratively and simultaneously. After the design is finished, it will be sent to the manufacturing system. At this stage, the clients can control and monitor the process from geographically distributed locations via the Internet.
Technical Paper

A Designer's Guide for Heavy Duty Truck Wiring Harnesses

On January 10th, 1972, an S. A. E. Paper “Lighting System Performance and the Computer as a Maintenance Tool” (720087) was presented by Charles J. Owen. This was a paper presented on the causes, effects, corrections and a study in good and bad electrical wiring, presented pictorially as well as editorially. We recommend that paper to you for reading. On November 4th, 1974, S. A. E. Paper “A Case for Standardization” (741143) was presented by Charles J. Owen. The purpose of this paper was intent on “improving the breed”. The recommendations and specifications were very specific. In view of the two previous papers, this paper is presented specifically for the designer with back-up data involving recommendations that the industry have generally accepted as applied to the electrical wiring systems The practical data included, is a first in relating indexes of performance and indexes to cost comparisons. The usefulness of this paper in aiding a Designer is the target of the authors.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Driver IC in LED Rear Combination Lamp for Circuit Standardization

Today, many automakers are using LED lamp sources in exterior lamps to establish brand awareness and introduce specialized lamp designs. These eye-catching LED lamp source solutions require many control functions as the lamp functions are diversified and advanced, and accordingly the requirements for standardization and optimization of controllers are increasing. In particular, our LED rear combination lamps have a variety of LED loads according to the design of the lamp model, the installation position, and the diagnostic regulations, so that the design complexity and the number of specifications of the controller are increased [4]. In recent years, more and more aesthetic designs and new technologies are used by various automakers to optimize their controllers in cooperation with global partners to optimize costs [1].
Technical Paper

A Digital Design Agent for Ground Vehicles

The design of transportation vehicles, whether passenger or commercial, typically involves a lengthy process from concept to prototype and eventual manufacture. To improve competitiveness, original equipment manufacturers are continually exploring ways to shorten the design process. The application of digital tools such as computer-aided-design and computer-aided-engineering, as well as model-based computer simulation enable team members to virtually design and evaluate ideas within realistic operating environments. Recent advances in machine learning (ML)/artificial intelligence (AI) can be integrated into this paradigm to shorten the initial design sequence through the creation of digital agents. A digital agent can intelligently explore the design space to identify promising component features which can be collectively assessed within a virtual vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

A Discussion and Demonstration of Some Characteristics of an Advanced HLA/RTI Environment for Aerospace Applications

Modeling and Simulation - M&S is recently gaining more importance and emphasis as an essential method for developing engineering systems especially for aerospace and automotive systems, due to their complexity, integration and even human involvement. The main reasons for M&S having that important role nowadays are: 1) M&S can predict system behavior and possible problems. Therefore, it can reduce time and cost for developing systems, it can avoid future corrections into systems, as well. 2) M&S can be used for conception, training, maintenance, etc., requiring less expensive tools and previously preparing people to the real scenario. 3) When it comes to situations that involve aerospace or other products, where high costs are involved, mistakes can be avoided or at least minimized. Summarizing, M&S can reduce project cost and schedule, and improve quality.