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Technical Paper

1962 passenger-car engineering trends

The phenomenal success of the small car is leading to many engineering changes in the automobile industry. It has brought increased emphasis on weight reduction on both small and full-size cars. Improving reliability and designing to eliminate grease fittings have also become important objectives.
Technical Paper

1974 Vw Energy-Absorbing Bumper System

The energy-absorbing bumper system designed for the 1974 Volkswagen in described. Theoretical requirements in bumper design are explained, with emphasis on bumper height, energy tolerance needs, energy absorption, and systems for absorbing the energy involved. The six systems studied are assessed, and the final design chosen is explained. The paper also compares bumper requirements as specified in Europe and the United States.
Journal Article

1D Simulation and Experimental Analysis of a Turbocharger Compressor for Automotive Engines under Unsteady Flow Conditions

Turbocharging technique will play a fundamental role in the near future not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions both in Spark Ignition and diesel automotive applications. To achieve excellent engine performance for road application, it is necessary to overcome some typical turbocharging drawbacks i.e., low end torque level and transient response. Experimental studies, developed on dedicated test facilities, can supply a lot of information to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, especially if tests can be extended to the typical engine operating conditions (unsteady flow). Different numerical procedures have been developed at the University of Naples to predict automotive turbocharger compressor performance both under steady and unsteady flow conditions. A classical 1D approach, based on the employment of compressor characteristic maps, was firstly followed.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Melding the Past and the Future

The 2005 Ford GT high performance sports car was designed and built in keeping with the heritage of the 1960's LeMans winning GT40 while maintaining the image of the 2002 GT40 concept vehicle. This paper reviews the technical challenges in designing and building a super car in 12 months while meeting customer expectations in performance, styling, quality and regulatory requirements. A team of dedicated and performance inspired engineers and technical specialists from Ford Motor Company Special Vehicle Teams, Research and Advanced Engineering, Mayflower Vehicle Systems, Roush Industries, Lear, and Saleen Special Vehicles was assembled and tasked with designing the production 2005 vehicle in record time.

2018 Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide 2nd Ed

The 2018 Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide explains the most common rules, symbols, and concepts used in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. This one-of-a-kind reference guide includes more than 100 detailed examples to illustrate concepts. Numerous charts for quick reference provide explanations of each GD&T symbol, modifier, and more. This valuable on-the-job resource clarifies how to interpret standard-compliant technical drawings that use ASME Y14.5-2018.
Technical Paper

3D Bending of Aluminium Extrusions for Automotive Applications

This paper is concerned with 3D stretch bending of aluminium extrusions. A design method for prediction of dimensional tolerances is presented, focusing on cross-sectional deformations and elastic springback. The model is successfully applied to a complex 3D formed part. Based on the present analysis, it is concluded that the required dimensional tolerances of a product can be determined early in the design phase by use of this method.
Technical Paper

42V Design Process

Demands for new features, increasing electrical loads, and improved fuel-economy are driving development of 42V PowerNets in automobiles. Shorter design cycles, increased complexity and a focus on quality are making robust design processes a strategic advantage for competitive manufacturers. Hardware prototypes are both time-consuming and inadequate for the task of verifying performance over a broad range of operating modes, environmental conditions and part-to-part variations. This paper outlines the use of an advanced design-flow, from idea to manufacturing, for vehicle power systems. It starts with the analysis of different topologies down to the subsystem modeling of a power window system. Finally it integrates everything to a Digital Mock-Up (DMU) and analysis of the entire system. Dynamic interactions among the various supplies, converters and loads are examined. System stability and performance are assessed under normal and extreme operating conditions.
Journal Article

6-Axis Measuring Wheels for Trucks or Heavy Vehicles

The measurement of the contact forces between road and tires is of fundamental importance while designing road vehicles. In this paper, the design and the employment of measuring wheels for trucks and heavy vehicles is presented. The measuring wheels have been optimized in order to obtain high stiffness and the approximately the same mass of the wheels normally employed. The proposed multicomponent measuring wheels are high- accuracy instruments for measuring the dynamic loads during handling and durability testing. The measuring wheels can replace the wheels of the truck under normal operation. Such family of wheels plays a major role in modern road vehicles development. The measuring wheel concept design is based on a patented three-spoke structure connected to the wheel rim. The spokes are instrumented by means of strain gauges and the measuring wheel is able to measure the three forces and the three moments acting at the interface between the tire and the road.
Technical Paper

910, D3, 931 Concept to Production

This paper describes the design and development of the new 60 hp class 910 wheel loader, D3 crawler tractor, and 931 track loader. Special emphasis was placed on designing all vehicles concurrently to achieve lowest possible cost by utilizing a high degree of commonality.
Technical Paper

A CAD System to Conceptual Phase of Design

This work is concerned about the conception of computer programs to aid the process of mechanical design. Today it urges the development of systems that works further than the traditional areas dedicated by CAD systems (Computer Aided Design) that are the area of draft. CAD systems must aid in the conceptual phase of design. This paper presents the development of a software system as a solution to this problem in design field. It was developed in visual object oriented language, and it was split into 3 modules with tasks of: design process management, requirements determination and conception development.
Technical Paper

A CAD-Based Tool for FDM and FEM Radiation and Conduction Modeling

Thermal engineering has long been left out of the concurrent engineering environment dominated by CAD (computer aided design) and FEM (finite element method) software. Current tools attempt to force the thermal design process into an environment primarily created to support structural analysis, which results in inappropriate thermal models. As a result, many thermal engineers either build models “by hand” or use geometric user interfaces that are separate from and have little useful connection, if any, to CAD and FEM systems. This paper describes the development of a new thermal design environment called the Thermal Desktop. This system, while fully integrated into a neutral, low cost CAD system, and which utilitizes both FEM and FD methods, does not compromise the needs of the thermal engineer.
Technical Paper


The relationship between designing for both rigid fixed barrier (RFB) and vehicle-to-vehicle tests is a topical area of research. Specifically, vehicle-to-vehicle compatibility has been a topic of keen interest to many researchers, and the interplay between the two aspects of design is presently addressed. In this paper, the studied vehicles for potential vehicle-to-vehicle impacts included: sport utility vehicles (SUVs), Pickups (PUs), and passenger cars. The SUV/PU-to-Car frontal impact tests were compared to those obtained from vehicle-to-rigid fixed barrier frontal impacts. Acceleration pulses at the B-pillar/rocker as well as dash and cabin intrusions were monitored and compared. Additionally, the energy distributions in SUV/PU-to-Car crash tests were compared to those of single vehicle-to-RFB tests. It was concluded from the analysis that vehicle weight and front-end stiffness were not always the overriding factors dictating performance.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Hardware-In-the-Loop Testing: Development of an ECU for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Ford Motor Company has recently implemented a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) testing system for a new, highly complex, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) Electronic Control Unit (ECU). The implementation of this HIL system has been quick and effective, since it is based on proven Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) automation tools for real-time that allow for a very flexible and intuitive design process. An overview of the HIL system implementation process and the derived development benefits will be shown in this paper. The initial concept for the use of this HIL system was a complete closed-loop vehicle simulation environment for Vehicle System Controller testing, but the paper will show that this concept has evolved to allow for the use of the HIL system for many facets of the design process.
Technical Paper

A Collaborative Design Environment to Support Multidisciplinary Conceptual Systems Design

The Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory at the Guggenheim School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, has recently created the “Collaborative Design Environment” (CoDE), a next-generation design facility supporting efficient, rapid-turnaround conceptual design. The CoDE combines cost-effective, off-the-shelf information technology with advanced design methodologies and tools in a customized, user-centered physical layout that harnesses the power of creative design teams. The CoDE will enable researchers to develop, test and apply new approaches to conceptual design, and to improve modeling and simulation fidelity. It will also support sponsored design projects as well as student teams participating in national design competitions.
Technical Paper

A Combined Computational-Experimental Approach for Modelling of Coupled Vibro-Acoustic Problems

Over the past 30 years, the computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools have been applied extensively in the automotive industry. In order to accelerate time-to-market while coping with legal limits that have become increasingly restrictive over the last decades, CAE has become an indispensable tool covering all major fields in a modern automotive product design process. However, when tackling complex real-life engineering problems, the computational models might become rather involved and thus less efficient. Therefore, the overall trend in the automotive industry is currently heading towards combined approaches, which allow the best of the both worlds, namely the experimental measurement and numerical simulation, to be merged into one integrated scheme. In this paper, the so-called patch transfer function (PTF) approach is adopted to solve coupled vibro-acoustic problems. In the PTF scheme, the interfaces between fluid and structure are discretised in terms of patches.
Technical Paper

A Combined Heuristic and Linear Programming (LP) Approach to Design and Optimize Network Topology for In-Vehicle Networks

Today's in-vehicle network systems exchange information in an asynchronous way where all existing communications protocols are event based. In order to support next generation advanced control, power train, telematics, and infotainment applications, it is anticipated to see rising demand for higher data rates, deterministic behavior and fault tolerant networks. The topology design and optimization of an in-vehicle network includes minimizing the network delay and minimizing the maximum flow in each link of the network. The paper describes an approach involved in designing and optimizing the network topology using heuristics and Linear Programming (LP) method.
Journal Article

A Compact Electric Motor Integrated Onboard Charging System for Electric Vehicles

Abstract In this work, a three-phase integrated onboard battery charger is investigated and implemented for electric vehicle (EV) applications. A three-switch add-on interface is introduced to connect with the inverter and the motor windings, such that a two-channel interleaved boost converter is formed for the battery charging. The detailed system analysis, design methodology, and control strategy are discussed. Moreover, a simulation study is carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed integrated charger. As verification, a 5 kW liquid-cooled prototype is built and tested. The proposed integrated charging system achieves a power factor of 0.99, and total harmonic distortion (THD) of 4.82% at 5 kW with an efficiency of 93.2%.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of a Rigid Bicycle Model with an Elastic Bicycle Model for Small Trucks

The planar rigid bicycle model is one of the most popular models used in vehicle dynamics. It has widely been used in studying vehicle handling characteristics and designing steering control system for vehicles. This paper analyses a modified dynamic model called the "Elastic Bicycle Model." This model improves upon the classical bicycle model by taking into account the flexibility of the vehicle frame by using concepts from the Euler beam theory. Complete set of the resulting dynamic equations of this model are presented. Non-dimensional versions of the equations are used to investigate the steady state response of the model. Finally, the results of the response study obtained by modeling a small truck with an elastic model and the classical bicycle model are presented. These include the steady state solutions as function of different parameters as well as a transient solution in response to a saw-tooth steering input and a step input. Octave® has been used for simulation purpose.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Design Study for Aluminium and Magnesium Automatic Transmission Converter Housings

The demand for vehicles with improved NVH characteristics, fuel economy and emissions control has increased dramatically in recent years. To meet these objectives stiffer and lighter housings are required so as to avoid troublesome driveline vibrations, while at the same time produce lighter structures to reduce the overall vehicle weight and improved fuel economy. A feasibility study was undertaken to examine the differences between the use of magnesium alloy and aluminium alloy for an automatic transmission converter housing. The design process, design constraints, design methodology, alloy selection and some unique magnesium design requirements are outlined. The differences between the two designs are investigated by simulating their static and dynamic performances using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). A sand cast prototype was produced for the first stage of the feasibility study, with the ultimate aim to produce die cast magnesium converter housings if feasible.